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Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

in 2009 with funding from 

Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/lancasterfarmer06jbde 



THE 



Lancaster Farmer, 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE 



LANCASTER COUNTY 




GMlTiil m illlCEIiii Mill 



TERMS: $1.25 PER YEAR IN ADVANCE. 



VOL. VL— 1874. 



J. B. DEVLIN, Publisher. 



LANCASTER, PA.: 

I'EARSOL i GEIST, rUINTERS, 22 SOUTH QUEEM STREET. 
1874. 



CONTENTS. 



K 
Kccjjing Slicep, 
Killing poultry, 
Kecjiiii}; eg.£;s in summer. 
Keeping milk frcmi souring, 
Kilclien .Slo])s, - 
Keeping poultry in orcluirds. 

Live Slock Trade, 

Literary Record, 71,95, 121, 14G 

T.yc for apple trees, 

Lima l>ean — its culture, 

Lawns, 

Lots (.if stuff in the cellar, 

I.atest Domestic Market, 

Long furrows, - 

Learning farming, - 

Longevity (jf trees, 

Ixttuee, ... 

Letter from Paris, I-rancc, 

Live Stock, 

Low 7'S. High fruit trees, 

Live stock market, - 

Long Lamp wicks, 

M 
Meetings of Agricultural and Ilo 

Society, 12, 17,43,49, iii, 

187, 219, 244, 270, 
Meadows, 
Miscellaneous, 
Mustard poultice. 
Mild winters, 
Meal as feed, - 
Mince pies, 
IMarlboro pudding. 
Meat pies, - 

Modes of killing animals, 
Mrs. Griffin's pumpkin jiic. 
Mixed plantations. 
Money, money. 
Memorial Hall, 
IMore reading fanners. 
Mulching, 
Measuring corn, 

N 
New York Markets, 24, 43, 71, 

173, 199,226, 251,277,303. 
Night-shade family. 
Nutritive value of wheat, - 
Nutritive value of gra^s, 
Nutricious food. 
New \ise of lUxseed, - 
New system of fruit culture, 
New Jersey State Fair, 
Number of plants to an acre, 
Nitrogen in soil, 
Neglected culture. 
Natural advantages of farmers 

O 

(Jur Journal, 

Our local enterprises. 

Our stock of pine trees, 

Our late excursion. 

Observations on birds, 

Oat Hay, ... 

On the culture of Indian corn. 



,i73>2-6 



56 

86 

S6 

141 

3<^ 

10 
301 
106 
107 
120 
192 
200 
205 
205 
207 
207 
230 
240 
264 
252 
297 



rticu 
113, 



luu-al 
LS3. 



44, OO: 



167 

35 

, 114 

47 

69 

«5 

85 

86 

^^7 

136 

144 

181 

251 

-51 

276 

291 

-95 

J47, 
54 

()2 
182 

195 
104 

L^^9 
i()7 
116 

L>7 

229 
298 

, 269 

18 

140 

186 

41 

59 



On Peach culture, 
Okra a substitute for Coffee, 
Origin (jf the dollar mark, 
Origin of the double geranium. 
Origin of the Dahlia, -• 
(.)ur erojis cost too much, 
Our sixth volume. 
Our Christmas greeting. 
Orchards, 

P 
Progress of Agriculture in the United 
Peas — risiini Sativtini, 
Philadelphia markets, 24, 48, 72, 96, 

173, 199, 226, 252, 278, 304, 
Pennsylania Fruit Growers' Society, 
Pepper — CapsictiDi, 
Parlor and Kitchen, 
Packing butter. 
Pig manure, 
Fhaseohts and I'icia, 
Potato Plow, - 
Potato Puffs, 
Potatoes for Animals, - 
Paragraphs Worth Remembering, - 
Patrons of Husbandry, 
Parsley Culture, 
Palpitation of the Heart, 
Paiis Green, 

Paris Green and Potato Beetles, 
Poke Root as an Insecticide, 
Phytnlnca Dccandra, 
Providing Grass Seed, 
Plant iivergreens, - 
Potash for Peach Trees, 
Poultry in Gardens, 
Poultry-houses, 
Preventing Gapes in Fowl.>, 
Principles of V^entilation, 
Peach Tree Diseases, 
Pennsylvania Illustrated, 
Publisher's Valedictory, 
Post Seriptum, - 
Preserving Stuffed Animals, 



Quite a Saving, 



R 



Random Notes on Farming, 

Report of Fruit Committees, 

Raising Pea Fowls, - 

Recipe for Curing Meat, 

Raising Peanuts, 

Recipe for Stimulating Growili, 

Reducing Bones for Gardens, - 

Remedies for Colorado Beetle, 

Remedy for Tree-borers, 

Rotating Farm Crops, 

Rates of manure exhaustion. 

Rolling the ground, 

Rich soil for honey plants, - 

Remedy for slugs, 

Rctjjlesia Anioldii, 

Ripening fruit, 

Roses all the year round, - 

Remember this, 

Report on Agriculture 1S74, 



" - Remedy for Bee stings. 



197 
206 
L^7 
LvS 

2S6 

2<)3 

291 
291 

States, .', 

9 
122, 147 

25 
37 
41 
45 
62 

63 
82 
88 
91 

93 

94. 253 

100 

104 

130 

L^i 
L^i 

154 
180 
185 
190 
1 94 
211 
221 
224 
251 
301 
293 
294 

93 

30, 66 

25 

42 

42, 224 

42 

.S7 
1 3S 

157 

10() 

178 
180 
181 
212 
215 

234 
264 
2 (■).{. 
275 
284 
294 



VI. 

Roasted Coffee, 

Roadside fences, 



Sulphuric acids and weeds, 

Shallow plowinp; for corn, 

Suggestions for Rose growers" 

Seed corn, - . - 

Strawberries in January, 

Sponge cake, . - - 

Siieej) and clover, - 

Solanacea:, . . - 

Special uses for grass. 

Salt for pear trees. 

Starting sweet potatoes. 

Small fruit for the family. 

Surgery applied to squashes, 

Specialties in farming, - 

Squashes, _ - - 

Standard Honeysuckle, 

Salting hay. 

Sorghum as a soiling crop. 

Scratches, - . 

Sugar beets for swine, - 

Salting milch cows, - ^ 

Scarecrows, 

Sowing grass alone, 

Significance of the tingers. 

Successful farming, - 

Selecting grajie vines, - 

Salt as a fertilizer, - 

Stay oir the farm. 

Sheep on poor land. 

Slaughtering cattle, 

Spring and Summer care of Swine, 

Special Notices, 

Small Hogs, 

Smut in grain. 

Stewed Peas, . - - 

Speak softly to horses. 

Sizes of countries, 

Shade trees for towns. 

Science and bread. 

Saving and having. 

Salt Pork, 



CONTENTS. 



exas Cattle Raising, - - ■ 

reating New Varieties, &c., 

he Corn Yield, 

he Average in Freight, 

o Our Patrons, 

he Prices of Land, 

he l'"arnicrs' Northern Market, 

he Profits from a Strong Farm, 

o Manage Hen Manure, 

borough Farming, 

o Make Shirt Bosoms Cilossy, 

he Season, - _ - 

he Horse Bit, 

he Law of the Road, 

he Pennsylvania Agricultural Society. 

obacco Culture, 

allow for CJrapi-s, 

he \Veather and the Crops, - 

"en Commands of Buddah, 

he iJses of Dandelion, 

he Ciihivation of Corn, 



295 

298 



6 
27 
33 
37 
42 
47 
54 
58 
64 
69 
81 
82 

'^3 
.S4 

SS 
92 
103 
106 
118 
118 
119 
121 
142 

153 
171 

186 

276 

195 
196 
199 
209 
204 
249 
242 
249 
263 
268 
275 
295 



s 

28 

7 

9 

.291 

13 

18 

34 
35 
35 
41 
43 
44 
45 
53 
59 

(-2 

t>S 
70 
77 
79 



To Plow Down Grass, . . 83 

Ticks on Sheep, - - - 87 

The Profits of Poultry, - - 91 

Treatment of Soils, - - loo 

The Culture of Tobacco, - - loi 

To Test Coal Oil, . - - 105 
The Weather and the Prospects, - - loO 

The True Cause of Gapes, - - 114 

The Progress ot Rural Pursuits, - 123 

To Correspondents, - - 131 

The Peach Aphis, - - - 131 

The Crops, - - - 132, 165 

Thinning Out Ornamentals, - - 143 

Thoughts on Vegetation, - - 144 

The California Wheat Crop, - 149 

The Colorado Potato Beetle, - T 56 

The Strawberry, - - - 164 

The Lawn, - - - 175 

Thinning out Fruit, - _ - 183 

To Clean ]31ankets, - - 192 

The French Mode of Saving Feathers, 194 

The Cattle Disease, - - - 211 

To Destroy Bugs, Ants, iS;c., - 216 

The Grape Phyloxera, - - 219 

To Bleach Cotton, - - 223 

Two Kinds of Inarming, - - 227 

The Origin of the Dahlia, - - 233 

To Boil New Potatoes, - - 249 

The Timber Laws, - - 250 

The " Farmers' Grange,"' - - 256 

The Horticultural Show, - - 246 

The Greatest Crop in the World, - 261 

The Cost of Living, - - 271,272 

The Ailanthus Tree, - . - 260 

The " Practical Farmer," - - 277 

The Produce Market, - - - 278 

U 

Utilizing Hen-power, - - 105, I95 

Uses of Raw Hide, - ' - 106 

Unprofitable Grain Culture, - - 178 

Uneasy Milkers, - - - 194 

Underdraining, - - - 203 

V 

Vitality of Weeds, - - - 120 

Ventilation of Ice-houses, - - 141 

Valuable Hunting Groum.!, - - 142 

Valley of the Nile, - - - 204 

Value of Walnut Timber, - - 207 

W 

W^estern I'arming, - - - 34 

Washing Powders, _ - - 42 

We Invite Contributions, - - 43 

What to do with our Daughters? - 46 

What is Meant by Horse Power ? - 70 

When to Cut Hay, - - "- H 

What Does "Cooking" Islean ? - 87 
Why Clover Improves the Soil, - 140, 102 

Western Agriculture and Horticulture, 134 

White Hairs in Horses, - - 141- 

Watering in Dry Times, - - 185 

Wet Pastures, - - - - 205 

Waste Lands, - - - 205 

Why P.)latoes Run (. )r,t. - - 2oC> 

Y 

Yield of I'n'cinus Metals, - ' 8 



CONTENTS. 



All about coffee, - - - - 
Agricultural, i. 33, 56, 79, 97, 123, 

'201, 227, 258, 270, 293. 
A cargo of eggs worth 32,000,000. 
About sick animals, . - - - 
Ashes in the orchard, - 
Annual Address, H. M. E., 
About sweet potatoes, - 
Annual meeting Berks co. A. S., 
A hint en Lawns and Hedges, 
A word for ants, . . - - 
Average and price of corn, 1S72-73, 
Arrow-root, . - - - - 
Agricultural intelligence, 
An "early-rising" fallacy, 
A group of melons. 
Ashes as a cattle feed, - - - 
About Horses, - . - - 

Agricultural — an Essay, - 
An exhibit of Poultry profits, 
Apples — their keeping, - 
Agricultural statistics, - 
A foe to the potato-bug, - 
A singular coincidence, 
A crop of clover, - - 

A good garden, - - - - 

Adorn your homes, . - - - 

Asparagus, - - - - - 

Asafcetida and abortion, - 

Antidote to poisoning, - 

A good bed, - . . - - 

About plums, . - . - 

An Irish invention. 

An English Scientist's discovery, - 

A gigantic flower, . . - . 

Agricultural and Horticultural — omis; 

Award of Premiums, 

A new horse disease — pinkeye, 

A valuable recipe for galls, 

A simple disinfectant, - 

Agricultural Exhibitions, - 

Advice to farmers, 

A road cattle case, . . . 



I 

1495 175 

6 

- 7 
9 

- 16 
20 

-■ 28 

- 36 

- 39 
62 

- 68 
80 

- 89 
108 

- 117 
121 

,125 

- 138 

- 139 
143 
160 
166 

- 182 

- 185 

- 195 
206 

- 209 
217 

- 217 
218 

- 223 
225 

- 234 
ion, 245 

- 246 
241 

- 104 
I 

- 242 
296 

- 299 



Beef liver. 

Botany, 

Beans as Poultry food. 

Bread sponge. 

Business in farming, 

Breaking colts, - 

Bacon raising, - 

Baled Hay, 

Burns, - - - - 

Barley for malting, 

Bad Spring Roads, - 

Buckwheat-bran, 

Baking Powder, 

Breathing throui'h the mouth, 



I44i 



Book and Special Notices, 23,47,71,95,121 

147. 173. 199.226, 251, 277. 

I>erks County Agricultural Society, - 28 

li(jrax for the throat, - - - - 42 

1 leans — J'/iaseo/itx, .... 63 

Botanical phenomena. No. i, - - - 67 

Business Laws, - . . - . 70 

Botanic phenomena, No. 2, - - - 119 

Back-Bone, - - - - - 137 



Commerce of St. Louis, 
City and Country Life, 
Chicago market, 48, 72, 95, 122, 

252,277,303. 
Condensed gleanings. 
Clover, Hay and green timothy. 
Cup-cake, - - - . 
Cut this out, 
Compton Surprise, 
Clays, - - . - 

Comparison of breeds of poultry, 
Castor oil as a leather preserver 
Colorado Potato-beetle, - 
Codfish dressing. 
Codfish toast, - - - - 

Canada thistle 
Clover for Hogs, 
Can one be both, &c. , 
Cracking of pears, - 
Comparison of breeds, - 
Cost of crops. 
Cotton cloth for beds, - 
Clearing sheep of ticks, - 
Cut-worms, 

Cooking, .... 

Connubial honor, 
Calves do not injure orchards, - 
Cooking vegetables, 
Cabbage Salad, - - - 

Capabilities of an acre, 
Curculio Remedy, - 
Cats, Mice, Clover and Bees, 
Clean milking. 
Coal oil for \\c\\ lice. 
Condiments in jjoultry feed, - 
Cooking greens, 
Calosovia Scrutator, - 
Capsicum, . . - - 

California correspondence, - 



148, 



- 140 
171, 224 

- 195 

195 

- 228 
240 • 

- 241 
261 

- 275 

- 118 

I3S' 

• - 297 

300 

- 8 
12 

174, 200, 

- 165 

83 

- 87 
89 

- 90 
100 

- 103 
105 

- 130 
140 

- 140 
171 

- 181 
- 183 

- 185 

193 

- 205 
207 

- 210 
215 

- 216 
222 

- 242 
24S 

- 249 
259 

- 269 
277 

- 41 

- 42 
140 

- 248 
132 

- 37 
65 



IV. CONTENTS. 



CUCURBITAC.f; - - - - - I Ob 

Chilblains, ------ 295 

Cure for colic in horses, - - - - 295 

Cultivation of celery, - - - - 289 

Cribbing horses, 3°° 

Cabbage as a market crop, - - - -9° 



Do trees and plants freeze, 

Domestic, - 41, 89, 16S, 190, 216, 247, 

Damp walls, ------ 

Diversity of productions. 

Defective drainage, - - - - - 

Destructive powder, - - - - 

Domestic Economy. - - - - 

Dust in fruit culture, - - - - 

Destruction of ttmber in United States, - 
Dominique fowls, - - - - 

Diversified Agriculture, - - - - 

Don't kill your best fowls^ - 

Doryphora lo-lineata, - - 130, 155 

Duck-wing Game, - - - - 

Driving off a cow, - - - - - 

Dry earth — a disinfectant, - 

Drying boots, ------ 

Damaged fiuits, - - - - - 



Fine and Good - 
Frosting for cake. 
Fruit cal<c, - 



37 

271 

65 

91 

115 

116 

139 
184 
1S9 

193 
206 
217 
156 
223 
196 
196 
296 
289 



Ess.ays, - _ - i, 49> 73- 201, 212, 235, 
Entomological, - - 38, 88, I09, 130, 
Essay on Fruit culture. 
Essay on money, . . _ - - 
Egg-sauce, ------ 

Essay on Farm accounis. 
Effects of impurities in milk, 
Entomolography, - - - 212, 235 

Egyptian Wheat, - - - - - 

Entomology, ------ 

Entomological correspondence, - 
Education, _-.--- 
Editorials, - 22, 44, 89, 133, 172, 1S2 

Experiments in potato growing, 
Effects of felling the forests. 
Effects of temperature on milk, 
European armies, - _ . . 

Evolution, .--.-. 



Fruit culture, - 

Fruit soils and culture, 

}''ruits and forestry, - 

Fighting chickens. 

Forestry, 

Frosteil feet, 

Frost liites. 

Feeding hens for laying, 

Feed for fattening cows, - 

Fowl killing, 

Fragraria vesca. 

Farmers' in deJDt, 

Farmers' children, - 

J'arm accounts, 

Floriculture, 

Fast horses. 

Foreign and Domestic Bugs, 

l'"arm Poultry, 

P'onnicit: form '.aria, - 

Flying fish, 



Go to sheep raising, 

Gathered grains, - - - - - 

Good yield of potatoes, - 

Good Hominy, - - - - . 

Gapes in Chickens, - - - - 

Grain statistics, - - - 

Garget in milch cows, 

Green Manures, - , * - 

Growing Strawberries, 

Graham Gems, - - . - . 

Green Peas, - - - _ . 

General Crop Report for 1874, 

Grafting nurseiy stock. 

Good Society, - - - _ . 

Georgia Correspondence, 

H 

Hov/ one lady manages, - 
How to destroy insects. 
How to select a good cow. 
Horticulture and the Centennial - 
How to make star phosphate, - 
How to disinfect a house. 
How a prize egg plant was raised, - 
Hard work pays, - - . . 

Hogs and corn, - - - - 

73 Horses, -.-... 

49 How miniature trees are produced, - 
How to use Paris green. 
How to make an artificial swarm, - 
Horticultural, - - 164, 232, : 

How to nse nails, . - - . 
Harvesting root crop*^ 
How to disinfect a room, 
How to make use of paper, - 
Hints to farmers 
How mules came into fashion, 
Habits of the curculio. 
How to make good butter, - 
Household measures. 
How to boil meats, - - - - 
How to build a barn, - - - - 

Hay fever, . - . . - 
How to made good Sorghum Syrup, 
Holding back the crops, - 
How to use straw, . . . . 
Horticulture, ----- 
How to succeed with poultry. 
Horseradish sauce, - - - . 
How to have good cider, 
Hale's Early Peach, 
Flunt the tent caterpillar, 
Hard Soap, - - - . . 

Helps for washdays, - - - - 

I&J 

Jay Cook's creditors, 
Important, - - - - 

Insect slavery, . . - - 

Influence of graft on roof. - 
Insects as food, . . . - 

Insects' enemies, - - - 

Indian jiickles, . . . - 

Importance of Long and Short horns, 



264 
155 



^Z9 
201 

207 
264 

243 
214 
236 

254 
197 

99 
102 
169 
222 
282 



26 

26 
46 

75 
86 

87 
90 

94 
141 

164 
170 
- 191 
201 
234 

■ 241 
267 

■ 274 

39 
- 217 



242 

276 
297 

4 
28 

83 
105 
132 
168 
160 

177 

i8t) 
I go 
248 
258 
289 
300 



21 
3J^ 

- 47 
.S^ 

- 70 
85 

- 87 
92 

- 103 
no 

- 117 
131 

- 143 
62, 164 

- 170 
182 

- 192 

193 

- 204 
210 

- 215 

2I() 

- 216 

- 247 
229 

- 248 
249 

- 259 
260 

- 262 

273 

- 275 

275 

- 37 
60 

- 297 
296 



15 

132 

88 

234 
61 
216 
297 
294 



©lie Imicaster ^Hrrner* 

DEVOTED TO 

Agriculture, Horticulture, Domestic Economy and Miscellany. 



EDITED BY S. S. RATHVON & J. B. l)EVEL[lsr. 



**r/te Farniei- is the founder of civilization.'' — WEBSTER. 



Vol. VL 



JANUARY, 187 Jf. 



JVo. 1. 



ESSAY. 



ALL ABOUT COFFEE. 



BY J. STAUFPER. 



THERE are many things in daily 
use, and so common that we 
think we know all about them worth 
"knowing, and arc perfectly satisfied to 
enjoy tliem without further inquiry as 
to their history. Since I, in common 
with others, love a cup of good coffee, I 
had the curiosity to search into the 
history of this beverage. I find Rhind 
and others quote largely from " Ellis's 
History of Coffee," (a work 1 believe to 
be out of print,) and from various sour- 
ces enough to compile a volume. I 
shall confine myself to a few leading 
particulars. I wish I could transfer 
with it a beautiful and accurately col- 
ored plate I have before me of the plant 
— Coffea Arabica. The leaves are op- 
posite and evergreen, somewhat like 
those of the bay-tree. There are whirls 
of white flowers in the axils of each 
pair of leaves, successively developed, 
resembling those of the jessamine. 
This res(!mblance gave rise to the name 
Jasmium Arabicum — Avhich nan)e of 
course is now obsolite — and that of 
Coffea At-abica universally adopted. 
The plant" belongs to the natural order of 
the RuBiACEAE in the natural system, 
and the Pentandria monogynia of 
Linnaeus. 

In the Arabic language, quahouch is 
the name of the liquor of coffee ; in 



Turkish, cahneij — hence the common 
name coffee. The fruit ripens in clus- 
ters, like cherries, is of a red color, oval 
in shape, inclosing two seeds face to 
face, of a horny consistency. These 
seeds are the coffee grains, and when 
properly dried and roasted and ground, 
form the basis of the decoction or bev- 
erage. The coffee tree seldom exceeds 
twelve feet in height; is slender, 
divided above into long, trailing 
branches, and when in full bloom is 
highly ornamental. 

The fruit has a pale, insipid, and 
somewhat glutinous pulp inclosing the 
seeds, which are covered by a cartila- 
ginous membrane, which, when dried, 
becomes like parchment. As to the ear- 
liest history, it was known and used as 
an alimentary infusion in Persia, where 
the plant is supposed to have been in- 
digenous. Long before being introduced 
by the Mufti Megalleddin of Aden, into 
Arabia, Felix had become acquainted 
with it in Persia, and had recourse to 
it medicinally when he returned to his 
own country. The progress which it 
made was by no means rapid at first, 
and it was not until the year 1554 that 
coffee was publicly sold in Constanti- 
nople. Its use had in the mean while, been 
much checked by authority of the Syrian 
government on the ground of its alleged 
intoxicating qualities ; but more prob- 
al)ly because of its leading to social 
and festive meetings incompatible with 
the strictness of Mahommedan disci- 
pline. 

A similar persecution attended the use 



% 



THE LAJ^CJSTJLP^ FAIUIER. 



of coffee soon after its introduction into 
the capital of Turkey, where the niiiiis- 
ters of religion having made it the subject 
of solemn complaint that the mosques 
were deserted while coffee-houses 
were crowded, these latter were shut 
up by order of the Mufti, who em- 
ployed the police of the city to prevent 
any one from di-inking coffee. 

This prohibition it was found impos- 
sible to establish, so that the govern- 
ment, with that instinctive facility so 
natural to rulers of converting to their 
own advantage the desire and prtyu- 
dices of the people, laid a tax upon the 
sale of the beverage, which produced a 
considerable revenue. 

The consumption is exceedingly 
great in Turkey, and this fact may be 
in a great measure accounted for by 
the strict prohibition which the Moslem 
religion lays against the use of wines 
and spiritiious liquors. So necessary 
was coffee at one time considered 



article unknown in his own country. 
Thirty years after this some gentle- 
men, returning from Constantinople to 
Marseilles, brought with them a supply 
of this luxury, together with the ves- 
sels required for its preparation ; but it 
was not until 1 071 that the first coffee- 
house was opened in that city for the 
sale of the prepared beverage. 

In 1(j71 an i^merican named Tascal 
set up a coffee-house in Paris, but 
meeting witli little encouragement he 
removed to London. 

We find two statements, differing 
somewhat — that coffee-houses date 
their origin in London at an earlier 
period. The first was opened, accord- 
ing to one, in George Yard, Lombard 
street, by one Pasqua, a (31 reek, who 
was brought over in 1652 by a Turkish 
merchant named Edwards. The other 
version is that in 1652 a Greek named 
Pasqua Rosee, who had been in the 
service of an English Turkey merchant, 



among the people, that tiie refusal to ! opened a coffee-house in London, at St 



supply it in reasonable quantity to a 
wife was reckoned among the legal 
causes for a divorce. The Turks drink 
their coffee very hot and strong, and 
without sugar ; occasionally they put 
in, when boiling, a clove or two bruised, 



Michael's alley, Cornhill ; both accounts 
agree in part as to the man and date. 

The first establishments did not meet 
with much success, for want of address 
and proper places to dispose of it. 
Genteel people did not care to be seen 



or a seed of selarry aniseed, or some of I in those places where it was to be had. 
the lesser cardamums, or a drop of es- However, not long after, when some 



sence of amber. j 

With regard to the sobriety and 
honesty of the masses in Turkey, under 
their Pagan religion, we must confess 
that there is more intemperance and 
rascality in tlie city of New York, than 
in all Turkey, and consequently own 
that there is a screw loose somewhere 
in the machinery that drives the moral 
engine. Coffee-houses would certainly 
be better than lager beer saloons, and 
why not as desirable and profitable, if 
properly conducted ? 

Much uncertainty prevails with re- 
spect to the first introduction of coffee 
into u.se in the western parts of EiUrope. 
The Venetians, who traded much with 
the Levant (or Orient, the East,) were 
probably the first to adopt its use. A 
letter, written in 1615 from Constanti- 
nople by Peter de la Valle, a Venetian, 
acquaints his correspondent with the 
writer's intention to bring home to Italy 
some coffee, which he speaks of as an 



Frenchmen had fitted up for the pur 
pose spacious apartments in an ele- 
gant manner, ornamented with tapes-, 
try, large looking-glasses, pictures, and 
magnificent lusters, and began to sell 
cofl'ee, with tea, chocolate, and other 
refreshments, they soon became fre- 
quented by peojjle of fashion and men 
of letters; so that in a short time the 
number increased in London and in 
Paris to three hundred. Our saloon 
keepers are not novel it seems, in adopt- 
ing the ornamental to attract attention 
and patronage for their worse bever- 
ages that intoxicate. 

The first mention of coffee that oc- 
curs on the statute books of England 
is found in the act 12th, Car. IL, cap. 
24, Anno 1660, whereby a duty of 
four pence per gallon, to be paid by the 
maker, was imposed upon all coffee 
made and sold ; three years after this 
coffee houses were directed to be li- 
censed by the magistates at quarter 



THE LANCASTER FABMEB. 



3 



sessions. The Turkish ambassador, 
Soleiman Aga, made coffee-driuking 
{"ashionable in Paris; and at his as- 
semblies in 1(388 caused it to be served 
to his guests with all the luxurious 
minutia; of oriental fashion. 

Age greatly improves the se^ds. Ap 
iudiiferent qualit}' in ten years has been 
known to become excellent, and of a 
delightful flavor. Roasted coffee ought 
not to be kept long on hand ; it detcrio- 
ates after it is roasted, and it ought not 
to be ground until the moment of its 
infusion, otherwise some of its aroma 
will be dissipated. This reminds me 
of the good old times when every fami- 
ly roasted their own coffee, and ground 
the same just as it was wanted. Now 
roasting coffee is quite a business, and 
every grocer has his hand-mill to grind 
the colfee of their customers. 

How 'is it that notwithstanding gov- 
ernment has taken olf the import duty 
on coffee, it is as high in price as be- 
fore ? Speculators buy it up and pocket 
the saved duty; thus the people, whom 
it was destined to benefit, are cheated 
by the combination of the importers or 
middle-men. Alas! greedy worshipers 
of mammon are the people's curse. 

It is found that the coffee plant will 
not yield a paying crop in any place 
where the temperature at any time de- 
scends below 55° of Fahrenheit's scale. 
The climate or soil in Persia and the 
Orient it seems is better adapted for its 
cultivation than other localities— Jamai- 
ca, Costa Rico, etc., in the West Indies, 
Brazil, etc. The following is a syno})sis 
of the different kinds: the Arabian, or 
Mocha, is considered the best, is small 
and of a dark yellow color ; Java and 
East Indian, are large and of a pale yel- 
low ; Ceylon West Indian and Brazilian 
coffee have a bluish or greenish-gray 
tint (of course unroasted). 

Science informs us that coffee is 
Electro-positive, and loaf sugar. Elec- 
tro-negative. 

My worthy friend, the editor of the 
Farmer, will agree with me that the 
two make a delicious compound. I 
prefer the addition of rich cream, tan- 
nin or no tannin as a result. He who 
sets up late, a watcher, or driving the 
pen by the midnight taper, knows the 
solacing effect of a cup of coffee. It 



counteracts stupor, tends to wakeful- 
ness, overcomes fatigue, and will neu- 
tralize the bad effects of opium or spirit- 
uous liquors. It retards the waste of 
protoplasm in the tissues, supplies the 
place of food, relieves the gout and is 
worthy of special notice. 1 will state 
one other fact that was new to me — 
that is, that the leaves of the coffee 
tree, roasted over a clear fire to a dark 
buff color, when scalded, make an ex- 
cellent drink, intermediate between tea 
and coff'^e in flavor. I append a 
tabular view of the constituent parts of 
one pound of coffee, viz. : 

Oz. 

WiUii- 1 

Aromatic Oil 

I'otiisli 

C;irt'i'iii or Tlicine 

U iiiu 1 

Woody Fibre 5 

Casein ■ 2 

Sugar 1 

Fat 1 



Grains. 
407 

2.-0 

102 
■2«> 



Mineral IMatI.er 1 



17 
40J 
31 



AGRICULTQRAL, 



J. 



SULPHURIC ACID AND WEEDS. 



CORRESPONDENT of the 
Journal of HorticuUure (Eng- 
lish) writes : " Take an old blacking- 
bottle, with a wire round it to carry it 
by and a stick to dip with. The stick 
should not be pointed, but should be 
notched around for an inch or two at the 
end, the better to hold the liquid. 
Just one drop quite in the heart of the 
plantain is suificient to cause death, 
and the notched stick will contain at 
one dip enough to destroy three or four 
plants. If the acid is good, the work of 
death can be both seen and heard, for 
the vitriol hisses, and it burns up the 
plantain in a moment. A row of plan- 
tains a foot wide sprang up on a lawn 
here where an iron fence formerly ran. 
The owner, seeing at a place he visited 
the good effect of vitriol, put the hint 
in practice. The plantains were killed 
in an hour, and have never appeared 
again. It is three years ago,^and it is 
impossible to recognize the line of the 
fence. It completely burns the roots 
out. I have tried it on large dande- 
lions with the same result. One of the 
young gentlemen here amused himself 
by hunting out the longest thistles he 



^ 



THE LAMCASTER FARMER. 



could find to experiment on. The vit- 
riol completely killed them by eating 
the roots out. One drop will do. 
Care is required that it does not touch 
the skin, boots or clothes. It is not 
safe in the hands of children ; but a 
man or woman with ten minutes prac- 
tice can kill plantains much more quick- 
ly than any lad can eat gooseberries." 



GO TO RAISING SHEEP. 



A man in Vermont, who grew up 
from a small discounter of notes in a 
country store to be a millionaire, re- 
plied, when asked the reason of his uni- 
form success: "When everybody is 
fishing down stream, I turn and fish 
up." By this be meant that when 
the draft of money was toward bonds 
and similar securities, he invested in 
real estate, and vice veraa. No class 
of business men or producers are in 
better situation to adopt the old money- 
lender's axiom than the farmers, and 
none more generally ignore it. Take 
the wool product of the country as an 
example. Wool will be high in the 
market for several years, and a large 
number of farmers will go into the rais- 
ing of sheep until flocks are large and 
the supply so great as to bring down 
its price to a point where it is question- 
able whether wool-growing is profitable. 
During all this time mutton has been 
high, on account of the general desire 
to keep the sheep for wool-growing. 
Farmers then declare war on their 
flocks, and glut the market with mut- 
ton ; and then follows a season when 
wool is scarce in the home market, and 
such as hare "fished up stream while 
others were fishing down " — kept their 
sheep while their neighbors were send- 
ing theirs to the shambles — have suc- 
ceeded in securing a uniform and large 
profit for their wool. The raising of 
sheep is an industry that is year by 
year growing in importance in this 
country, and there is no good reason why 
our manufacturers of woolen goods 
should be compelled to resort to foreign 
markets for their supply. 

There is no kind of stock more easily 
kept than sheep, and none that so little 
impoverish the soil upon which they 



are kept. The wool clip of Illinois, 
with 54,410 square miles of territory, 
was, in 1870, about 5,750,000 pounds, 
while Ohio, with an area of 39,1)G4 square 
miles of territory, produced over 20,- 
500,000 pounds. This excess, allowing 
the average price to be 46 cents per 
pound, brought the State nearly $10,- 
000,000 more than the product "in Illi- 
nois, and at a trifle greater cost. Let 
the farmers of the North-west increase 
their flocks of sheep, and be sure of a 
crop that is always in demand and a 
market rarely overstocked. 



PROGRESS OF AGRICULTURE 
IN THE UNITED STATES. 



From the interest that is being awak- 
ened throughout the country in regard 
to the Centennial celebration in Phila- 
delphia in 1876, the statistics which 
will be produced upon all subjects of a 
practical character will be of greater 
interest than was ever before presented 
to the world, and the progress which 
has been made in this country during 
the period since we became a nation, 
will be astonishing to the whole world. 
Upon those anticipations of this event, 
at a late meeting of the State Board of 
Agriculture, Mr. Chas, L, Flint, Sec. 
of the Board of Md., read a very inter- 
esting report on the progress of Ame- 
rican Agriculture during the past cen- 
tury, which we wish we could give 
entire. He quoted from Daniel Web- 
ster when he said the various branches 
of business followed by men are "like 
pillars standing in a cluster, the largest 
in the centre, and the largest is agri- 
culture. They had the forest to clean, 
and wild beasts to destroy. 

Previous to the revolution no attempt 
was made to save manure. Nor at 
that time had the idea of sowing grass 
seed and raising hay as a cultivated 
crop beeu thought of. Red clover was 
introduced into England in 1733, white 
or dutch clover in 1764, perennial rye- 
grass in 1777, at which time dates the 
commencement of the cultivation of the 
grasses. With the improvement of 
grass dates the improvement of our 
cattle. 

The early colonists were very poorly 



THE LAjYCASTER FARMER. 



supplied with tools. Steel at that time 
was unknowa, and after the ])rocess of 
iiiakins'- it was discovered it was kept a 
secret in the hands of a few. The lirst 
jiJDWs were of wood, with ])ieees of 
iron or other metal 'tailed on the mould 
b(jard. These were very hard of 
draught, reciuiring double the teams and 
doing very poor work, compared with 
those of the present day. 

They were also costl}", and but few 
were owned in a town. It was unusual 
f(n' towns to pay, a bounty to persons 
who would keep a plow team. The 
list of other farming tools was also very 
meagre. It was often the case that a 
strong man could carry on his back all 
the tools to a farm, except the plow and 
harrow. 

From the Indians they learned to 
grow corn. The holes were dug in the 
ground with a clam shell, although our 
people soon made an improvement by 
using an iron scoop instead. A step in 
advance was made when a spade was 
})ut in the hill, b}' which the crop was 
increased two or three fold. 

Wheat was cultivated to a very limi- 
ted extent. It blasted then as now, and 
was never a very popular crop in New 
England. Corn and potatoes were 
raised in preference to wheat. 

It was not until 1830 that the first 
horticultural society was organized. 
Indeed it was an age of poor tools, 
profitless cattle and few books. Before 
1750, stages were unknown, and the 
means of communication were verv 
limited. The ]!olicy of the Government 
of the mother country was -to make the 
colonies a source of profit. Manufac- 
turing the forbidden, as was also trade, 
except with England. / 

The early socities for promoting ag- 
riculture were rather city than country 
societies. They wer) not composed of 
farmers. With them, theory and inves- 
tigation would not go down. Old cus- 
toms and methods of thought were bred 
in the blood. Common law was the 
guide and the rule, not ])rincipals, but 
practice was that they believed in. The 
war with its various influences broke 
up this state of things. The farming 
interest began to improve. In LSIO wais 
held the first Agricultural Exhibition in 
the country. The Berkshire Society 



was organized in 1811. Improved pat- 
erns of plows came into use, although 
many were afraid that the iron plows 
would poison the ground. The improve- 
ment of the plow has saved to the coun- 
try, annually, millions and millions of 
dollars. Th(! better pulverization of 
the soil, the lightness of draughts, the 
care with which weeds and grass are 
turned in and covered, are among the 
advantages gained by the use of the im- 
proved plow. 

We cannot at present follow Mr. 
Flint in showing the wonderful improve- 
ments which has been made, and more 
particularly within the past fifty years. 
From 1740 to ISfiO the increase of the 
production of Indian-corn was from 377 
million bushels to 838 millions ; and of 
wheat, the brain food of the world, we 
are growing at the rate of 200 millions 
of bushels a year. The cotton crop has 
grown to immense proportions within 
the century, and was certainly unknown 
a hundred years ago. At first it took a 
man one day to pick the seed from a 
pound of cotton ; now by the use of 
steam and the cotton gin, 2,200 pounds 
can be cleaned in a single day. 

The importation of improved stock 
has increased very much within a few 
years. In 1852 there were not seventy- 
five pure Jersey animals in the State 
of Massachusetts. The same may be 
said of the Ayrshires. Now many 
single herd exceed that numlier. He 
also alluded to the pork-packing busi- 
ness, that is now so thoroughly syste- 
matized ; the improvement of sheep and 
horses ; also to the increa.se of agricul- 
tural literature. Previous to 1790 we 
had no mails. Before the Revolution 
there were but four essays on agricul- 
ture ]iublished in America. The Ameri- 
can Farmer was first started in Balti- 
more in 1819. Now the circulation of 
agricultural journals exceeds three hun- 
dred thousand copies; two hundred 
thousand volumes of agricultural re- 
ports are distributed annually, besides 
the reports from the Government at 
^Vashington. Agricultural colleges are 
also the growth of the j)ast few years ; 
but now there is something of the kind 
in every State of the Union. 

Subscribe for the Faiimer. 



6 



THE LAJVCASTEB, FARMEIL 



SHALLOW PLOWING 
COllX. 



FOR 



In our issue of Deceiubef 11, 1873, 
page 793. is a report of a large yi(;ld 
of corn (]69|- bushels per acre) in 
Washington county, Pa., claimed i)y 
the grower as the i-esult in part of plow- 
ing o«ly 2i to 3 inches in depth. Mr. 
David Petit, of Salem county, N. J., 
sends us, as confirmation of the benefit 
of shallow cultivation, and the possi- 
bility of growing over 120 bushels per 
acre, the following statement of a large 
crop of corn raised by him on ground 
dug to the depth of four inches, which 
is unusually shallow for garden culture : 

" I have been raising large crops in 
my garden lor several years on a small 
piece of ground, and I herewith send 
you some account of the one grown the 
last season, to show what may be 
grown to the acre. A. Bllderback, tlie 
witness to the crop grown the last sea- 
son, was an unbeliever in largo crops. 
Although he had lived on the best of 
land and been a successful farmer for 
near 40 years, yet he would not believe 
120 bushels were ever grown on an 
acre, but I promised him, if he would 
select the poorest hill I had, and shell 
and measure the corn, it should turn 
200 bushels to the acre. The amount 
below is the result; the variety, Early 
Sugar'': 

Mr. Eilderback, who is judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas in that county, 
reports having selected a single hill, 
not on the outside of the pii^ce, which 
yielded one quart and one-half pint of 
shelled corn. The rows are two by 
three feet, making 7.2(10 hills to the 
acre, or 283 bushel's shelled corn. Mr. 
Petit then adds that the hill selected 
by Judge Bilderback " was about as 
l>oor a hill as there was in th(! lot ; some 
hills shelUid much more, and had not 
the corn all been blown up by the roots 
l)y a rain storm just after it had set and 
was fully in silk, there would have 
been considerably more. This will 
show what land may be made to pro- 
duce in a favorable season by making 
it rich, and with good management. 
The ground was well manured last 
spring, dug about four inches deep and 
planted with early peas. These were 



pulled when fully ripe, and the ground 
planted with early corn without dig- 
ging or manuring again. The corn 
was hoed once and slightly hilled, soon 
as large enough to stiffen it and then 
left to take its chance. The above is 
the result. If this result can be fairly 
attained on a small piece of ground, I 
bold the opinion that under the same 
circumstances it can be on a larger and 
still larger piece. The season was all 
hat could have been asked except the 
tain-storm alluded t«." — Country Gen- 
tlemen. 



A CARGO OF EGGS WORTH TWO 
- MILLION DOLLARS. 



(hie of the most valuable consign- 
ments that ever passed " across the con- 
tiuKtit " arrived in Chicago some days 
since through the American Express 
Company; via the Central Pacific and 
Chicago, Burlington and Quincy rail- 
roads. The public will be startled to 
learn that one freight .car containol 
goods (" time goods " they were m u'k- 
ed) whose value exceeded $2,000,000. 
The enormous cost would be in itself a 
circumstance worthy of note, but the 
peculiar character of the goods gives to 
the affair additional interest. The con- 
signment was nothing more nor less 
than a car-load of silk-worms' eggs, en 
route for France. They were purchased 
in Yokohama by the French Govern- 
ment, and arrived in San Francisco 
Dec. 15. Only three days were lost in 
transfering them to the freight-car, and 
Dec. 18 the precious packages com- 
menced their trans-continental journey. 

The train arrived in Chicago at due 
time, and a reporter of the Tribune was 
enabled to obtain a glimpse of the car- 
go. In this country, very few are 
familiar with the silk-worm, and can 
have no idea of the appearance of the 
eggs. In England, where the climate 
is less subject to extremes of tempera- 
ture, the silk-worm is as common a pet 
as the canary. Boys and girls all boast 
a box of thriving silk-worms, and take 
as much pride in winding off the golden 
thread from the cocoon, as the youth 
of this country in the possession of 
marbles and such like toys. The silk- 



THE LANCASIER FABMEB. 



7- 



worms' oji:g is iil)Out one-quarter the 
size of a pin's head, and the reader mav 
<;-ain an idea of the number of e,t!:j?s now 
on their way to Paris, when he l(;anis 
that on this oik; ear there are S)h tons of 

The egj^s are ])aekt'(l in leaves, layer 
upon layer, and plaeed in air-tight tin 
l)oxes, whieh are in turn eovered with 
mattinii'. The car is kei)t at a tenipiira- 
Inre below the freezing point, and no 
lij.'-ht is adnjitted. The matting-eover- 
ed box(!S arc pailed on either side. Tliere 
is nothing to be seen there but matting, 
ami the appearanee of the Ijoxes is cer- 
tainly not indi(!ativo of the vaTue of 
thnir contents. This is the first attempt 
yet made to import silk-worms via the 
Unit(Hl States, and if human foresight 
avails anything, there is every reason 
to look for success. — Chicago Tribune. 

ABOUT SICK ANIMALS. 



Nearly all sick animals become so by 
impi'opei" feeding, in the first place. In 
nine cases out of ten the digestion is 
wrong. Charcoal is the most efficient 
and rapid corrective. It will cure in a 
majority of cases, if properly adminis- 
tered. An example of its use: The 
hired man came in with the intelligence 
that one of the cows was very sick, and 
a kind neighbor proposed the usua 
drugs and poisons. The owner, being 
ill, and unable to examine the cow, con- 
cluded that the trouble came from over- 
eating, and ordered a teaeupful of pul- 
verized charcoal given in water. It 
was mixed, placed in a junk bottle, the 
head held upward, and the water and 
charcoal poured downward. In five 
minutes improvement was visible, and 
in a few hours the animal was in the 
pasture quietly eating grass. Another 
instance of equal success occurred with 
a young heifer which Imd lieeonie l)adly 
bloated by eating green apples after a 
hard wind. The bloat was so severe 
that the sides were almost as hard as a 
barrel. The old remedy, Sideratus, was 
tried for correcting the acidity. But thi; 
attempt to put it down always caused 
coughing, and it did little good. Half 
a teacu{)lul of fresh powdered charcoal 
was next given ; in a few hours all ap- 



pearance of bloat had gone, and the 
heifer was well. — Live Stock Journal 



THH CORN YIELD. 

The New York Produce- Exchange 
llvr/ 7.7 says : 

The corn crop last year, as per esti- 
n)ates of tlu; Agricultural Department- 
was 1.000,000,000 bushels, and the No. 
vember reporter 1873 makes the aggre, 
gate crop this year 878,000,000 bushels, 
or 222,000,000 bushels less than last 
year. The one-half of this crop is in the 
coinmer(M;d or hog packing States, or, 
say, ^29, 000. 000 bushels in quantity; 
but, considering the quality, a deduction 
from this of one-sixth is made, making- 
it equal to 3H6,000,00'0 bushels of the 
(piality of the crop of 1872. There is 
considerable old corn in the country,- 
perhaps enough to make an average 
annual supply. The crop in the un- 
dermentioned years, in all the States, 
has been as follows : 

]lu:<hds. 

1873 878,000,000 

1872 1,000,000,000 

1,S71 l,Oi)0, 000,000 

1870. 1,094,000,000 

18(;9 874,320,000 

18fi8 90fi,572,000 

1867 708,300,000 

1806 807,940,095 

1805 704.427,853 

1804... ■ 530,581,403 

A verage ten years. . . . 88 1 ,6 12,255 
The prospect for prices in the spring 
is good, because there is really a large 
proportion of the crop of 1873 that is 
not fit to market, and the available sur- 
plus is probably not large enough to 
press heavily on the market. A larger 
demand than usual is expected from 
New Lngland this winter, as that sec- 
tion forbore to lay in supplies till tempt- 
ed to do so by the low prices induced 
Ijy the panic of September. 

Barley for Malting — Plaster. — 
The value of barley to the maltster and 
brewer depends upon — first, its equal- 
ity of ripeness ; second, its color, and 
tliird, its weight. If it is not all ripe, 
it will not sprout evenly in the " bed.' 



8 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



Yellow barley never makes g-ood milt. 
Extract is in proportion to weight. 
Bere, or big, i. e., four and six-rowed 
barley, is preferred to the two-rowed in 
Ontario and tiie States, because it is far 
easier to make into malt. The idea that 
the two former make more highly fla- 
vored beer than the latter is erroneous. 
Two-rowed barley should be in the 
"steep" at least 72 hours, and should 
have from two to three galk»ns of water 
sprinkled on it in the early i>art of its 
growth, sav about the 5th, 6th and 1th 
day, i. e., half-gallon twice a day or 
three days. If this is done the quality 
of the beer will be all that can be de- 
sired ; but it gives trouble, and no hired 
maltster will do it without supervision. 

I find by referring to my old brewing 
register (from 1860 to 18li>), that 56 
lbs. of malt from two-rowed barley, 
gave two gallons more beer than could 
be extracted from 56 lbs. of four-rowed 
malt, and the flavor quite as good, if 
not superior. 

Bite or cut a grain of barley in two, 
and if the interior is homogeneous, it 
is good. If, on the contrary, there is a 
rice-like appearance in the middle, it is 
bad. 

Barley for malting shonld be dead 
ripe before it is cut, and cannot be too 
roug-h in the skin. The heavy clays in 
Essex, Cambridgeshire, etc. (Kng. ), 
were doubled in value by the discovery 
of the "Chevalier" barley, as the ordin 
ary two-rowed grown on that soil would 
not malt. 



road. Nearly all the immense region 
from the Glolorado to the Rio Grande is 
given up to stock-raising. The moun- 
tainous regions around San Antonio 
offer superb facilities for sheep husban- 
dry ; and the valleys along the streams 
are fertile enough for the most exacting 
farmer. There are millions of cattle 
now scattered over the plains between 
San Antonio and the Rio Grande, and 
the number is steadily increasing. It 
is not uncommon for a single individual 
to own 200,000 head of cattle. 



Texas Cattle-Raising. — A resi- 
dence of a few weeks in San Antonio 
(says a writer in Scrihner^s for Janu- 
ary) affords one a good look into the 
cattle trade of Western Texas. One 
might with ju.stice call it an indolent 
industry — for it accompliishes great re- 
sults in a lazy, disorderl}^ way ; and 
makes men millionaires before they 
have had time to arouse themselves and 
go to work. Cattle-trading is a grand 
pastime with hundreds of Texans. They 
enjoy the adventurous life on the great 
grazing plains, the freedom of the ranch, 
the possibility of an Indian incursion, 
the swift coursing on horseback over 
the great stretches, the romance of the 



Yield of Precious Metals. — Cali- 
fornia papers publish a statement by 
Wells, Fargo & Co.'s Express of the 
precious metals produced in 1873 in the 
gold and silver-bearing districts west 
of the Missouri River, showing that the 
total amount is $72,258,693, an increase 
of more than ^10, 000, 000 over 1872. 
Arizona, (!aiifornia, British Columbia, 
Oregon, Washington, Idaho and Mon- 
tana decrease. Nevada, Utah and Col- 
orado increase. The increase in Neva- 
da alone is nearly $10,000,000, the 
total product of which about equals all 
the others. The reports for Arizona 
and the Western Mexican coast are in- 
complete, as the bullion produced there 
is transported by other means. The 
figures are as follows : 

California $18,025,722 

Nevada 35,254.507 

Oregon 1,376,389 

Washington 209,395 

Idaho 2,343,654 

Montana 3,892,810 

Utah 4,906,337 

Arizona 47,778 

Colorado 4,083,268 

Mexico 868,798 

British Columbia 1,250,035 

Grand total $72,258,693 . 

"^ Commerce of St. Louis. — The St. 
Louis papers print elaborate reviews of , 
the trade and commerce of the city for 
the past year, which show a gratifying , 
increase of liusiness. The prominent 
features of the exhibit are receipts of 
cotton, 81,988 bales, against 29,436 
last year; flour, manufactured, 1,497,- . 
159 bbls., against 1,249,798 last year ; 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



9 



hog-s packed since Nov. 1st, 354,200, 
against 335,013 last year ; receipts of 
hogs for the year, '982,403, against 
759,070 last vear. The increase of 
cattle is 20,000, and lumber 30,000,000 
feet. The customs receipts have been 
$1,400,640, about $300,000 less than 
last year. The numlier of steamers 
plying to and from the port is 170; 
tonmige, 78,717 tons; number of barges, 
159; tonnage, 58,297 tons; total ton- 
nage, 137,004 tons. The amount of 
produce brought to the city by these 
steamers and barges during the year 
was 507,500 tons ; amount taken to 
other ports, 047,800 tons. 

The Advanck in Frkigiits. — The 
new railroad freight tariff between New 
York and the West, which went into 
effect on the 1st inst., is given below, 
with the old rates, for the five classes 
of freight per 100 pounds: 



FROM NEW YOnK 


TO 




Old 


New 


CLliVELAND. 






rates. 


rules. 


Old 


A' 


^jThu-a 


71 


.8(; 


rale'. 


•(t 


,, Ff)iiitli . 


.");> 


.71 


First class 49 




.6.5 l-illh.... 


44 


..55 


Second 4(> 




.5;) TO 


ST. LOUIS. 




'lliinl .•{<) 




.49 First 


97 


$1.'23 


Foiirtli oO 




.89 Second 


94 


1.11) 


Fifth 23 




.30 Tliird... 


79 


.97 


TO CHICAGO. 




Fourtli. 


(il 


.79 


Fir^t 7.5 


ffX 


.00 tilth.... 


49 


.(il 


Sec •nd 70 




.90 TO 


QUINCY. 




Tiiinl liO 




.7(» First.... 


97 


*!.2S 


l''onrtli 4."> 




.(iO Second 


.. .91 


l.Ki 


Fiftli 3.5 




.45 Tliiid... 


78 


.97 


TO CINCINNATI 




I'oiirlli . 


(il 


.79 


First 70 




9.2 Fifth.... 


49 


.(Ji 


Sccoiul (i4 




.s:i TO 


DETUOIT. 




Third .5.5 




.70 
..55 


Firi^t 


."ia 


.70 


Fourth 41 


Second. . 


49 


.(i3 


Fifth Zl 




.11 Tliinl... 


4J 


.51 


TO INDIANAPOLIS. 






-.il 


.42 








First 71 




.9.5 


Fiftli 


-25 


.32 


.'^('coiid lifi 




.S5 


TO 


TOLEDO. 




Tlnrd .57 




.71 
.('.7 


First 


. . . 58 


^-. 


Fourth 43 


Second . 


54 


.(i9 


Fiftli 33 




.43 


Tliird ... 


4(; 


..5S 


TO LOUISVILLE 






Fonrtli 


35 


.Ki 



First 8(5 '^l.lsM^^'i"''- 

Second 81 1.02 



Ashes in the Orchard. — P. W. 
KauH'man, of Des Moines, Iowa, writes 
to tliti Iowa IJome^f<'ad, that ashes are 
worth one dollar per bushel to jjut 
aJaout fruit trees, and that he would not 
sell his ashes at that price and do with- 
out their use in the orchard. He has 
used ashes about fruit trees for fifteen 
years, and during that time has never 
seen a borer where ashes were used 
.The borer is a terrible pest to the fruit- 
grower, and if all other impediments to 



successful growing were as easily over- 
come and completely controlled as the 
borer, then fruit-growing would be very 
successfully practiced. At the recent 
meeting of the Fruit-growers' Associa- 
tion of Ontario, Mr. Moodle stated that 
he had been in the habit of using un- 
leached ashes as a manure for his fruit 
trees, and that he values them more 
highly fur this purj)ose than barn-yard 
manure. 

HORTICULTURAL. 




(Pisum sativum.) 



It may be rather early in the season 
to do anything toward the cultivation 
of peas, but it surely cannot be too early 
to think and talk about it, seeing that 
the greatest ambition of the pea cul- 
turist is to get the earliest cr(qi he pos- 



10 



THE LAJVCASTEB, FARMER. 



sibly can, and to effect this, he some- 
time-! cultivates them in sheltered forc- 
ing- beds. It is said that the original 
locality of the pea is merely conjectural, 
or entirely unknown, as it has been 
cultivated in India, China and Japan 
for many hundreds of years, and was 
introduced into America with the first 
settlements. But that is not of much 
account just now, for we know it is " a 
good thing," and that ought to be a suffi- 
cient compensation for the knowledge 
that is lost. 

In the reign of Queen Bess, peas 
were brought to England from Hol- 
land, and so hi,g;hly were they es- 
teemed that they were regarded as 
"fit dainties for ladies, the}^ came so 
far and cost so dear." At the present 
day, peas are widely diffused, and are 
]>roduced in many varieties, forming, as 
they do, one of our most important 
culinary plants. The Erg-lish garden- 
ers have a passion for developing new 
varieties of peas, and their genial cli. 
mate greatl}^ assists them in acconi- 
])lishing that end. Let them "go 
ahead," for the result is so satisfactory 
that we can well afford to take them at 
second hand. Among the choice varie- 
ties cultivated by such seedsmen as 
GreOtORY, Dreer and Landreth, we 
may enumerate of the "very dwarf" 
kinds, growing and requiring no "pea 
sticks" — Carter'.s Uxtra early pre- 
mium gem; Tom Thumb; McLean's 
mile Gem ; Commodore Natl ; Drew''ti 
dwarf; Dwa.rf prolific, etc., and of 
the dwarfs proper^which may also be 
cultivated without bushing — Ca,rler''s 
firslcrop; Dan C Rourke ; Kenlii^hin- 
vicla. ; Early Winship ; Laxton''s al- 
pha : Early Kent; Dexter: Garacta- 
CUH ; Hair''s dwarf maonnofJi ; Ga?^- 
ter\^ leviathan, etc. Of the tall varie- 
ty — all of which need bushing — proba- 
bly the most w^orth}^ of cultivation, are 
the Forty-fold Dwarf % sugar ; Lax- 
Ion'' s Supreme and Quantity; Gham- 
pion of England ; Large white, Mis- 
souri and Blackeyed Marrowfats. The 
foregoing are among the newer varie- 
ties, but among the old are man}^ for 
which amateur gardeners will continue 
to have a preference. " Cropping peas" 
in Lancaster county is not as common 
as it is among professional gardeners 



elsewhere, but we do not see why this 
should be so. 

Peas are healthful and nutritious 
food, and bf a series of plantings, 
about two weeks or twenty days apart, 
beginning in March as soon as thafrost 
is out of the ground, might furnish us 
peas until the 1st of November, as 
easily, ])erhaps, as green corn and to- 
matoes can be so delayed. 

Of course, during the hottest summer 
weather there may be some difficulty 
in cropping peas ; but during such 
periods the work may be suspended, 
and resumed again afterward, or by a 
resort to irrigation, which, it is said, if 
carefully done, they will bear. 

We need not add anything of ours as 
to the cultivation of peas, because they 
are so universally grown and used 
that every intelligent gardener and 
housewife in the land is familiar with 
the process. It may, however, be not 
amiss to say that heavy recent manur- 
ing is not grateful to the pea. It thri ves 
best in a moderately rich or light soil, 
in \vhich the manure is or has been 
long previously incorporated with the 
soil. They should also be planted in 
situations somewhat protected from the 
cold spring winds. The bane of the 
pea is the "pea w^eevil," (Bruchus 
pisi ) common\y called the " pea-bug." 
If seed-peas were collected from the 
later crops, the hug might be surely 
circumvented, as it has its special sea- 
sons. This might affect the quality of 
the seed, however, and is a fit subject 
for experiment. It is very certain that 
the old mode of raising but one crop of 
peas — an early one — and gathering the 
seed from that crop, will perpetuate the 
pea-weevil indefinitely. A departure 
from this may 1)8 the true reni'Mlv for 
the bug. Of course, in the early peas 
we eat the tiny larvse without so much 
as knowing it. R. 

Live Stock Trad 15 of Ceiioago. — 
The receipts since 18(i5 have been : 

Cattle. nnqaV Hhfe^i. Total. 

ISiifi 393,^0 •97',).5I0 '20),4>() l,r)Si,550 

18(i7 :5-29,lSS LfiO:;," 8 I'-USSS 2,-2n(J,8U 

ISfiS 3-24-,ii-2.i 1.70(!,78-2 270.87.J '2.30-2,181 

],S(;9 403,103 l,(;()I.8fi9 310,072 '2,405,013 

1870 532,9(;4 1,093.658 349,s.55 '2,576,477 

1S71 .543.050 '2,380.083 315.0.53 3.'2.38,18« 

1872 648,075 3.'252,6-23 310,'21 1 4,24'),909 

1873 761,4-28 4,737,750 '291,734 5,390,91'2 

Grand Total... 1,971,951 17,709,013 '2,2j8,103 23,919,67'2 



THE LAX CASTER FARMER. 



11 



' LANCASTER, JANUARY, 1S74. 



S. S. RATHVON. Editor. 
J B. DEVt L|N, Ass't Edilorand Publisher. 

Published monthly under the au.«pices of tlie Aori- 

OULTUKAL ANdHoBTICCTLTUKAL SOOIETT. 

$1.00 per Year ««• A«lv!i»ice. $1.23 If not 
p»id in advance. 

'^ne extra co""}' to persona sending a club of ten 
subscribers, and a copy of our beautiful Steel Kn- 
gruving to eyerj subscriber. 

AU comtnunic'tions to insure insfrtion, must be 
in the liatds of the tditors belorn the Ist of each 
month. All advertisements, subscriptions and re- 
mittauce.s to th^ address of the publi.xber, 

J. H. DEVELIN, Lancaster, Pa. 







TO OUR PATRONS. 



/CIRCUMSTANCES, which wf-.-o 
V^_^ iH'yoad our control, have pre- 
vented us from luaking an earlier ap- 
pearance in 1S74. Had we based our 
action upon the slender pecuniary and 
moral support we have received in the 
l»ast, we certainly would not have felt 
ourself warriiiited in coming before the 
people ia the present and the future. 
But we cannot resist the appeals of our 
iViends, and our impulses of local pride; 
nor yet the hope — faint as it may be — 
that the citizens of Lancaster county 
will yet confe to a sense of ibe import- 
ance of sustaining" a _local agricultural 
journal among their. 

We think tho.se who decline to sub- 
scrilje, or contriltute, to the columns of 
the Farmeii, only because they can get 
so much more reading matter in jour- 
nals that are foreign to the county, do 
not only betray a want of local public 
spirit, but also lack in that charity 
which begins at home. They are aid- 
ing estal)lishraents beyond our borders 
— and who cannot be supposed to be in 
local sympathy with them — to. count 
their income by thousands, and build 
uj) |)alatial residences, whilst their home 
enterprises are suQered to languish for 
the want of the small amount of aid 
necessary to sustain them against ab- 
solute pecuniary loss, or save them from 
irr(!trievable failure. 

Suppose we can't furnish as large 
and showy a journal as they can in 
New York or I'hiladelphia; does that 
constitute a sufficient reason for the 



omission to support it by the farmers 
of Lancaster county ? What would 
we think of a father or mother who 
should discard or refuse to support 
their own sons and daughters, because 
they were not as handsome, as sharp, 
or as gaudy as the children of their 
jieighbors, or those of tlie city? We 
never expected, from the very beginning 
of our enterprise, to be able to publish 
such an excellent journal as Xha Aiv.eri- 
can Agriculturist, the Rural New 
Yorker, or the Practical Farmer; but, 
acting representatively under the aus- 
pices of our local society, and sincere 
agricultural friends, we expected suf- 
ficient moral and material support to 
furnish a journal that would be a reflex 
of the agricultural literature and mate- 
rial resources of the county, and we 
have anxiously looked forward to the 
time when some one more competent 
than we are would take hold of it, and 
devote sufficient time and energy to the 
w^ork to make it such. In our opinion 
that day will yet come, and may not be 
far off — for it is impossible that such a 
county as Lancaster should consent to 
stand still, or retrograde, when all 
around her the world is rapidly pro- 
gressing. 

Our office, for the past five years, has 
been an impecunious one, so far as our 
connection with this journal is con- 
cerned, and in many respects also a 
thankless one; but there is one I'ecom- 
pense of which no neglect, or refusal 
to patronize us, can deprive us, and 
that is our love for the work. We do 
not believe that the mere making of 
money is the highest object of human 
action, nevertheless we believe that 
"the laborer is worthy of his hire." 
The making of money, however, ought 
to be subordinate to the desire of being 
useful. Having an assurance of such 
a moral atatua, we would not exchange 
our dying couch with any mere money 
maker on earth. With these views, 
and at the solicitation of many sincere 
friends, we propose to continue the 
Farmer for another year at least, and 
hope to be able to continue it until the 
advent of our glorious Centennial An- 
nioersary of American Independence, 
an epoch in our history of which every 
farmer in the county — and the entire 



u 



THE L A J^ CASTER FARMER. 



country — ought to be proud. We have 
reduced the price to one dollar, and 
hope our etforts may be recognized l)y 
the farming public. We will send this 
number to many who may have con- 
templated its discontinuance, in hopes 
they may reconsider the matter and 
sustain us for another year. In any 
event, having our best wishes for their 
health, prosperity and happiness, we 
tender them the greeting of " a happy 
IVeio Year.'''' Ed. and Pub. 

OUR JOURNAL. 



Perhaps it is n; edless for us to in- 
form our patrons, that purely from eco- 
nomical considerations, we have been 
compelled to slightly reduce the margin 
of the Farmer, with the reduction in 
the subscription price. 

Hereafter the Lancaster Farmer 
will be published punctually on the 
15th of each month. This will enable 
us to consult our exchanges — most of 
which are pul)lished on the first of the 
month — and give us an opportunity to 
make use of selections of the current 
month. We shall also be able, by this 
arrangement, topul)!ish the proceedings 
of our local society in the same month 
in which the meetings are held; and 
not, as heretofore, sometimes a month 
or more after their tran.spiration. 

We have often thought that our Ag- 
ricultural journals are not judiciously 
di.>^tributed in their publication. TheiV 
monthly publication ought to be so al- 
ternated that some would ajipear in 
each week of the month. There are 
some readers who take from two to 
four monthlies, besides weeklies, and 
these all coming within one week pro- 
duces a surfeit of reading matter, and 
moreover are not a reflex of the very 
latest agricultural news, when read in 
the middle, or near the end of the 
month. We think this arrangement 
will be appreciated by our readers. 



MEETING OP THE LANCASTER 

COUNTY A GU [CULTURAL 

AND HORTICULTURAL 

SOCIETY. 

The regular monthly meeting of the 
Society was held in the Orphans' Court 



room, Monday, Dec. 1, 1873, Henry 
M. Engle in the chair, and Alex. Har- 
ris secretary. The reading of the min- 
utes of _the previous meeting was, on 
motion, dispensed with. 

The president having called for re- 
ports on the condition of the crops 
from members present, Israel L. Lan- 
dis stated inter alia, that the grass was 
well set and indicated a good crop for 
next summer. He also stated that a 
considerable quantity of old tobacco, 
both of last year and also of this year, 
"was yet on hand and awaiting pur- 
chasers. ' 

Milton B. Eshleman, Levi S. Rcist 
and Jacob B. Garber reported that the 
crops in the ground promised favorably 
for the coming year. 

The Society took up the question of 
organizing the Order of the Patrons of 
Husbandry, and it was discussed at 
some length by Simon P. Eby, Esq., 
H. M. Engle, Levi S. Reist and Milton 
B. Eshleman, all of whom were dis- 
posed to desire some time for further 
reflection before definitely committing 
themselves in favor of the new organi- 
zation. The subject was by consent 
continued for further discussion till the 
next meeting of the Society. 

On motion it was resolved that the 
Society meet at the Janflary meeting 
at one o'clock P. M. 

After some time spent in social in- 
tercourse the Society, on motion, ad- 
journed. 

Alexander Harris, 

Seeretarv. 



CITY AND COUNTRY LIFE. 

6 — 

THEIR INFLUENCE UPON LONGEVITY, 
MORTALITY, HEALTH, STATURE, FE- 
CUNDITY AND MORALITY. 

" Life is but developmental death." 
Very many farmers, and still a much 
larger number of villagers are under 
the influence of a sort of mania to 
locate in, and lead the life of citizens 
of a large town or city, and every year 
more or less of them are so locating 
themselves, and others are proposing to 
do so at a future day, and make this 
object only subordinate to the accumu- 
lation of a sufficiency to enable them to 
retire forever from the farm. In a 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



multitude of instances, what a cliango! 
iNoise, confusion, dust, brick walls, op- 
pressive heat, stench, enervation, dis- 
ease and death — in exchange for quie- 
tude, pure air, fresh breezes, waving- 
grain fields, sweet-scented meadows, 
blooming orchards, health and pro- 
longed life. There is a view of this 
suV)ject that perhaps few of those who 
are constantly yearning after a city 
life ever take, and that is its general 
effects upon their physical condition — 
often also involving their moral and 
financial condition. From the most 
accurate and extensive statistics, elabo- 
rated at different periods during the 
past hundred years, it has been found 
that large towns and cities have been 
emphatically the "graves of humanity," 
however undeniable it may be, that 
they are necessary for the fostering of 
commerce, arts, sciences, manufactures 
and the elegancies of human life as well 
as other social combinations. 

Do farmers and others ever reflect, 
that if all the people in the world were 
concentrated in a few cities like New 
York, Paris and London, and sub- 
jected to the same influences connected 
with the movements of population as 
they exist in those cities now, the 
whole human race would become ex- 
tinct in about one hundred and fifty 
years. In the city of London alone 
the deaths exceed the births about 
10,000 annually, and this difference 
would be even greater if it were not for 
the hundreds of thousands from the 
rural districts and abroad, who an- 
nually take up their residence in this 
great metropolis. If this supply of 
sturdy yoemanry and hale foreigners 
were cut oft", the population would 
^rapidly decline, and London would 
soon lose the distinction of being the 
largest city in the world, or that had 
ever been in the world before! This is 
the case, in a greater or less degree, 
with all large cities, wherever they may 
be located. The mortality in them, as 
compared with the country, is so great 
that if the rural population did not 
yearly pour in to swell their numbers 
their j)opulation, instead of increasing, 
would decline. 

They are like great apple mills, into 
the hoppers of which the apples are an- 



nually rolled in a stream from the coun- 
try, only to be mortally ground up and 
never heard of again. This seems like 
a terrible ordeal for humanity to choose, 
but it is nevertheless a practical faot 
capable of the most reliable statistical 
illustration. 

More children are born, in propor- 
tion to the po})ulation, in the country, 
than in the city ; and yet, twice 
as many children die every year, 
in the same i)rop()rtion, in the city as 
do in the country, and their |)laces are 
supplied by an influx from the country, 
or the population of the city would 
wane ; and this applies with nearly the 
same ratio to adults. But this is not 
all : the citizens of the country live long- 
er, enjoy better health, live better, and 
attain a greater and more healthy de- 
veloped stature and physical consti, uticn 
than the denizens of the city, according 
to their numbers. Those, therefore, 
who would live to a good old age, ancl 
hand their names down through a nu- 
merous posterity, should avoid the 
dangers of a city and choose a country 
life. The citizens of cities are well 
aware of this, and hence every one who 
can, secures himself a residence in the 
country or the suburbs, to which he re- 
tires as soon as his daily labors are 
ended, and looks to a day in the fu- 
ture when he can do so entirely. City 
railroads, running out into the country, 
furnish the facilities to reach their 
homes daily or hourly, and in this re- 
spect are blessings, for they lessen the 
mortalit}'^ in their families. But the 
expensive living, and temptations to 
vice and immorality, which prevail in 
cities, are another objection, to say 
nothing about poverty and crime. 
Tender parents who rear their child- 
ren in quiet rural homes, should think 
well upon the subject before they des- 
tine them to a city life, which, like a 
moral ogre, is waiting to devour them. 
—Ed. 



THE PKICES OF LAND. 



FROM THE FIRST SETTLEMENT OP LAN- 
CASTER COUNTY TO THE PRESENT 
TIME. 

The first settlements in Lancaster 
county were made from 1708 to 1730, 



u 



THE LAATASTE'R F.LRMER. 



and the firat seltlement was south hy 
east of Lancaster city. As a general 
thini^- lands were patented. Between 
173U and 1750, under Thomas and 
Richard Penn, the price paid for land 
was £1G,5, K), for one hundred and six 
acres. It rose gradually in price, and 
and in 1750 good limestone land sold 
at £1,000 for one hundred acres. It 
averaged that price until about 17(50. 
In 17G5 it sold somewhat higher, in 
some cases as high as £1,100 per hun- 
dred acres, and for e.xtra quality even 
higher. .About the year 1770 it sold 
from £50 to £75 lower ])er hundred 
acres, owing to the troubles with the 
mother country, which culminated in 
the Revolutionary war, but soon after 
the conclusion of the war land was 
sold by the acre. From ihis period up 
to 1790 land rose from $50 to $80 per 
acre, and continued so up to the period 
of the French Revolution in 17'J6. The 
war of 1812 with England caused an- 
other advance in the price of land, 
bringing it up to $100 per acre. In 
1815 there were upwards of three hun- 
dred distilleries hi Lancaster county, 
and land made a sudden rise from $100 
to $200 an acre. Speculation run riot, 
many new banks were 'chartered, and 
numerous bank failures occurred. The 
Marietta bank failed, and also about 
three-fourths of the people of that 
town. Many failures also took place all 
over the country. Land went down in 
price as sudden as it had gone up. From 
1820 to 1830 it sold at from $30 to $50 
an acre. The price of wheat, in the 
best part of Lancaster county, was 
from 60 cts. to $1 per bushel; corn, 25 
cts.; oats, 20 cts.; a good horse brought 
$65, and stock cattle from 1 to 2 cts. 
a pound, other things being in that pro- 
portion. From 1824 to 1827 good 
farms on the Conestoga, near Browns- 
town, were sold for $38 an acre, and 
one of the Brubaker farms, on the New 
Holland pike, near Eden, only brought 
that price. The farm now owned by 
Samuel Bausman, on the Millersville 
pike, was sold for $34 an acre, and the 
well-known farm of David M. Myers, 
on the Fruitville pike, only two miles 
from Lancaster, sold for $34 an acre. 
A great many industrious farmers who 
had bought farms at a high price lost 



I everything. In some instances, men 
who had bought lands at high prices, 
with widows' dowers, were compelled 
to leave them to the widows for their 
dowers. - From 1830 to 1838 land went 
up in price again, so that improved 
farms sold at $100 an acre. At this 
period rfpudiafion was more or less 
agitated in all the States, and Pennsyl- 
vania State loans sold as low as 33 cts. 
on the dollar. A general dissatisfac- 
tion with the Van Buren administra- 
tion brought on a panic, and dull times 
prevailed until the Mexican war, and 
the discovery of gold in California in 
1848. Good far lis were sold in the 
vicinity of Lancaster city in 1844 at 
from $70 to $S0 an acre, but after 1848 
land rose again, and in 1860 sold at 
$150 an acre. In 1866 it reached $200 
an acre, and this was about the average 
price. But land since then has come 
down again — at least $50 an acre. I 
know of three good farms adjoining 
each other, two of which were sold 
about six years ago at $240 an acre. 
The finest and best located of the three 
was put up at public sale last fall (1872 ) 
and only brought $177 an acre, being 
$66 less an acre than it cost. Good 
farms were selling last fall and this fall 
(1873) at less than $150 an acre, and 
they rarely reached $170, so that the 
average price of land in Lancaster 
county at this time cannot be consid- 
ered more than $150 an acre. There 
may be instances where land is bid up 
$50 or more beyond its average value, 
by two adjoining neighbors. The pre- 
sent value of land is a very important 
matter to our Lancaster county farmers, 
since it is said that in a new assess- 
ment their farms are to be valued at 
what they would sell for at public sale. ' 
As to the question, " What is the true 
value of a farm ?'' I would say, the esti- 
mated value of a farm ought to be ac- 
cording to the net per centage of what 
it CO// produce, or perhaps, what it 
doef^ produce. 

The real income of a farm, costing 
from $100 to $150 per acre, is seldom 
higher than from four to seven per cen- 
tum, and sometimes below those figures. 

L. S. R. 

Oregon, Jan., 18T4. 



THE LJIJ\XASTER FARMER 



15 



JAY COOKE'S CREDITORS. 



The New York Herald of Wodnes- 
dav publishes a complete list of the 
namt'x of all the creditors of the three 
banking" houses of Jay Cooke & Co., 
of PhiTadelphia, New York and Wash- 
in^ton. The total amount of indehtcd- 
nels of the three houses is $!), 802.250, 
of which amount about two millions is 
secured by collaterals, and therefore re- 
ducing- the indebtedness of the firms to 
that amount, '^fhe following is a list of 
the creditors from this county : 

PIIILADELPITIA HOUSE. 

Eshleiiian &: Eatlivon, Lancaster... ..$ 5P4 
Farmers' National Bank. Lancaster. lU.S.'iO 
First National Bank, liancastor . . . nlR 

First National Bank, Mt. Joy (5.630 

E. Ilaldeman it Co., CliicK-ics 8,804 

Inland Ins. & l>ep. Co.. Lancaster. . '2.56 

D. P. Lochcr <.t Son. Lancaster 8. .552 

Mechanics' Bank, Laiicastor 13,323 

Reed & llonderson, Lancaster 1,819 

E. K. yniith & Co., < olnnibia 11, (97 



railroad enterprises of our own county 
arc languishing- for pecuniary aid, and 
are com[)elled to seek a financial com 
bination with an odious foreign mo- 
nopoly, in order to procure the aneans to 
complete and put their euteri»rise into 
practical operation. 

There is an economic stand-point from 
which this subject may be viewed, in- 
volving- questions of financial confidence 
and individual security, but we will 
waive these for a future occasion, and 
look at the matter now in relation to 
its effects upon the industrial interests 
of our highly favored coutlt3^ In short, 
Lancaster county has mines of untold 
weaMi buried in its earthly bowels, on 
its fertile surface, and in its industrial 
occupations, Avhich are destined to re- 
main undeveloped, because its monied 
citizens, l)iinded by foreign remunera- 
tive expectations, utterly fail to appre- 
hend the more profitable home invest- 
ments by which they are surrounded. 



W. IT. Plahler. Columbia '. . . 1,976 "l>oes heaven's lightning slumber 



Mo.ses Geisenberger, Lancaster .527 

Cieo. M . Steinman, Lancaster 4,137 

E. K. Smith, Columbia 365 

NEW YOllK HOUSE. 

Bair & Shenk, Lancaster 9,242 

Stehnian, Clarkson & Co 3,901 

Inl-and Ins. & Deposit t'ompany. . . . 997 



" Grand" Total S83 594 

Making a total of $83,594 locked up 
and unavailable in these two banking 
houses alone, from this county. 

We find the al)ove going the rounds 
of the newspaper press of the country. 
Under any circumstances, it is a sad com- 
mentar}'' on the fallibility of our gigan- 
tic financial institutions, and the mis- 
placed confidence of our smaller ones. 
Rut, viewed as a matter of poi uniary 
loss to Lancaster city and county, 
there is a still more disastrous and dis- 
creditable phase of the subject. Only 
about one-half of the trutli has been 
told in this respect. If we are not in- 
formed erroneously, more than the 
amount indicated by the above figures 
has been lost, or indefinitely sus- 
pended, in subscriptions to the stock of 
the "Northern Pacific Railroad," main- 
ly by the farmers of Lancaster county. 
Tens of thousands of dollars have been 



that they can think such financial sin- 
ning will not ultimately be pursued 
and overcome with that disaster which 
has always characterized the irrational 
greed for . pecuniary gain, wlien in- 
dulged in at the expense of local pros- 
perity ? We are credibly informed that 
fift_y thousand dollars were invested in 
North Pacific stock by the citizens of 
a single township in this county, not 
one of which, perhaps, had a single 
dollar in any home enterprise, or would 
have loaned their money on a six per 
cent, real estate mortgage, to any of 
their enterprising neighbors. Of course, 
they can do as they please " with their 
own," in a social and civil sense ; but, 
nevertheless, "there is a divinity that 
shapes our ends, rough hew them as 
we will." Communities ;ire bound 
together by a bond of common .sym- 
pathy and a chain of reciprocal rela- 
tions ; and when we adulterously yearn 
for the more alluring " llesh-])uts" from 
abroad, and neglect or ignctre our own 
home obligations, we do it at our finan- 
cial peril. 

" United States Ranks," " Oil Spec- 
ulations," and "Northern Pacifies," 
have at various periods made large 
draughts upon the pecuniary blood and 
sweat of our county, and through the 



freely subscribed toward these high 

sounding foreign stocks, whilst the 1 gilded baits held out by these our 



16 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



wheat crops have been suffered to 
dwindle down from forty to twenty 
bushels an acre; our minerals largely 
undeveloped for the want of conve- 
nient and expeditious transportation, 
and our industrial enterprises crippled 
or enfeebled. \N'hy will the citizens 
of this county continue to place more 
conridence in persons and things out of 
its Vxjrders — and of which they perhaps 
know nothing but the names — and re- 
pose so little confidence in things within 
it, merely because they do not make 
the same fallacious ^jrom/^^.s to pay^ 

We need a consolidated and incor- 
porated agricultural organization; a 
commodious agricultural hall and 
exchange; a properly arranged mu- 
seum of agricultural productions and 
model implements; flourishing agricul- 
tural exhibitions, and an ably conducted 
and liberally supported agricultural 
journal. But these things, so neces- 
sary to home prosperity and the devel- 
ojjment of our social relations and af- 
finities, may go begging, whilst we 
are wasting our energies and our means 
on selfish and prospective expectations 
— in golden phantoms, thousands of 
miles away, that never may be realized. 

ANNUAL ADDRESS 
Read before the Agricultural and Hor- 
ticultural Society, Jan. 5ih, 1874. 



BY H. M. ENGLE. 



Gentlemen : — Another annual of our 
Society's work is finished — we now say 
A. D., 1874. A bountiful Providence 
has continued to smile upon us. Since 
our last annual meeting, aothing unto- 
ward has befallen us, either as a com- 
munity, State, or nation. If our gar- 
ners are not overflowing, they are still 
amply sufficient for all our reasonable 
wants. Epidemics have been confined 
to a few sections of our wide domain. 
The financial panic, which at one time 
threatened to overwhelm us, is steadil}' 
calming down, so that from present in- 
dications, business of all kinds may be 
expected to soon run smoothly in Its 
legitimate channels again. The farmers 
crop prospects, at the present time, 
promise reasonably fair — in our section 
at least. 



The question naturally arising on this 
occasion is, " How has the business of 
our Agricultural and Horticultural So- 
ciety been progressing daring the past 
year?" We may say, peidiaps, "quite 
smoothly," but I fear too much so to 
accomplish the end for which it was 
organized. 1 regret, deeply regret — to 
state the fact that the active interest 
which, manifested in its earlier history, 
has to a great extent subsided ! Not, 
however, from a want of members, but 
from a lack of active interest in its af- 
fairs. There seems to be a want of 
interest in the business of the society, 
when members habitually drop in near 
the close of its meetings— abruptly leave 
the room in the midst of the reading of 
essays, or obtrude their faces within the 
door, and then precipitately retreat, as 
if they feared a contagion. The excuse, 
I am infurmed, is, that our meetings 
are not sutficiently interesting to occupy 
their attention. This, it seems to me, 
is an exceedingly selfish excuse. Is it 
reasonable for members to expect to be 
interested in the proceedings of a 
Society to which they contribute little 
or nothing to make interesting? Is it 
charitable to be always looking for 
light from others, whilst we hide our 
own light " under a bushel ?" To such 
we would say, please bring some matter 
with you, which, in your opinion, 
would be interesting and valuable for 
others to know, and our word for it, 
you will not see the regularly attending 
members abruptly leaving the room, 
while you are communicating it. 

Now, 1 am not one of those who des- 
pondingiy abandon a cause, as lost, 
when things seem to drag heavily 
along ; for the very best causes have 
had their fluctuations— their brighter 
and their darker days — and it may be 
so with us. 

I would therefore earnestly admon- 
ish those members who have hitherto 
stood shoulder to shoulder together in 
our cause not to desert it now. It is a 
noble and useful cause, and one that 
interests the larger portion of the hu- 
man family. 

When I observe the active work 
done by similar societies in different 
parts of our country, I dare not for a 
moment believe that the cause of agri^ 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



17 



culture and horticulture will be per- 
mitted to trail ia the dust in the "gar- 
den of the Ke3'stone State." Allow 
nie here to propose a worthy object — a 
stimulus to future energy and action. 

Two years hence there will be held 
in Philadelphia the Centennial Anni- 
versary of our National Independence. 
On that occasion there will be the 
greatest exposition of our industrial 
productions held that has ever been 
held in this or any other country. 

There will be an opportunity to 
place our industrial productions on ex- 
hibition, and to compete not only with 
other sections of our own country, but 
also with the entire world. Then let 
us all, with the auspicious opening of 
this Neiv Year, set out with intent to 
carry off some prize at the approaching 
Universal Exhibition. It would be a 
burning shame and a perpetual blot 
upon our escutcheon if the great county 
of Lancaster should fail to have an 
honorable representation and record in 
the industrial annals of 1876. 

In conclusion, let us congratulate 
ourselves with what this Society has 
thus far achieved, but flatter ourselves 
with what is yet to be accomplished 
infinitely more. 

I have been uninterruptedly con- 
nected with this Society from its first 
organization up to the present hour. 
You have honored me for a series of 
years with the highest position in our 
Society, for which you will please ac- 
cept my sincerest acknowledgments. 
Under all the circumstances, fortunate 
or adverse, I have done the best I 
knew how in the discharge of my offi- 
cial and other duties pertaining to the 
cause of agriculture — a cause, I trust, 
we all hold dear, notwithstanding our 
apparent apathy. I may have erred in 
many things, but I feel conscious that 
my errors have been inadvertent or 
unintentional. I have been influenced 
y no motive higher than the general 
progress of our cause in the county and 
the country. But it has occurred to 
mc that a younger and more active 
man, placed in my position, would in- 
fuse new vigor into our Society, and 
place it on a higher or more active 
working plane than it has heretofore 
occupied. Relying upon your concur- 



rence in my suggestions in this respect, 
I cheerfully, and without the least hesi- 
tation, most rftspectfully decline a renom- 
ination, in behalf of any member it may 
please the Society to elect in my stead ; 
and, with an unabated interest in the 
welfare of our S(ici.ety, I bid you adieu 
as your president. 



MEETING OF THE HORTICUL- 
TURAL SOCIETY. 



The Lancaster count}^ Agricultural 
and Horticultural Society held its Jan- 
uary meeting in the Orphans' Court 
Room, January 5th, LST4, at 1 o'clock. 

Mr. Johnson Miller, of Warwick, de- 
livered an address. Subject, " Our So- 
ciety — what it is, and what it ought to 
be." 

Casper Hiller endorsed the views of 
Mr. Miller, and spoke at some length 
of the advantage this society had been 
to the farmers of the county, in dis- 
seminating information among them 
wliich aided in procuring a better 
knowledge of agriculture and horticul- 
ture. Messrs. Peter S. Reist and H. 
M. Engle also spoke upon the subject. 

Mr. Engle next read his valedictory, 
upon the close of his official term as 
President of the society. The address 
was a most excellent one, and was at- 
tentively listened to. 

Election of officers being next in or- 
der, nominations were made and ballots 
taken, resulting in the choice of the fol- 
lowing : 

President — Johnson Miller. 

Vice Presidents — Henry M. Engle, 
Levi S. Reist, Calvin Cooper, Milton 
B. Eshleinan. 

Secretary — Alexander Harris. 

Corresponding Secretarv — Casper 
Hiller. 

Treasurer — Dr. P. W. Hiestand. 

Entomologist — ''. S. Rathvon. 

Botanist— Jacob Staufter. 

Librarian — Simon P. Eby, Esq. 

Mr. Samuel Jienedict, city, received 
a hearty vote of thanks for presenting 
to the society very fine specimens of 
the following variety of pears: Vicar 
of Winkfield, Beurre d' Anjou, Winter 
Nelis. Beurre Diehl, Beurre Clairgeau 
and Lawrence. 

On motion, the Society adjourned. 



18 



TEE LANCASTER FARMER. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



OUR LOCAL ENTERPRISES. 



THE farmers' northern market — AN 

EXHIBIT OF THE RESULT OF THE FIRST 
year's EXPERIMENT — THE PROSPECTS 

FOR THE CURRENT YEAR THE INCOME 

AND EXPENDITURES — THE CONCEU- 
SIONS RKACHEi> BY PRESIDENT EVANS 

MORE MARKET HOUSES A PUBLIC 

WANT, ETC., ET(;. 

The following report of David Evans, 
President ofthe Farmers' Nortlieru Mar- 
ket Company, presented to the stock- 
holders, giving- as it does the history of 
the result of the experiment of a new 
enterprise in our local history, possesses 
sufficient points of interest to justify 
us in laying it before our readers. The 
question of additional and better mar- 
kets is one which interests every citizen; 
and while there is reasonably enough, a 
wide difference of opinion as to where 
these additional facilities should be 
located and by what means they shall 
be erected, any recital of facts calculat- 
ed to throw additional light on the sub- 
ject cannot fail to interest our readers, 
whether they are in favor of a central 
market, under ccmtrol of the city, or in- 
dividual enterprises on the plan of 

THE farmers' NORTHERN MARKET. 

To the Stockholders of the Farmers^ 
Northern. Market Compantj .• 
Gentlemen : In accordance with a 
usual custom prevailing among corpo- 
rate associations, I deem it proper to 
present to you a report on the condition 
of the company in which you have an 
interest, and whose prosperity you feel 
anxious to promote. 

It is claimed by those who have expe- 
rience in bu Iding that ours is one of the 
finest, most substantial and cheapest of 
its kind — even Philadelphia markets not 
affording more and better conveniences. 
Many words of praise are heard in its 
favor, spoken by those who feel a pride 
in improvements of a necessary charac- 
ter, and in favor of those who took an 
active part in its erection. It is but due 
to say, that while a generous liberality 
was shown by the citizens of our city in 
subscribing toward raising the amount 
for undertaking such an enterprise, the 



aid afforded by men of wealth, outside 
of the city, contributed materially and 
mainly to its success. The first steps 
were successfully taken. There was 
some doubt as to the next, after the 
building was completed. What the re- 
sult in the renting of the stalls would be 
was yet to be learned. Upon it de- 
pended the prospects or disappointment 
of the stockholders. The result was a 
gratifying one, and gave assurance of 
good, ultimate recompense for this out- 
lay of their money. So great was the 
confidence inspired by the first sale of 
stalls that the remaining unsubscribed 
stock, amounting to about fifteen thou- 
sand dollars, was at once taken by three 
stockholders. 

It is, therefore, a source of pleasure 
that, with a few exceptions, such as are 
incident to a new measure by reason of 
its novelty, and a want of correct and 
matured conclusions on the part of those 
at the head of it, it can be stated that 
fully as good results were realized as 
could be expected at the outstart, and 
that the results will apparently be bet- 
ter each successive year until the stock 
will be a uniformly profitable source of 
income. 

As an evidence of progress we would 
cite the fact, that at the first renting of 
stalls in November, 1872, 133 were 
taken and 1 1 9 left unrented ; at the 
last renting 142 Avere taken, and since 
35 more. The whole number rented 
from April last up to date is lit. The 
number unrented is 75. The amount 
realized from the first rentals was $1,- 
019.25; received from last rental, $2,- 
904. The difference in the numlier of 
stalls rented at the last sale and that of 
the first is 44, and in excess of income 
of $1,884.75. It will be seen that the 
average rental of stalls at the last sale 
is $19.64 per year; average yearly 
rental of stalls at first sale $18.3(5. The 
difference between the two rentals 
shows a gain of $1,28 per still. This 
increase will appear still more favorable 
when the fact is stated, that at the first 
sale the proportion of butchers' stalls 
to the whole number sold was greater 
than at the last one, and that 35 sold 
since the day of public sale are includ- 
ed in the average of last sales. The 
income from stalls and cellar up to 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER 



19 



April 1873, was $1,076,41 ; from April 
1873 to April 1874, if no more will be 
sold, is $3.246.V)6. From this last es- 
timate it will be seen that there was 
an average monthly income from stalls 
and cellar "of $215.28 up to April 1873 ; 
since that the average monthly income 
was $270.58 — this comparative state- 
ment showing a monthly excess over 
the same time prior to April 1873, of 
$55 30. 

For a full and accurate statement of 
receipts and expenditures for the year, 
you are referred to the repoi't of the 
treasurer. The total amount of re- 
ceipts as reported by him have been as 
follows : 

Loajis on (i per cent, mortgage $17,000 00 

note 1,100 00 

Fi-om stall rents 3,01i 00 

" former Treasurer 378 44 

" cellar 314 38 

" City of Lancaster for repairs 191 00 

" sale of stones, iron, etc 44 91 

Total amount of receipts $22,040 73 

BXPENDITURE8. 

For pavment of loans, discount and in- 
terest $17,85183 

For furnishing goods and materials 

for finishing 1,240 19 

For gas for lighting house 429 44 

" taxes and rents. 23:! 66 

" labor and repairs , 263 67 

" dividends to stockholders, 3 per ct. 1,4.'55 00 

" janitor 13 months 325 Oi 

" Treasurer and Secretary for term 

expiring Jan. 1873 ($100 each) 200 00 

" Treasurer and Secretary for term 

expiring Jan. 1874 ($100 each) 200 00 

" official and professional services. . 86 00 

" stationery and printing 54 64 

" fuel 17 25 

Total amount of expenditiircs $22,356 68 

Excess of expenditures over receipts.. $315 95 

It may not be amiss to make an ap- 
proximate estimate of income and ex- 
penses for the coming year. Excepting 
a small contingent fund, and for insur- 
ance, it may be presented as follows : 

Interest on debt of $17,000, at 6 per cent.$ 1,020 00 

Expenses for gas 4(iO 00 

" " Janitor , 300 00 

" " Treasurer 100 00 

" " Secretary 100 00 

" " taxes and rents 225 00 

" " balance due Treasurer. . 315 95 

" " dividends unpaid 45 00 

Total amount estimated expenses.! 2,505 95 

ESTIMATED IKCOMB. 

stall rents now due $ 103 00 

Kents from stalls, estimated at average 

rental of last year 4,514 48 

Kestanrant 385 74 

Total amonnt estimated income... $ 5,003 22 

Leaving a balance for distribution 
among stockholders of $2,497.27, mak- 



ing a dividend of about 5 per cent, on 
the capital stock of $50,000 ; or a divi- 
dend of 3 per cent, and the reduction 
of the debt of about $1,000. 

Though the income has not been as 
large as it could be desired, nor so 
much so as to make the stock an imme- 
diate source of profit to the stockhold- 
ers, two facts may be noticed in the 
foregoing part of the r^jort, which 
should satisfy them that the investment 
is good, and that it will be very profita- 
ble in a few a years. 

It was above shown that a dividend 
of 3 per cent, was declared in last April, 
and that the stalls were taken at an ad- 
vanced rental. Few enterprises afford 
a dividend so soon after commencing 
business. Turnpikes and railroads sel- 
dom do it, as also others that produce 
a more immediate income. 

By careful management and proper 
economy in the affairs of the company, 
we may not only expect an income of 
5 per cent., but ten, or even more. For 
why should not as much be realized 
proportionally from our market house as 
from those in Reading and Columbia, 
which nett a dividend to the stockhold- 
ers of 15 per cent, and even as much as 
20 per cent. ? 

How or when such a gratifying re- 
sult will be reached, it is not possible to 
say. But the time will come when the 
stockholders here will receive the same 
profit as they do now in other places 
from the same kind of investment. It 
cannot be reached in a day nor by any 
one particular plan. Fixed habits, es- 
tablished customs and concurrent preju- 
dices must first be removed, and patience 
exercised in the effort. But one means 
to establish it securely (and perhaps the 
only one to do it) will be when purcha- 
sers prefer to do their marketing in 
houses and encourage the erection of 
more. It may be a matter for consid- 
eration with the next board whether 
there may not be a retrenchment of ex- 
penses in way of reduction in the sala- 
ries of the janitor and secretary. These 
officers need devote but a small portion 
of their time to the work for which they 
are employed. The secretary could well 
perform his duties for $50, and the jani- 
tor could serve for $200. 

As soon as pecuniary circumstance^ 



20 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



will permit, the company cannot make 
a better outlay than by appropriating a 
few hundred dollars in aiding the con- 
struction of a sewer along the market 
house. Such a structure is necessary 
to carry off the filth that accumulates 
on the street on market days, as well as 
for necessary uses in connection with 
the restaurant under the building. I 
would also propose to the next board 
the importance of changing the day 
market to Tuesday and Friday morn- 
ings. This change would afford market 
facilities five times a week, and conse- 
quently should be acceptable to the cit- 
izens, because fresh provisions could be 
procured almost daily. It would also 
draw a new class of buyers to our 
market. Those living about the center 
of the city, and ^n the other side, nat- 
urally make their purchases at the most 
convenient place, if the markets are on 
the same day. If there should be mar- 
ket on different days, a part of the pop- 
ulation living in those parts would 
make some of their purchases at our 
market. This statement has already 
])een verified by the large supplies pro- 
duced and extensive purchases made at 
our evening market. 

Thus far, in this report, I have con- 
fined myself to a statement of matters 
bearing a relation to the stockholders 
only, and in the light of pecuniary ad- 
vantage. There is, however, another 
relation in which our enterprise may be 
viewed. The citizens in general have 
an interest in it, inasmuch as it is the 
first of a number of houses aiming to 
bring the necessaries of life within a 
nearer distance to the large majority of 
the citizens. There is not now a city, 
to my knowledge, where buyers have 
to go so far to do their marketing, and 
where the inconveniences are so great 
on the market grounds as here. The 
obstruction of the streets and pave- 
ments, the inappropriateness of having 
the nicest butter and choicest fruits ex- 
posed for sale along the gutter, and the 
fatigue and exposure incident to mar- 
keters and buyers are certainly not pref- 
erable to a place where everything is 
arranged for the convenience and com- 
fort of both buyer and .seller. Public 
sentiment cannot much longer remain 
indifferent on this matter. There is now 



need of two more such houses as ours 
to accommodate suitably all the people 
that attend our markets. It is reason- 
able to believe that if the accommoda- 
tions were adequate our country people, 
in , increased numbers, would attend 
market here, and from choice select such 
a place to sell. 

The city will not lose anything in way 
of revenues, for the taxes on our market 
house the last year were $186.75 on a 
space of 94 feet by 245 feet. There will 
rather be a gain to the city, since the 
increase of taxes on adjoining improve- 
ments will be correspondingly great. 
The property along the streets where 
the markets are now held will not de- 
cline in value ; for Market street proper- 
ty in Philadelphia is not less valuable 
since the removal of the markets from 
that street. And such is the case in 
other places. 

We then can rest satisfied with the 
assurance that our enterprise will not 
only prove an advantage to a private 
few, but also to the public many. 
Respectfully submitted, 

David Evans, President. 

Lancaster, Jan. 12, 1874. 

ABOUT SWEET POTATOES. 



The New York Evening Post says : 
The trade in this city in sweet potatoes 
is a business of much greater extent 
than is generally supposed, and but few 
consumers know the chief source of the 
supply, which is continued throughout 
the winter. The manner of preserving 
the potatoes is also a process of consid- 
erable interest, with which many deal- 
ers, even, are not acquainted. 

The bulk of the supply is sold under 
the name of Delaware potatoes, and it is 
compionly supposed that most of them 
come from Delaware. In fact, however, 
the quantity obtained from Delaware is 
comparatively small, and is confined to 
a short season. Sweet potatoes begin 
to arrive here from Norfolk, Va., about 
the middle of September, but the amount 
is small until the first of October. Dur- 
ing October and November the supply 
is heavy, the greatest part coming from 
Virginia and New Jersey, while some 
are obtained from Delaware and Mary- 
land. After the first of December nearly 



THE LAJYCASTER FARMER. 



21 



all the sweet potatoes in the market are 
brought from New Jersey, although 
they are sold under the name of Dela- 
wares. Some are also obtained from 
South Carolina and Florida, l)ut these 
are very few and of poor quality. , 

The great sources of the winter sup- 
ply are Gloucester and Salem counties, 
!P^ew Jersey, on the borders of the Dela- 
ware, which are said to furnish more 
than three-fourths of all the sweet pota- 
toes received in this city and Philadel- 
phia during the winter season. The 
quantity received in this city from the 
1st of October to the 1st of December, 
including the supply from all sources, is 
said to average two thousand barrels a 
day, of which a large proportion is re- 
shipped to the East and West. In the 
winter the supply averages two thou- 
sand barrels per week, of which at least 
three-fourths are consumed in this city. 

The winter shipments continue with 
out diminution till about the 1st of 
April. The average wholesale price 
last winter was $4 per barrel, while 
now it is $6, which tends to check the 
consumption. 

The preservation of sweet potatoes 
in good condition through the winter is 
a task which, although often attempted 
elsewhere, has alone been successfully 
accomplished in the counties of New 
Jersey before mentio;ied, and in the 
neighboring region. There the farmers 
store their potatoes in two story frame 
buildings, er(*eted for the purpose, 
where they are piled in l)ins, which hold 
about a hundred barrels each. The 
capacity of a storehouse is from six 
hundred to one thousand barrels. Noth- 
ings is put in or over the bin.s to aid in 
preserving the potatoes, but the build- 
ing is kept perfectly dry and at a steady, 
moderate temperature. In cold or 
damp weather a fire is maintained in a 
stove on the first floor, but this is suf- 
fered to go out when the weather is dry 
and warm. By this simple process the 
potatoes are kept through the winter in 
such excellent condition that often less 
than a peck is spoiled out of twelve 
hundred barrels. Even when a potato 
has begun to rot, the warmth of the 
storehouse dries it up, and the decay 
does not extend. 

Precisely the same plan has been 



tried in Monmouth county, N. J., and 
its neighborhood, yet from some undis- 
covered peculiarity in the potatoes they 
raised, it has never been successful. 
The only way in which thft farmers in 
that region can keep any through the 
winter is by packing them between 
layers of, sand which has been baked 
dry in an oven. Even with this 
method, out often barrels stored in the 
autumn but three or four are usually 
taken out sound in the spring. 

HOW ONE LADY MANAGES. 



Mrs. A. M. S writes : A reader of 
Hearth and Home, in a quiet village 
in Vermont, wishes to give her ideas 
on the subject of domestic arrangement. 
It has become extreme^ difficult in the 
countr}' as well as in town, to find girls 
who will do house-work, while strong, 
able girls stay at home doing fancy 
work and complaining that they can 
not compete with men in the learned 
professions. I do not think it is be- 
cause they are afraid of being put down 
or " snubbed," not they; I often hear 
them say they would as willingly do 
house-work as anything else, if they 
could know when it was done, and 
what the day's duties are to be. Shop 
girls work a certain number of hours 
and then do what they please. Why 
cannot house-work be arranged so as 
to give them the same privileges? I 
would try a plan like this, which has 
always been my practice whenever I 
have help. I do up the morning work 
after breakfast Monda}'^ morning, while 
the girl goes about the washing. I 
always get the dinner on that day un- 
assisted, if it is only a dinner of bread 
and butter, with coffee and a pie. The 
girl rests awhile before tea, which she 
gets. I always take care of parlor, 
sitting-room, and my own chamber and 
children's room; also change the table 
linen when it is necessary, and once a 
week count spoons, forks, etc., used in 
the dining-room. I make all the cake, 
puddings and extra side dishes. The 
girl makes the bread, pies, tea and 
coffee, cooks the vegetables and all the 
meat. She doQs the plain ironing and 
mends the children's garments. I iron 
my starched things, and do my own 



^^ 



THE L A jy CASTER FARMER. 



aad my husband's mending. She 
takes care of the pantries, kitchen, her 
own room and spare chambers. With 
work thus arranged, there is no chance 
for collision or complaint. 

The girl does her work quickly that 
she may have time to herself, and after 
she has done her allotted tasks I should 
quite as soon think of asking a neigh- 
bor to do my tasks as to call on her. 
If a good feeling is maintained and a 
good girl kindly treated, she will of 
course help her mistress whenever help 
is needed. I never have trouble with 
help, except on account of incompe- 
tence, and girls all say " what au easy 
place to work in." There is blame 
resting on somebody, that girls, and 
women, too, are so given to inaccuracy, 
and know so little of what must be the 
business of their whole life — hou^e 
work. Young men may well be afraid 
of marrying. Instead of a strong, re- 
solute wife to make their house a true 
home, how many men find themselves 
burdened with a woman who knows 
nothing of what she has undertaken to 
do, and after repeated mistakes and 
failures and disappointments, she turns 
to servants for help, only to find many 
of them as incompetent as herself. 
Yet home is woman's kingdom and her 
best opportunity, and to know how to 
make it comfortable and charming is a 
rare accomplishment. 

FRUIT CULTURE. 

The increasing demand annually for 
fine fruit is stimulating attention in the 
Middle Atlantic States to the planting 
out of orchards of every variety. The 
peach and the pear, particularly, are 
being planted out in vast numbers, es- 
pecially on the eastern shore of Mary- 
land, and in some of the counties on 
the tide-water of Virginia the great 
facilities of reaching the principal mar- 
kets is inducing the increased effort. 
One of the largest growers of the peach 
in the United States, if not in the 
world, is Colonel Wilkins, of Kent 
county, Maryland, and he, within a 
year or two, has planted out 15,000 
trees of one variety alone — the Early 
Batrice — supposed to be one of the 
earliest and best varieties of this valu- 
able fruit. Increased attention is also 



directed to the smaller fruits, and those 
near the city markets are well remu- 
nerated for all the strawberries, grapes, 
cherries, raspberries, etc., they can fur- 
nish to the denizens of our cities. The 
winter management of the latter (the 
raspberry) is thus recommended by the 
Germantown Telegi-aph, which says 
that the Clarke, the Philadelphia, the 
Early Purple, the Common Red, tlie 
Wild Blackcaps, the Aliens, the Cata- 
wissa and generally the Hudson River 
Antwerp do not require laying down. 
The Hornet, Brickie's Orange, Fastloff 
do. The Catawissa is principally valu- 
able for its second crop, and, in order to 
get this to its utmost extent, cut down 
this year's canes to the ground and 
cover the stocks with a good coat of 
manure. In the spring fork this in, and 
you will have raspberries from the 20th 
of August to the end of October gen- 
erally, of a quality which all ought to 
enjoy, as this variety is the true repre- 
sentation in flavor of the family. 

Every nurseryman has heard the 
complaint, " I never have any luck 
with cherries." And why? Simply 
because you planted them in a cold 
clay, and possibly where the water lies 
about the roots. If by any chance 
such trees happen to live a short time, 
the moment they begin to look sickly 
the ground is carefully worked and 
manure applied in the most lavish man- 
ner — ^just what the trees do not want at 
all. To succeed well cherries need a 
light soil ; at least not a very heavy 
clay, and above all don't cultivate high- 
ly. The best results are usually ob- 
tained from cherry trees which are let 
alone. If they need any assistance 
just apply a little stimulating compost 
over the surface of the ground, and do 
not stir the soil around them. Bursting 
of the bark and kindred diseases are 
caused in most cases by a rich soil and 
too much attention. 

In our December number of the Far- 
mer, p. 248, we copied an article on 
"salt," which ought to have been cred- 
ited to the Germantown Telegraph, it 
appears. How it happened, or just who 
is to blame, is more than we are able to 
determine, nevertheless, we do not hes- 
itate to make the amende honorable. 



THE LAMVASTER FARMER. 



23 



Pumpkins for Stock. — The different 
opinions of farmers as to the value of 
pumpkins for mileh cows and other 
stock, is believed to be the result of dif- 
ferent ways of feeding them, by a cor- 
respondent of the Germantown Tele- 
graph. In a hurry to clean a field, 
farmers will g-ive their cattle a surfeit 
of pumpkins for a day or two, then for 
a day or two perhaps none, and thus 
alternate feasts and fasts, and conclude 
pumpkins are worthless. The writer 
gives regularly, as long as they last, 
once a day, from one to three pumpkins 
per head, never more,. and finds them 
greatly conducive to health of stock, 
besides greatly increasing the quantity 
and quality of the butter made. 

BOOK AND SPECIAL NOTICE 
DEPAHlMENT. 

Mr. James J. H. Gregory, of Marblehead, 
Mass.. aims to supply one great want which 
many a good farmer, when too late, has felt 
to his keen sorrow : Garden Seed that know 
how to come up ; and when the crop is 
gathered proves to be just the kind the label 
said they were. Mr. Gregory is one of the 
few seedsmen in the United States who grows 
a large portion of the ?eed he sells, and he 
gets o>it a live Catalogue, as would be ex- 
pected of the original introducer of the Hub- 
bard Scpiash. His advertisement will be 
found in this number. His Illustrated Cata- 
logue will be sent/?-ec to all applicants. 

We are indebted to Geo. W. Childs' of 
the Philadelphia Ledger, for a copy of his 
va'uable Almanac, We appreciate its an 
nual visit. 

Petkrson's Magazine for February is 
chuck full of good things for the ladies. No 
one desirous of keeping up the fashions can 
do without it. Chas. 3. Peterson, 306 Ches 
nut street, Philadelphia, publisher. 

American Sunday-Schooi. Worker. — 
The January number of this vigorous and 
thoroughly evangelical journal is on our ta- 
ble. Being a nonsectarian journal and 
committed to the International Series of 
Lessons for 1874, it presents valuable help 
to Sunday school teachers and parents. 
Its blackboard exercises are simple and 
practical. Sample copies and club rates will 
be sent on application to the puV)]isher, J. 
AV. Mclntyre, No. 4 South Fifth tt.. St. 
Louis, Mo. 

Struggle for Existence and the House 
on the FIeights ,are the titles of the latest 
novels from the press of II. N. McKinney, 
& Co., 725 Sanson St., Philadelphia. The 



former is from the pen of Auber Forestier, 
and is written in her usual good style. 

The latter is from the pen of that 'well 
known Philadelphia novel writer, Harriet 
B. McKeever. It is very readable and inter- 
esting'. All lovers of novels will find in 
these books some good moral lessons which 
if practiced must result beneficially. These 
books are finely printed and most elegantly 
bound, makiu!>' an ornament to the library, 
and that i.s worth having. 

Wood's Household Magazine for Janu- 
ary contains a lavish supply of first-rate 
articles. It is now in its fourteenth volume, 
aiid every year has increased its popularity 
and added new friends to its lar.gc list of ad- 
mirers. Though retaining its old name, it 
has not the slightest connection with its 
former proprietor, but has for many months 
been the exclusive property of .Mr. S. K. 
Shutes, its present publisher. H V. Os- 
borne (Tenoroon) still continues as its editor 
and is the onh^ person employed in that ca- 
pacity — giving to the ma^'azine not a care- 
less supervision, but direct personal atten- 
tion in every department. The magazine is 
improving constantly, ar.d is splendidly 
adapted to the members of the household. 
The present number contains thrue engrav- 
ings and other good things in proportion. 

Price of magazine one dollar per year — 
with chromo Yo-Semite. one dollar and a 
half. Address Wood's Household Magazine, 
Newburgh, N. Y. 

Practical Farmer. Rural New York- 
er, The Albio.v (a British colonial literary 
weekly). National Live Stock Journal, 
Telegraphto Messenger, The Japan M.^tL, 
Journal' of the Farm, Pen and Plow, 
Scientific American, N.-vtional RelieB" 
Journal. — Elegantly illustrated quartos for 
January, 1874, have been received, contain- 
inir so abundantly that species of knowledge 
which many minds crave, but neglect to ob- 
tain, and of which we ourselves on the pre- 
sent occasion can only announce the title. 

Also the Penn Monthly, Gardener's 
Monthly, Laws of Life, octavos of the 
same date, and whose names alone have be- 
come so popular and so familiar, that little 
else from us is needed in their behalf. 

Germantown Telegraph Farmers' Club, 
Colorado Homestead. Ocoee Register, 
and other weekly folios. " too numerous to 
mention." also duly received, and, through 
the columns of all the.se, more or less " ligld 
is soxonfor the righteous." 

James J. H. Gregory's " Annual circular 
and Retail catalogue of warranted vegeta- 
ble and flower seeds," for 1874, has been re- 
ceived. 

Also Vice's Catalogur of flowering 
plants for 1874, and Dreer's Garden CaI/- 



^Jf 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



KNDKR, most majjnificent affairs; Evan's 
Catalogue of field and garden seeds; Lan- 
Dis & Pkgan's Catalogue of Rocky Moun- 
tain specialties and that little hijou, Lan- 
dreth's Rural Register and Almanac for 
1874; beside sundry other wholesome literary 
morsels. 

Rocky Mountain Silver Spruce, the 
most beautiful tree in America; Round Cac- 
tus, Mountain Sunflower, Painters' Brush, 
Pike's Peak Columbine, and other Rocky 
Mountain specialties. For discriptive cata 
logue and price list of seed, address Landis 
& Fegan, Denver, Colorado. Special rates 
to nurserymen and dealers. 



PHILADELPFTIA MARKETS. 

Philadelphia. Jan. 19- — Cloverseed un- 
changed, at d^U(aJ Mc. 

Timothy held at S3.no. Flaxseed at $2.25. 

Flour inactive. Superfine, ^■5.2.5@5.75 ; 
extras at !iJ6(rf 6.75 ; spring wheat extra 
family at .S7.30@8.-25 ; winter, ^7 50@8.37i; 
high grades, S8.5(l@l(i 50. 

Rj'e flour and Cornmeal unchanged. 

Wheat— red, S1.60@165, amber at Sl.'75 
@1.80, No. Spring, ^1.61(«;1.G3 ; No. 2, 
^1.50. Rye 95c. Corn dull. 

NEW YORK PRODUCE MARKETS. 
New York, Jan. 19. 

A SUES — Are quiet and steady at $6 75@ 
$1 for pots. 

Flour, &c. - The flour market is quiet and 
■without any decided change in price. Mar- 
ket generally rules in bujers' favor, and in 
some instances slight concessions are made 
to close out lots Sales 9200 barrels., $6@ 
$6 30 for superfine Western and State ; $6.- 
7i'@$7 for common to good extra Western 
and Sta,te ; ,f 7.05@.4i;7.40 for good to choice 
do.; $7.4(l@,$8 for common to choice white 
wheat Western extra ; .1ffi.80@.f8.20 for com 
men to good extra Ohio; l|(>75@,^il for 
common to choice extra St. Louis, the mar- 
ket closing dull. 

Southern flour is moderately active anJ 
without material change in price. Sales of 
600 barrels at $6 35@.$8 for common to fair 
extra, and $8.05(7/;.$ 11 for good to choice 
do. Rye flour is steady. Sales of oOO bbls. 
at .f4.75(o S5.90. Corn Meal is firm. Sales 
of 400 bbls. at $4.20@^4.60 for Western, 
and $4 75(c/'S4 80 for Brandy wine 

Grain. — Receipts of Wheat, 102,270 bus. 
Wheat is less active and l(«)2c lower Sales 
118,000 bus. at $1.58@i$l 61 for No. 2 Chi- 
cago; S1.60@.S1.63 fo^r No. 2 >iilwaukee; 
$1.5.5(«;$1.G3 for Iowa spring ; $1.62@.ii;1.64 
for No. 1 Minnesota; Sl-75 for amber Tole- 
do ; SI. 64 for amber Illinois; $l,61@iB1.63 
for Nos. 2 and 1 Northwest, and $1 65 for 
white spring. 



Rye Is quiet at Sl-05@$1.10 for West- 
ern and State. 

Barley — Is scarce and firm. Sales, 9000 
bus Canada West at $1 35 in store, and 
1800 bus two-rowed State at $1.70. 

Corn. — Corn is a shade firmer, with a 
moderaie export demand. Sales of 94,000 
bus. at 85c(S'87c for new Western, mixed, 
afloat ; 9Hc for old Western, mixed, in store 
9.'jc@9'Uc do. afloat; 85c(?^)86c for new 
white We-tern afloat, and 88c for old and 
new mixed white Western 

Receipts of Oats 13,865 bus. Oats open- 
ed firmer, and in moderate demand ; closed 
dull and drooping. Sales of 49,000 bus at 
64c@64c for mixed ann white Western; 
closing with sales of prime white at 63ic. 
Stock of grain in store January 17, 1*^74," — 
Wheat, 1.119,914 bushels; corn, 1,002.881 
bus.; oats. 516,653 bushels; rye, 6966 bus.; 
barley. 122,537 bushels; malt, 32.257 bu.^h- 
els; peas 8717 bushels. 

Hay — Is unchanged at $1 05@$1.10 for 
shipping. 

Hops — Are steady at 30@40c for good to 
choice, and 10@25c for low to fair. 

NEW YORK CATTLE MARKET. 

New York, January 19. " 
Beef Cattle. — The market has been firm 
at ^c advance, closing a little heavy. We 
I quote common to fair at 7@llc ; good to 
I prime ll;jtoll|c.; and prime to extra choice 
I at 12@13c. Receipts for the week, 6921 
j h^ad. 

j Milch Cows. — Common are dull at.f;35@ 
I $50 ¥ head, prime are firm at $50@$75 
' each. Receipts for the week 530 head. 
Calves — The market has ruled firm at 
10^@llc. for milch fed, and S6@ll W head 
for common and grassers; 12(ail3c. for milk 
fed, nnd S6@llc. for fed and grassers. Re- 
ceipts for the week, 621 head. 

Sheep and Lambs. — The market for the 
former has been firm. We quote live sheep 
at 5i@7jC.; mutton at 8(a) lie. Receipts 
for the week. 19,324 head. 

Swine — The market has ruled a shade 
firmer at 5|(«)6c. ¥ ib, for live hogs ; dressed 
at 6|(ffj75C. for Western, and li@Sc. for 
city. Receipts for the w"cek, 35,719 head. 

PHILADELPHIA CATTLE MARKET. 
Monday, Jan. 19, 5. P. M. 

Beef Cattle were in better demand this 
week, and prices were a fraction higher. 
Sales of fair and choice at 5iff^7fc., and 
common at 4(rt)5c. Receipts, 2,300 head. 

Sheep met a good demand at 6(n'8c. for 
fair to prime, and 5(ri5|c. for common. Re- 
ceipts, 10,000 head. 

Hogs moved freely at S8.25@8.50 for 
corn-fed— an advance. Receipts 6,000 head. 




atttaster (4Hrm^r^ 



DEVOTED TO 

Agriculture, Horticulture, Domestic Economy and Miscellany. 

EDITED BY S. S. IIATHVON" & J. B. UEVELIV. 



*'The Farmer is the founder of civil ization." — WEBSTER. 



Vol. ri. 



FtJBtiUARY, 187 Jf. 



J^o. '2 



[The following' condensation of the 
proceedings of a society in whose pro- 
gress the fruit growers of Lancaster 
county cannot but feel an interest, we 
extract from the columns of the N. Y. 
Tribune, believing they will be of value 
to our readers, coming as they do from 
men of practical ability.] 

PENNSYLVANIA FRUIT GROW- 
ERS. 



TIIE annual meeting of the Penn- 
sylvania Fruit Growers' Society 
was held last week at Mechanicsburg. 
The attendance was large, the fruit 
show excellent, and the proceedings 
more than usually interesting. In his 
opening address, the accomplished 
President, Josiah Hoopes, referred to 
the good quality last season of many 
varieties of grapes which had not borne 
in this part of the country for many 
years previous, and to the total failure 
of peaches. The later varieties of 
peaches, especially the Crawford, were 
recommended for Pennsylvania in pre- 
ference to the early kinds. Of cherries 
he advised the planting of Early Rich- 
mond and English Morello for profit, 
as the dessert varieties are now so un- 
certain. In grapes Pennsylvania must 
yet adhere to her old choice, the Con- 
cord. She has tested all the best kinds 
as they were introduced, but none were 
able to endure the climate. Nothing 
more profitable than the old Wilson's 
Albany has yet been founcLin straw- 
berries, nor than the American Cluster 
in gooseberries. Reference was made 



to the refining influences of a love of 
flowers, and the necessity of home 
adornment. In conclusion, President 
Hoopes declared his inabilily to longer 
occupy the position at the head of the 
society which he had filled for five con- 
secutive years, and he bespoke for bis 
successor the same courtesy which had 
uniformly been accorded to him by his 
associates. 

REPORT OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

Unfortunately there are many impor- 
tant questions that still remain to be 
Bolved ; but in practical fruit production 
very great progress has been made, as 
is attested by the fact that our markets 
are now regularly and abundantly sup- 
plied by choice fruits; small fruit cul- 
ture, in particular, is now almost 
reduced to the perfection of an exact 
science, and so many fiaeaad success- 
ful varieties have been produced as to 
leave little to be desired. Great atten- 
tion has been given to pear culture, and 
great progress lias been made in spite 
of the many drawbacks in the shape of 
fire-blight and other serious maladies. 
Apples are not generally doing as well 
as pears of late years *:>n account of the 
great increase of predatory insects in 
the old fruit-growing regions; but ap- 
ples can be made to pay, and Pennsyl- 
vania could and should grow all slie 
needs, instead of depending ))vincipally, 
as she now does, upon other states. 
This can be done by planting varieties 
adapted to her diii'erent localities. 
Great loss has occurred to orchardists in 
this state by planting trees sent from 



^6 



THE LA JVC ASTER FARMER. 



a distance, most of them of vaweties 
not valuable here. The extreme se- 
verity of last winter and the severe 
drouth of the summer g-reaily injured 
the fruit crops of last season ; but fruit 
growing has now become so widely 
diffused that, with the exception of 
perhaps the berry crop, fruits were 
abundant in our markets and were 
o-enerally remunerative. In no other 
state in the Union will fruit growing 
pay better than in this. There are 
locations in other states better adapted 
to some fruits, but the proximity to 
good markets will more than compen- 
sate any disadvantages of soil or cli- 
mate. 

.^ FRUIT SOILS AND CULTURE. 

Paschall Morris said that more de- 
pends upon the after-culture of fruit 
than upon the soil itself. Strong clays 
were suggested for the pear, and con- 
firmatory instances v/ere cited, -lie 
declared his ability to insure blight at 
any time by highly stimulating the 
soil in almo^st any locality, and thus 
show that the epidemic is not confined 
to any one character of land. The 
disease of the cherry, the yellows of the 
peach, etc., may be attributed to high 
cultivation rather than certain peculi- 
arities of the soil. He favored low 
branching as a prevention of disease, 
and is especially desirous of seeing our 
fruit men turn their attention to shelter 
belts. Mulching is also highly bene- 
ficial, and above all, applications of 
potash to the soil in the place of stimu- 
lating animal manures, 'j^ese will 
assuredly counteract the evils resulting 
in many cases from uncongenial soils. 
Thomas Meehan agreed in regard to 
cultivation, and believes that far more 
depends upon it than upon the soil. 
Several other speakers assented. Mr. 
Engle stated that for light soils peaches 
and cherries are always the most profit- 
able ; grapes prefer light to heavy soils, 
but will flourish in either, and the pear 
does decidedly best in heavy soils. 
William Saunders, fif Washington, in- 
stanced two orchards in the same 
locality on entirely opposite characters 
of soil, each equally successful. The 
Rev. Mr. Calder, of the State Agri- 
cultural College, on the subject of grape 



culture, said that wet soils are to be 
avoided more than anything else. Ex- 
cessive pruning is very damaging to 
our crops. Foreign gardeners soon 
find when they undertake to prune our 
native grapes, that the practice will not 
prove remunerative. Clinton especially 
will not bear heavy pruning. The 
Concord will bear it rather better, but 
yet even this variety should have suffi- 
cient space. The introduction of toads 
into his own vineyard has proved useful 
as a destructive agency against insects, 
with which grape growers must carry 
on a constant warfare. Mr. Meehan 
opposed trenching and an expensive 
preparation of the soil of vineyards. 
Prof. Heiges, after fully testing the 
renewal system, now prunes not at all, 
and his vines succeed far better than 
ever before. The pear blight, accord- 
ing to one meml)er, is confined to certain 
localities and varieties. The Yicar, 
Glout, Morcoau, Madelaine, Doyenne 
d'Ete and Belle Lucrative are the most 
liable to its attacks ; Seckel appears 
remarkably exempt from blight, as well 
as the Duchesse. Mr. Meehan thinks 
no kinds are exempt, and mentioned 
instances where the Seckel was the 
most lial)le to be destroyed. Mr, 
Saunders was of the same opinion. 

FRUITS AND FORESTRY. 

" Can fruit culture be made profitable 
in connection with timber growing ? " 
In discussing this question, Mr. Meehan 
proposed planting the cherry for its 
wood, as well as for its fruit. The 
timber is one of the most valuable spe- 
cies known, and so, too, with the pear ; 
we have no idea of its great worth 
Pear timber, as well as apple, is very 
valuable in the market. Again, we 
need shelter belts around orchards, and 
he would suggest the Larch for this 
purpose — one of the very best for shel- 
ter if set thickly, and then for timber it 
is always valuable. It is profitable 
when young for stakes, poles, posts, 
etc. He recommended the Locust, as 
grain, etc., are never injured by its 
roots, although the borer is very de- 
structive. Evergreens, such as the 
Norway Spruce, White Pine, etc., may 
be Tecommended. He desired that at- 
tention be turned more to growing 



THE LAjYCASTER FARMER. 



27 



timber, and when grown in connection 
with orchards two good results are 
secured. The cutting away of our for- 
ests is annually making timber more 
valuable, and therefore, to cultivate it 
will prove as profitable as anything we 
can turn our attention to. He advised 
cultivators to test the oaks, for they 
are not slow in coming to profit. Very 
early they can be used for hoops and 
other purposes. lliey are readily 
grown and will pay well. Much dis- 
cussion was evoked by these remarks, 
some members asserting that the Euro- 
pean Larch is not a durable timber. 
One gentleman is extensively engaged 
in growing fruit trees and timber in 
alternate strips. The rows of fruit 
trees nearest the timber and on the 
south side of it is in every case larger 
and more healthy. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR ROSE GROWERS. 

Chas H. Miller, in an exhaustive 
essay on rose-growing, said that the 
mo.st essential condition to insure s,uc- 
cess is the proper preparation of the 
soil. This should l)e deeply trenched 
and manured, and if wet, it must be 
underdrained. Soil that will grow 
good corn will generally grow good 
roses; and if rather stiff, so much the 
better ; in fact, strong loam and plenty 
of manure are the main requisites for 
perfection. The poorest of all soils for 
roses is that with a light sandy texture ; 
in such our plants usually suffer for 
want of moisture, and frequently be- 
come infested with the Red Spider. 
Never use soil from an old cultivated 
garden; the best may be procured from 
the surface of a corn field, especiallj'- 
the partially decomposed sods. As to 
location, the hardy kinds are not par- 
ticular about shelter, but li^hey delight 
in an open, airy situation, and apart 
fi'ora trees. Never plant roses as iso- 
lated specimens on the lawn; such is 
considered in very bad taste ; neither 
should the beds be placed in a very 
prominent position in front of the dwel- 
ling, Owing to the fact that when 
divested of their bloom, there is nothing 
especially interesting about them. The 
best arrangement is in beds, with the 
more vigorous growers in the center, 
and those of smaller growth around 



the outer edge. The clim])ing and 
pillar roses form a useful class for home 
adornment. For instance, a fine speci- 
men of this character, neatly fastened 
to a tall stake in the center of a rose 
bed, always produces a charming effect. 
They are likewise vcn-y appropriate for 
mingling among a mass of shrubbery 
to enliven the green foliage all summer 
long. The main principle to be ob- 
served m pruning roses is that strong 
growing kinds need little cutting ; but, 
on the other hand, those of weaker 
growth should be pruned severely (?) 
In the case of the latter, cut to about 
four or five buds of the base of the cur- 
rent year's shoots ; but the former 
should have about one-half the shoot 
cut away. In the Autumn cut out all 
enfeebled wood and partially ripened 
shoots ; to be followed during the fol- 
lowing March or early in April by the 
directions given above. In transplant- 
ing there are certain rules which should 
always be observed. Koses require an 
occasional removal, say once in two 
years, thus giving an opportunity for 
root pruning and changing the soil. 
The best time for transplanting is just 
previous to the fall of the leaf, late in 
October or early in November ; they 
then become' fully established before 
very severe weather sets in. Never 
defer the operations later than this, 
however, or d^ath may in all probabil- 
ityresult. Neither should roses grown 
in pots be planted out during the Au- 
tumn; these should be deferred until 
spring. In conclusion, as roses need 
plenty of water during the growing 
season, this should never be neglected. 
Also give them an occasional supply Of 
liquid manure. 

INSECT i;nemies. 

A. S. Fuller, of New Jerse}', alluded 
to the need of information about insect 
life. The habits of even our most 
common species are unknown, save to 
a very few people who have made en- 
tomology a special study. Government 
withholds the merest stipend to en- 
courage investigation in this direction. 
The Colorado potato bug alone has 
alread}' destroyed enough of our crops 
to purchase entomological libraries for 
every school in the country. He de- 



28 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



sired to impress the necessity of every- 
one working to destroy injurious insects. 
There is no use in one person undertak- 
ing* this, but all should work in harmony 
to bring the desired results. Quite an 
animated discussion took place on the 
'• borer" question. Onfc member recom- 
mended taking out the .larvte each fall ; 
others prefer tarred paper to prevent 
them from entering at all. Weir's trap 
for the Codlingmoth was recommended 
by several members. Tar and salt 
were referred to as dangerous to use in 
direct contact with the bark. 

TESTING NEW VARIETIES. 

Mr. Satterthwait's experience has 
been that testing new fruits is a losing 
operation. Boyden's No. 30 is one of 
the most satisfactory of the more recent 
strawberries — the best keeping variety 
he is acquainted with, and grows well. 
Monarch of the West seems to give 
good promise ; Charles Downing, com- 
paratively new, is very good in every 
way, excepting in color, being too dark 
for market ; Kentucky is very late and 
consequently very valuable ; President 
Wilder is good — for nothing. Among 
old favorites, the Jacunda is the most 
profitable in his grounds ; plants more 
of it than all other kinds together. The 
Brandywine is about the most valuable 
of hardy raspberries, but it suckers so 
profusely as to entirely I'uin the crop if 
allowed to grow. The Herstine and 
Saunders are of value for the family 
garden — hardy and of fine quality. 
The Kutter pear is one ' of best six 
varieties for market. It is succeeding 
well everywhere. Mr. Meehan recom- 
mended the Wild Utah currant as very 
excellent, an expression sanctioned by 
Mr. Fuller and others. The Utah Hy- 
brid cherry was generally denounced ; 
't is the same as the Pi'unus maritima. 

GATHERED GRAINS. 

The question, "Is it desirable to de- 
vote our best farm lands to the cultiva- 
tion of fruits ?" was ably argued in the 
affirmative by Mr. Bartram, of Chester 
county, and members very generally 
acquiesced in his views. T. Martin, a 
pear-grower of Franklin county, de- 
clared that if the proper conditions are 
complied with, dwarf trees pay well. 



The quality of the fruit is always firm, 
and especially to the amateur are 
dwarfs to be recommended. But the 
trees will not survive long if allowed to 
overbear. The Swiss Stone Pine was 
recommended very highly as the best 
ornamental tree for a small lawn. The 
Retinispora family furnishes some 
splendid hardy plants for the same 
purpose. The dwarf forms of Arbor 
Vitse are also handsome and reliable. 
Mr. Saunders thinks the Yuccas are 
among the best evergreen shrubs. The 
dwarf Horse Chestnuts cannot be ex- 
celled for beauty and reliability. John 
S. Collins, of New Jersey, plants the 
ordinaiy large asparagus, uses barn- 
yard manure freely, sets the plants 
thinly and not too deeply. His field, 
nine years from setting, produced 3,448 
bunches per acre. The idea of special 
varieties of asparagus was unanimously 
protested against; high culture is all 
that is needed to secure the best results 
with this product. It was resolved 
that the fruit-growing interest of the 
state shall be properly represented at 
the centennial exhibition, and a com- 
mittee of five was appointed for this 
purpose. The election resulted in the 
choice of the following officers : Presi- 
dent, Prof. S. B. Heiges ; Vice-Presi- 
dents, S. W. Noble, R. B. Thomas and 
the Rev. Jas. Calder ; Recording Sec- 
retary, E. B. Engle ; Corresponding 
Secretary, W. P. Brinton ; Treasurer, 
Robert Otto. York was selected as 
the next place of meeting, and the third 
Yy'ednesday in January, 1875, as the 
time. 

ANNUAL MEETING OF THE 
BERKS COUNTY AGRI- 
CULTURAL SOCIETY, 

JAN. 31, 1874. 



d 



[We make room in our journal for 
the following extracts from the pro- 
ceedings of the above society — taken 
from the Beading Eagle of the 2d inst. 
— mainly to show the great contrast 
between two neighboring counties in 
their agricultural institutions ; a con- 
trast that seems to exhibit more than 
ordinary life and activity by one dis- 
trict, and the most extraordinary 
apathy and indifference on the part of 



THE LAJVCASTER FABMEB. 



29 



the other. Nearly four hundred 
farmers, and men interested in all that 
relates to farming, met in conclave to 
submit their annual reports, and to 
adopt new and reformatory measures 
for the present year. We hope our 
farmers may find su.fficient in them to 
inspirit them in' a "departure" from 
our old and slow way, and striking out 
in a new direction. We feel gratified 
at the success of others, even if we 
are making no progress ourselves.] 

The twenty-second annual meeting 
of the Berks County Agricultural and 
Horticultural Society was held on Sat- 
urday afternoon last, in the large room 
on the third floor of the Court House. 
It was the largest and liveliest meeting 
ever held by the society. Nearly four 
hundred persons were present, among 
whom were some of the best known 
citizens from the city and county, and 
many of the most prominent farmers. 

At 1 o'clock the meeting was called 
to order by A. F. Boas, Esq., first Vice 
President, and who was the acting 
President of the society during the ab- 
sence in Europe last year, of the late 
President, Isaac Eckert, Esq. 

The Treasurer, Hon. Geo. W. Bruck- 
nian, then read his report, which was 
as follows : 

Annual statement of the Receipts and Expen- 
ditures of the Berks County Agricultural and 
Horticulturai Society for the year 1873: 

EKCEIFTS. 

Falanes as per Auditor's Report on 

account of 1872 - - - $ 77 00 

Amount from Conrad Y. Beidler for 

property sold at Driving Park - 150 0) 

For refrcshmeut stands on Fair 

Ground - - . . i,oiG .M 

AdmlHsion tickets ."old at Fair and by 

hotel keepers and others - - 5,8;ii 77 

E. S. Fox, for .show stands - lis 00 

II. C. G. Reber, Secretary, for entrance 

fees - - - . . C7S O't 

Tickets sold at Grand Stand - - 183 75 
Bernhart & Koch, 2' 34-56 bushels of 

rye at fioc - - - - 13 39 

County appropriation - - lOO 00 



KSPENDITURE3. 



$8,232 41 



Expenses on ground . . § 

Superintendent's wages 
Salary of Secretary 
Salary of Treasurer 
Feed - - . . . 

Livorj'- hire - - . . 

Music ..... 
Printing ..... 
Exiieiiscs at Fair, attendants, refresh. 

nients ..... 

Auctioneer .... 
Aquarium .... 

Premiums for trotting - . 1, 

rremiums and expenses for foreign 

cattle - . . . 



176 67 



1 ,200 00 

1 374 2.5 

■ 2(i 01 

6 00 

GO 00 

S7,914 G,S 

317 73 



202 36 



U. S. Revenue license for restaurants 
Farmers' and First National Banks on 

account of certificates of loan 
Premiums on pi-emium book 
Stationery - ■ . 

I remium'of 1872 
S. U. Ilollenbach, settlement of claim 



Balance 



88,232 41 

No debts that I know of except on certiflcates 

of loan, which amount to !»i."),G80, and which are 

held by 120 individuals, with about seven and a 

half years' interest. 

F. B. Shalters moved that the meet- 
ing go into nomination for officers, 
which was agreed to. 

Wm. P. Bard nominated for presi- 
dent, A. F. Boas, Esq. On motion of 
H. R. Hawman, the nomination closed, 
and Mr. Boas was elected by acclama- 
tion. 

Mr. Boas, upon resuming the presi- 
dent's chair, delivered the following 
off-hand and characteristic speech : 

Gentlemen, I don't thank you so 
much for the high honor you have con- 
ferred upon me, as for the cordial and 
graceful manner with which you have 
done it. I don't know whether I will 
be able to meet your expectations, but 
I shall do the very best I can. I want 
you to understand that it does not de- 
pend upon the president of an associa- 
tion alone whether there will be success, 
but also upon the co-operation of its 
members. [Applause.] Now, I want 
to bring you back to the very first 
articles of the constitution adopted by 
this society. 1. "'This Society shall 
be called the Berks County Agricul- 
tural and Horticultural Society. '2.. Tiie 
object of the society shall be to advance 
agriculture and horticulture in this coun- 
ty." Now, it is not necessary for me to 
say anything about the importance of the 
society — the importance of agriculture. 
There is nothing that could have 
brought this more forcibly before you 
than the financial crisis which com- 
menced four or five months ago, and 
many a man was frightened out of his 
wits. When workshops closed, banks 
suspended and business men failed, the 
farmers never failed or suspended. 
They came to the rescue, and said, "our 
granaries are filled." When the cry 
for bread came across the ocean from 
the hungry millions of the old countries, 
the teams of the farmers and the ships 



so 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



of the nation were brought into requi- 
sition to carry the surplus grain, and 
what was the I'esult? In an exceed- 
ingly short time pocket-books became 
plethoric, money plenty, and gold, 
wliich had been up to 15 per cent., 
came down to 7. This favorable state 
of aft'airs was brought about by the 
agricultural interest of the country. It 
was then made apparent where our 
real interest lies. And — (glancing at 
the reporter's table) — but I don't want 
the reporters to put down all these 
things, everything I say. I didn't in- 
tend to make a speech. I want only to 
have a plain talk with the members of 
the society. This meeting has the true 
ring, the appearance and enthusiasm 
of the first annual meeting held in the 
Court House in January, 1852, which 
in the published report was described 
as " a numerous meeting of farmers and 
others." That was a grand and glori- 
ous meeting, and the same kind of 
spirit that was manifested then is 
manifested now! Gentlemen, some of 
us may diifer a little in matters of 
policy, but we undoubtedly all agree as 
regards the general principles of the 
society, and I don't intend to make a 
" new departure" from the general way 
of carrying on the business. However, 
I hope you will allow me to make a 
few suggestions. 

I do not think we ought to encourage 
anything in this society that might 
prove a detriment to the people of the 
county ; that might be adverse to their 
interests ; that — confound the fellows 
(reporters) there; they put down every- 
thing a person says. [Laughter.] I 
believe, gentlemen, we ought not to en- 
courage anything but that which proves 
a blessing to the comnmnity. Among 
the things that do not, in my opinion, 
is 'horse racing, but, then, I suppose 
that is a necessary evil — I suppose it 
is necessary that there should be racing 
up at the hill on fair days. I was 
going to say another word, but. — I will 
say it, notwithstanding- the reporters. 
[Great laughter.] While the devil is 
in the world it will be hard to keep him 
out of the agricultural society. He is 
not in as a matter of right, but only by 
sufferance. [Laughter a,nd applause.] 
But I am not going to say anything 



harsh about those who want the horse 
racing ; I merely want to impress upon 
your minds that the great object of the 
society is the advancement of the agri- 
cultural and horticultural interests of 
the county. Now, I would like to 
know how horse racing benefits these ? 
It seems to me that it benefits these 
about as much as — where is Mr. Knabb ? 
I think it benefits the agricultural and 
horticultural interests about as much 
as the hard-shell Baptist preacher did 
his congregation in Potter count3^ He 
said : "I have been preaching and 
praying for you for two years ; I have 
got down on my knees and prayed in 
tears for you in season and out of sea- 
sou, and what good has it done you ? 
Not a d — n !" [Great laughter.] Now, 
gentlemen, we v/ant to enlist you all iu 
the interest of agriculture — we v*^ant 
you to carry this society to perfection. 
The reporters will not put down the 
Potter county story. [Renewed 
laughter.] 

It appears, however, from the treas- 
urer's report, that fully one-half of the 
premiums paid were for " trotting" 
(here called "trials of speed"), and 
without which, perhaps, their agricul- 
tural fairs would not be sufficiently 
sensational to "draw." Horse racing 
is about the only phase of modern pro- 
gress, of which we seem to lack appre- 
ciation. If fairs cannot be sustained 
without them, then perhaps we will 
have to tolerate them awhile longer. 



RANDOM NOTES ON FARMING. 



Improvement in Cattle. — I have ob- 
served in different neighborhoods, that 
the introduction of shoi't-horn blood for 
mixing with our native cattle has very 
su))stantiaily enriched the farmers. In 
many places it is hard to find poor 
looking cows, so general has been the 
improvement; many are half bloods, 
some more, but more commonly either 
less, or so mixed up on both sides that 
it is hard to say how much improved 
blood they contain. So far as my ob- 
servation extends, the increased market 
value of all the cattle, in places where 
short-horn bulls or strong grades have 
been employed generally, is nearly 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



31 



double that of the old natives; I think 
it is safe to say that the increased value 
is forty per cent. Such crosses make 
better beef, the animals cost less to keep 
for the same amount of food, and they 
sell readily when the raw bones go a 
begging. I have known instances 
where the use of the short-horn bull on 
common native cows, has given calves 
and older animals that would at once 
sell for double price, and in a much 
quicker market. Now, I suppose there 
are about five million cattle in the 
Union, and that if all were average 
half-bloods, they would sell to-day at 
an average of at least twenty-five dol- 
lars a head in all the states, eastern and 
western. If all were old native sorts, 
they would not sell for more than fifteen 
dollars as an average — in many states 
much less. These estimate^ give ten 
dollars per head difference, which I 
have no doubt is too small. But it 
would make an aggregate of fifty 
million dollars (for the Union) im- 
proved value, if this blood were gene- 
rally mixed through all our cattle. It 
is well worth while to allow our great 
breeders to play with ten, twenty, and 
thirty thousand dollar animals, if by 
this the short-horn blood will be noticed, 
inquired after and diffused. I say 
nothing about the Jerseys, Herefords, 
etc., simply for the reason that I have 
not had an opportunity of witnessing 
the results with these. I have seen 
plenty with short-horns. 

Winter Malckhig Wheat. — A uni- 
formly good wheat crop is better than 
a patch-work one. Very few owners 
of laud have fields that are alike in 
every part. Some spots are higher 
and dryer and not so rich ; others are 
lower and more mucky. Some parts 
are swept by prevailing winds ; others 
are sheltered in hollows or by woods 
and trees. Now, no farmer wants to 
apply manure to parts that are already 
fertile enough. lie does not want to 
protect his wheat from the winds where 
the winds do not blow, or where the 
snow drifts accumulate. But if he will 
protect and enrich the knolls and more 
exposed places, he may not only get a 
better crop, but he will have his land 
ready for more uniform crops of corn, 



grass, etc., afterward. Bear in mind 
that green plants like wheat are easily 
smothered. Gardeners know this with 
other green plants, such as strawberries, 
which are killed if covered too thick. 
One of the best things that can be done 
on any farm, is to give a thin and even 
dressing of manure on the knolls and 
ridges of wheat fields at this time of 
year. Old, fine manure, is of course 
best ; but fresh strawy manure is not 
bad. Sometimes the straw is just the 
thing wanted. I once saved part of a 
crop of wheat, and got twenty bushels 
an acre, by scattering straw over it, 
thick enough to prevent the cutting 
svv^eep of cold winds, but not thick 
enough to smotiier the plants, v^^hile 
other parts not protected were killed 
nearly clean. 

There is another advantage in a thin 
dressing of manure. Grass seed catches 
better for it. Every farmer probably 
has seen a fine, thick catch on low, rich 
soils, and a very poor one on hard 
ridges. Now, just give a rich, soft top 
surface, by evenly spread manure, and 
there will be no trouble about the grass 
seed catching, and it will grow a great 
deal faster for it after it does catch. 

A Few Handy Helps. — There are 
some things which a farmer wants but 
once a year, and there are others which 
he always should have ready. No tool 
comes oftener into play than a hammer, 
for e.xanple. Every new or old v>M3oden 
tool or wooden part of a tool should be 
oiled. Have a barrel or keg or can of 
crude petroleum always ready in your 
shop. Keep everything well anointed. 
The crude oil goes right into the pores, 
and makes any wood durable as cedar. 
Keep it constantly on hand. Again, 
save every piece of rope, cord and 
leather strap. They will be useful for 
repairing. The next time you go to a 
hardware store get fifty cents or a dol- 
lar's v/orth of co})per wire and copper 
straps. Copper wire is a great deal 
better than iron wire, because it is so 
much more flexible, like cord, and cop- 
per straps are capital for repairing any 
fracture in woodwork, it may be so 
easily wrapped around or nailed on 
with small nails. Then, again, always 
have a pound or two of wrought or an- 



82 



THE LA J^ CASTER FARMER. 



nealecl nails of different sizes, which 
will clinch readil}^ when you use them. 
(You will remember that in driving 
these or any other nails into hard wood 
they will go in more easily by first 
touching the points with a little grease, 
but don't let the grease get on the face 
of the hammer.) 

Farming to Advantage. — I have 
known two kinds of industrious far- 
mers. I do not include the sluggish 
and negligent. But of the real hard 
workers there are two distinct classes. 
They both rise v/ith dawn and work 
ofter dark, and are worthy of success ; 
but one class fails for want of proper 
thought and md,nagement. These will 
put their energies into one piece of 
work, and neglect other things which 
need them more. I knew one man 
who was so intent on finishing a piece 
of board fence, that he worked hard at 
it at the very time that the weeds in 
his root crop grew from one inch high 
to ten inches, increasing the labor of 
cleaning out at least ten-fold, and re- 
ducing the crop about one half. An- 
other buys costly tools and lets them 
rust and rot in the fields, because he is 
so busy with something else, although 
the labor of housing would be a mere 
nothing. Another buys a costly barn, 
and uses up his means for manuring, 
cultivating and draining, when cheaper 
buildings would have answered. An- 
other works a wet field year after year, 
at great cost and inconvenience, and 
with small results, because he is tpo 
busy to underdrain it. He does every- 
thing at a disadvantage. Very differ- 
ent is the course of the good manager. 
He looks at all his work — has it mapped 
out before him — estimates accurately 
the labor to accomplish each job, and 
the time when it should be done to 
prevent loss, and then goes on system- 
atically. It does not require great 
genius to do this, but common sense, 
and for the farmer to keep his wits* 
about him. This is what makes a man 
practical, and successful. 

Raiding Corn. — I wish a few of 
your readers would experiment in rais- 
ing corn in the following different ways, 
and report which does best by measur- 
ing the results. This may be easily 
done by planting, say five rows for each 



trial, so that these five rows may make 
a row of shocks across the field, which 
can be easily husked separately. Some 
of them that require fall preparation 
cannot perhaps be performed before 
another year ; others may be prepared 
this winter or got ready in the spring. 

1. Top dress gi-ass late in summer or 
early in autumn with from ten to 
twenty good two-horse loads of manure, 
evenly spread, as a preliminary — and 

if this has already been done by any 
farmers, as some do, all is ready so far. 
Then, 

a. Plow late in autumn, and let the 
ground lie through winter ; plow 
early ifi spring, harrow and re- 
harrow, to make the soil clean 
and mellow, for May planting. 
h. Plow early in spring, and give 
the same preparation. 

c. Plow late i!i spring, and plant 
on the sod. 

d. Yary the trial, by plowing as 
shallow as possible, and deeper, 
and see which does best. 

2. Manure in winter, by drawing out 
the stable cleanings as fast as they are 
made, and spreading at once on the 
grass land. Then vary the experiment 
by early spring and late spring plowing, 
as described under h and c above ; and 
by varying depth. 

3. Repeat all these expei'iments, so 
far as practicable, by drawing out and 
spreading the manure in spring, after the 
ground gets hard enough to draw heavy 
loads without the wheels cutting in. 

3. Try different distances and sorts, 
as follows : 

a. Plant in hills three and a half 
feet each way. 

b. Plant in small hills, three and a 
half feet one way, and a foot or 
so to the other. 

" c. Plant in drills three and a half 
feet apart, the plants at uniform 
distances in the drills, and near 
enough together. 

d. Plant large corn, giving it proper 
room. 

e. Plant small corn thicker, or 
twice as thick, as its size may 
require. 

4. Sow the corn by moans of a wheat' 
drill, so that the stalks may be a foot 
apart each way, if the corn is of the 



THE LAJYCASTER FARMER. 



S3 



larger kind ; or eight or ten inches 
apart each way, if the smaller kinds are 
planted. Then do the whole of the 
cultivating by the smoothing harrow, 
going over it once every four days, 
first before it comes up ; then at regular 
intervals until it is a foot high, or too 
high to v/ork any more. 

5. Experiment in different ways on 
the corn planted in rows, as follows: 

a. Cultivate twice and hoe once, 
according to the old-fashioned 
method. 

h. After the ordinary cultivating 
and hoeing, keep on cultivating 
once a week till the corn is as 
high as the horse's back, 

c. Adopt Mr. Harris's plan, by 
harrowing four times all over it 
with a smoothing harrow, and 
then cultivating nine times, once 
at a time in the row, for each 
succeeding five daj'S afterward. 

6. Spread manure in winter on sod 
which was plowed in fall, and then, 

a. Plow again in spring, and har- 
row and cultivate to make it 
fine and mellow before ])lanting. 
h. Leave the inverted sod undis- 
turbed, but cultivate and mellow 
the matured top well, before 
planting. 
Now, it is not likely that any one 
farmer will want to try all these differ- 
ent ways, but he can try a part of them. 
If he measures his crops, he will learn 
a great deal in a single year that may 
make a difference of hundreds of dol- 
lars in his management afterward. If 
he continues the experiments for a few 
years his views will become corrected, 
confirmed and established. And how 
much will all this trouble cost him — of 
marking oft" the strips, keeping a record 
of each, treating each in its own way, 
and husking and measuring separately ? 
Not one week altogether in a year, I 
venture to aflirm, and worth to him in 
increased knowledge more than ten 
times as much. I will guess a little 
beforehand, that he will find shallow 
plowing the best, as well as the follow- 
ing modes just described most successful 
viz. : h under 1 ; c under 4 ; 4 under 
4 ; h and c under 5 ; and h under 6. 
Try them, farmers, and let us hear from 
you. — A Farmer — Reading Eagle. 



AGRICULTORAL, ^ 



SEED CORN. 



NO\N is the time for farmers to 
make arrangements to secure new 
and valuable seed, as we have now in 
store the best seed corn ever offered to 
the farmer. We have just returned 
from a trip through the western part of 
the country, where corn is made a spe- 
cialty, and selected of the best. We 
have secured specimen » from most 
every part of the country where corn is 
grown, all of which has been tho- 
roughly tested. That which proved to 
be good, wc so improved that v»^e feel 
safe in saying that we offer the farmer 
the best seed corn known in this coun- 
try. 

In regard to the many-eared varieties, 
it has been proved, so far, that not 
more than two to three large ears can 
be produced to a stock of the field or 
stock corn varieties. All of the varie- 
ties tested by us, show that the stalks 
which produce many ears always pro- 
duce small and inferior corn for field 
cultivation. 

It is only the Parching Corn varie- 
ties that give many ears per stock; and 
all the experimental crossing has proved 
of no benefit whatever to the fiirmer. 
There are several persons advertising 
the branching corn as field or stock 
corn varieties, yielding immense crops 
of large corn. 'We feel it our duty to 
inforni our readers that they are noth- 
ing moie than our parchingor branchiiig 
pop corn varieties, and are of no benefit 
to the farmer to raise a crop of mer- 
chantable corn. The Mammoth Orange 
Dent or Hylirid Yellow Dent, Kentucky 
iMammoth* Dent and Early Mammoth 
Mulatto Corn have from one to two 
ears per stalk, and are considered the 
choicest merchantable corn grown. 
The King's Wl>ite Prolific is a well- 
established, large two-eared variety, 
and now considered the best bread, as 
well as stock corn, known in this coun- 
try. It can only be planted with suc- 
cess south of 40''. We have estab- 
lished a hybrid corn, half white and 
half yellow, that is earlier, and produces 
two to three large ears on each stalk. 



Si 



THE LAJVCASTER F.ARMEU. 



We think it will make one of the best 
field corn varieties yet introduced. For 
prices, see our advertising pages. 



THE PROFITS FROM A STONY 

FARM. 



Some years ago a friend of ours took 
a farm that, in the language of his 
neighbors, was but a stone-heap. He 
had much sympathy. He v^^ould have 
to work an extra horse ; his gears would 
soon wear out ; his implements would 
be torn to pieces. Others before him 
had tried this farm and they were 
ruined. 

The place was by no means solid 
rock. Down several feet below the 
surface it was thick and heavy enough ; 
but the upper portion was rather shaly, 
a,nd broke up into pieces from a few 
ounces to perhaps a pound or two. 
Crops seemed to grow ])retty well in 
the ground, if once the plow could be 
brought to go deep enough ; but as it 
had been worked, it seldom had more 
than a couple of inches of loosening 
before the crops were put in, to dry out, 
of course, when the long summer nights 
set in. The roads round about the 
farm and up to the farm buildings were 
like most roads of the kind. Through 
soft clay they were nothing but seas 
of mud at those times of the year, 
when of all others we need a good bot- 
tom to drive on. Every spring there 
were the usual cursings of horses, 
breaking of carts and gears, and all 
other miseries of hauling through mud, 
which so many have experienced on 
country farms, that we need not more 
particularly describe. This farm was 
no exception to this, and all the neigh- 
boring farms were of a similar character. 
Our friend of the stone heap took in the 
situation. In the fall after corn-cutting 
time was over, his two hired men at 
odd times were set to work with garden 
rakes to rake stones. It seemed like a 
big task to go over a score of acres in 
this way. The loose surface stones 
were raked together in windrows, and 
then shoveled into a cart, and from time 
to time spread in the " lane." In 
his own language it did not cost half 
as ]nuch to rake this stone, already 
broken by nature, than it would have 



done to quarry rock and break it. His 
roads are among the best about. They 
cost him little; and his land gradually 
cleared of the stone, can be plowed 
deeply and easily, quite as much as 
those v/ho so much pitied him ; while in 
the comfortable travel in bad weather, 
he now feels a pity for those farmers 
whose lands are not the stone-heaps his 
was. 

There is a valuable lesson in a little 
fact of this kind. There is rarely any- 
thing on one's farm that may not be 
turned to good account; while even 
land, which is cursed by some who do 
not know better, may be turned to an 
Eden when one knows how to do it. — 
Germantown Telegraph. 



WESTERN AGRICULTURE. 



The people of the west are turning 
their attention from agriculture to min- 
ing and manufactures v/ith that wild 
energy and profusion of efforts and ap- 
pliances that may be seen in all their 
undertakings. Every sort of induce- 
ment and temptation to establish indus- 
tries is now resorted to by communities, 
large and small, rural and urban, and 
if there has been any doubt hitherto as 
to the adoption of these pursuits by the 
west, that doubt is now dispelled. As , 
a consequence, industries of all kinds 
are making such rapid progress in the 
leading western states that their pre- 
vious agricultural character seems 
likely to pass away before the taking 
of the national census in 1880. Much 
of this change may be fairly attributed 
to the enormous cost of getting agricul- 
tural produce from the western farms 
to the seaboard marts. We have seve- 
ral times alluded to the fact that grain 
sold by the farmer for only fifteen cents 
a bushel yields sixty-five cents at the 
east, all this cost being piled up by 
transportation, handling, middlemen, 
and brokerage. 

It seems but yesterday that Illinois 
was wholly absorbed in agriculture, and 
attached importance to nothing else. 
And now she actually ranks second in 
the list of states in iron and coal, and 
is striking out bravely for high rank in 



THE LAJVCASTEE FARMER. 



85 



general industry. Missouri emulates 
her example, while young Iowa is rush- 
ing eagerly into the business, and has 
immense coal resources to Avarrant it. 
A^ industrial pursuits pay better 
than farming, this change is not sur- 
prising. But the important considera- 
tion is that agricultural prosperity is, 
after all, absolutely indispensable to the 
thrift of the re])ublic. Now in the in- 
crease of home jnarkets at the west, the 
farming interest of that region will, of 
course, be largely benefitted, and at the 
same time the eastern farmer will have 
an improved prospect in proportion as 
he is relieved of western competition. 
But what we desire to impress upon 
the public mind is that the true way to 
benefit the farmer and the consumer at 
the same time, is to restore internal 
commerce to the natural lines, which 
are and must always be the cheapest 
and the best. Unless we can do that 
it does not admit of doubt that the 
western farmers will cease to raise pro- 
duce for the sole benefit of railroads and 
middlemen, and turn their industry and 
their capital into more profitable pur- 
suits. — Extract from Philadelphia 
JVorth. American. 



Thorough Farming alone Profit- 
able. — It is very certain that thorough 
preparation of the ground is necessary 
to produce abundant crops. And, as 
just now is a favorble time- to prepare 
ground for spring crops, we would ad- 
vise farmers to lose no present oppor- 
tunity of plowing the v/hole of their 
p;round" to be sown with oats or barle3^ 
or turnips, or planted with potatoes. A 
thorough farmer has ground not only 
weir prepared, but he sov/s his crops in 
good season, and he is far more liber- 
ally compensated than one who cannot 
find time to do this in a proper manner, 
or at a proper time. Barley and oats, 
with us. liave never failed of giving a 
fair yield, when sown early, on fall- 
plowed and manured land ; but we have 
often reaped half a crop when we have 
by neglect failed to get them in in that 
manner. 

AIeadows. — The Ohio Farmer says : 
" We have in mind meadows which 
have not been plowed in twenty years, 



and yet they yield not only heavy, but 
first quality hay ; they having always 
been pastured in early fall, never fed 
close, and occasionally harrowed and 
top-dressed with fine, well-rotted ma- 
nure. The habit into which many 
farmers have got of allowing sheep to 
gnaw meadows in the winter is a bad 
one, fur they nip to the very roots, to 
get the nutritious and sweet feed." We 
can say that we have seen meadows 
whose proprietors told us had not been 
plowed in fifty years, and the only fer- 
tilizer they received was a dressing of 
lime once in five years. 



r ^rrTriTirr.'-w--'TTi7V=nR205'.'t»yvv'w'5«'f^7^9l 



HORTICULTURAL. 



TO MANAGE HEN MANURE. 



NOW that cold weather is approach- 
ing, and farmers shut up their 
hens more than in warmer weather, a 
few hints on the best way to manufac- 
ture hen guano, or compost, may be 
appropriate. The first thing is to pro- 
vide proper reservoirs for the manure. 
Old barrels are just the thing, but 
strong goods-boxes will do. They will 
soon decay and be useless, unless pro- 
tected with oil or gas tar. Coating 
them inside and out with light crude 
petroleum will fill the pores with the 
oil, and make them as good as cedar 
for durability ; but if the contents are 
likely to be moi.st, gas tar inside will 
be better. The number of these barrels 
must correspond with the number of 
hens; there should be one for every 
ten hens. Then, if the weather is dry 
enough before freezing up to s^ecure 
a quantity of road dust, fill all but 
one with the road dust, which is the 
very best absorbent you can get ; and 
if dry, the barrels may stand any w]:ere 
under shelter without the freezing of 
the contents. If dry earth or dust 
cannot be obtained, the next best is 
finely pulverized soil, which will, of 
course, contain a good deal of moisture, 
and must be kept in barrels or boxes in 
the cellar, so as not to fi'eeze. If you 
can procure a quantity of charcoal dust, 
it may be mixed with dry coal-ashes, 
and the mixture will make a good ab- 
sorbent. Dry sawdust will do, but it 



36 



THE LAJYCASTER FARMER. 



is not so good. When road dust or soil 
is used, the more claj it contains the 
better it will be as an absorbent, and 
the less in quantity will be needed. 

Now, having your barrels all ready, 
the rest of the operation will be simple 
and easy. All you have to do is to 
place a stratum, say an inch or two, in 
the bottom of the one empty barrel, and 
then throw in the cleanings of the hen- 
house ; then another stratum, and 
another layer of cleanings. The thin- 
ner each layer of the two is the more 
perfectly they will become diffused to- 
gether in standing. The precise quan- 
tity of each is not very essential — only 
you must have enough absorbents to 
hold all the volatile parts of the hen 
manure, of which you may usually 
judge by the odor, which may be cor- 
rected by adding more of the absorbent. 
Proceed in this way with each success- 
ive barrel. Next spring your barrels 
will he filled with a very powerful and 
most valuable manure. 

You may add to its value by pound- 
ing and cracking up fine all the refuse 
bones you can find, by means of a stone- 
mason's hammer or an old axe — placing 
the bones to be broken on a solid flat 
stone, and encircling them with a wide 
hoop to keep them from flying off when 
struck. Sprinkle the fragments of bone 
among the layers of manure, which will 
cut and work them down. A part of 
the broken bones may be left for the 
hens to eat with their food, and these 
will be manufactured in a more perfect 
manner into bone guano. 

By a little care and timely attention, 
you will secure a supply of manure, the 
value and quantity of which will sur- 
prise those who first make the trial. 
All you will have to do in spring will 
be to pulverize and work over the mat-s, 
so as to be evenly and finely applied. — 
Country Gentleman. 



A HINT ON LAWNS AND 
HEDGES. 



Any one who has taste in that direc- 
tion cannot but observe, within a dozen 
miles around Philadelphia, where fine 
lawns are cultivated, how much dam- 
age is done to the beautiful hedges and 
evergreens by allowing the silver maple 



and other ugly and useless trees to be 
mixed up with them, overshadowing 
them to such an extent as must lead to 
their early defoliation and destruction. 
The exhaustion of the soil ako by these 
worthless trees, does more, however, to 
injure the evergreen, than even the 
shade. Once let the evergreens Ix^ dam- 
aged and they never recover. What the 
object is in permitting such trees to re- 
main in these lawns and along hedge- 
lines, we cannot imagine. Either the 
gardener is incompetent for not suggest- 
ing their removal, or the proprietor is 
obstinate in refusing to exterminate 
trees which he has not knowledge 
enough to see are ruining his place. 

If any one has a liking for silver 
maple and other deciduous trees in their 
lawns, let him enjoy his taste and not 
mix them up with evergreens. In large 
lawns, it is true, there may be many 
varieties of trees without injury to one 
another ; but it is folly to mix them 
on small lawns, or plant them close 
together. 

Hedges, even the hemlock, which 
stands shade better than any other, 
will show its dwarfing influence, and 
cannot resist the exhausting of the soil 
by the roots of large trees standing 
near; while no arbor vitaes will long 
survive from either of these causes. 



KEEPING POULTRY IN OR- 
CHARDS. 



Some farmers make it a practice to 
keep their poultry in their orchards 
ft'om early in the spring until cold 
weather sets in ; and they find that it 
pays them for so doing. A picket-fence 
should be built around the orchard, 
high enough to prevent their flying 
over, with a suitable house or shed in 
one corner of the yard, to shelter them 
at night. Thus situated, the poultry 
will thrive and prosper, keeping them- 
selves in good condition ; and the in- 
crease in eggs will be greatly aug- 
mented, and their usefulness and value 
enhanced to their owners at least, on 
account of the thousand myriads of in- 
sects and worms which they naturally 
destroy, and which will more than re- 
pay the cost and labor of building the 



THE LAJfCASTER FARMER. 



37 



fence. By keeping them enclosed in 
this manner, a large number of fowls 
ma V be retained in an orchard ; and the 
continuril scratching which is done by 
them will prove advantageous both to 
the soil and trees themselves. 

STRAWBERRIES IN JANUARY. 



A dispatch from Crisfield, Md., to 
the Wihuington Commercial, says; 

" There is a peculiar condition of 
vegetation growing out of the remark- 
ably mild weather, which I have not 
seen noticed in any of the papers, the 
like of which, I venture to assert, is not 
remembered by the very oldest inhabi- 
tant. 

" In this immediate vicinity, and also 
in the vicinity of Marion Station, seven 
miies north of this, the strawberries 
have bloomed and fruited, A gentle- 
man informed me that he gathered, a 
few days ago, a tea-cup full of well- 
grown strawberries, some fully ripe, in 
his field, and others tell the same story. 
This for a region north and east of the 
Chesapeake is, to say the least, worth 
recording in the Commercial, where it 
Aviil remain in some well-preserved 
files for succeeding generations as a 
curious item." 

^ DO TREES AND PLANTS 
FREEZE ? 



HALE'S EARLY PEACH. 



A remarkable paper has recently been 
contributed to a German magazine by 
Professor Mohr, showing, not only that 
the sap does not freeze in trees and 
plants which live through hard winters, 
but also the reason why it does not 
freeze. He says that though it is true 
water, as we generally see and under- 
stand it, freezes at thirty-two degrees, 
it does not do so when its particles are 
finely divided. Tropical plants have 
large cells, and these are the ones in 
which the sap freezes ; but in plants 
with very small cells in which the liquid 
l)articles are finely divided, there is no 
freezing of the liquids until after the 
structure has received injury of some 
sort. This is true, he says, of insects 
and insect pupai. They never freeze ; 
but cut one apart soon after the humors 
solidify, and on thawing life dies. 



Some inquiry is made of the value 
of this variety. We have cultivated 
it for many years, and find it a very 
early and very good peach when sound, 
but its liability to rot is the great ob- 
jection. To obviate this difficulty in 
part, we have them picked early, or be- 
fore rotting has begun, and ripen them 
in the house, which diminshes their 
fine quality, but saves them from decay. 
The free growth and productiveness of 
the tree, and the veiy early maturity 
of the fruit, render this peach too val- 
uable with y\% for family use to be cast 
away. The fruit is more apt to rot 
when the tree grows vigorously ; hence 
it is better to plant on soil of moderate 
fertility and not cultivate the ground 
so much as for some other sorts ; and 
where the soil is naturally rich, it may 
be best to seed to grass. Preventing 
the puncture of the curculio by destroy- 
ing this insect also tends to prevent 
decay. 



PEPPER. {Capsicum.) 



VARIOUS species of pepper be- 
longing to the genus Gaj)iiicum, 
are found in South America, and also 
in the West India Islands, but the 
strongest and best are from Cayenne, 
called "Cayenne pepper." However 
numerous their species may be, they 
nearly all agree in their pungent proper- 
ties, and are easily distinguished from 
other vegetation by their red or yellow 
pods, containing many flat seeds. 

The varieties usually cultivated in 
this country are the long yelloiv, the 
large bell; a standard variety ; the 
monstrous, a French variety, larger 
than any other cultivated, and not very 
pungent, indeed, sometimes so little 
tainted with pungency as to be called the 
"sweet pepper;" the Cayenne, a very 
hot, small, long and tapering variety, 
and the best for seasoning pickels and 
other culinary uses ; the siceet moun- 
tain, very large and excellent for man- 
goes ; * the cherry pepper, a small, 
smooth and round pod, very much re- 

» Pickles made of the inango fruit of the West 
Indies, or of green mus'.cmelons. 



38 



THE LAJYCASTER FARMER. 






semViing a red cherry when ripe. It 

is a very prolific bearer, and also very 
pungent ; sometimes cultivated as an 
ornamental plant. The squash, a 
large, thick-fleshed flat variety, very 
popular for pickling, sometimes exca- 
vated and stuffed with cabbage, onions, 
cress and condiments ; the Sayite Fe or 
long r^d. When used for pickeling 
they are generally taken off green, but 
when ripe, dried and ground, they form 
the red or Cayenne pepper of com- 
merce. In addition to the value of 
pepper as pickel or the seasoning of 
dishes, it is claimed to have some 
medicinal virtues, and when ground and 
rubbed on meat, has the quality also of 
preserving it against the attacks of in- 
sects. 

It is a powerful stimulant, and when 
taken in decoctions, produces heat, and 
copious perspiration ; and is considered 
a s-oecific in "breaking up," counteract- 
ing, or producing a reaction in catarrhs 
and colds. It is said to have been the 
basis of the whole catalogue of Thom- 
sonian medicines. It is also said to 
enter into the composition of fraudulent 
and adulterated liquors — an abuse or 
perversion of its normal uses. 

Experienced cultivators and seeds- 
men recommend that peppers be started 
in a cold frame or hot-bed, from whence 
they should be transplanted, about the 
middle or toward the end of May, ac- 
coi'ding to latitude, in a very sunny 
location, with the rows about eighteen 
inches apart ; thin plants about a foot 
apart in rows. The ground should be 
made very rich, either with high ma- 



nure before transplanting, or a liberal 
application of liquid manure or guano 
afterward. For seed, the plants Ijcar- 
ing the most forward and best shaped 
fruit should be selected. One ounce of 
seed will produce over two thousand 
plants. The earliest sowing may be 
made in the month of March, according 
to the weather. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL. 



[The following, in regard to the 
English sparrows and worms, we be- 
lieve is correct. But when the worms 
are all destroyed, what then ? They 
must live. Let those who know " speak 
out."] 

HOW TO DESTROY THE IN- 
SECTS. 



GENERAL FOSTER, one of the 
leading horticulturalists of Iowa, 
writes to the Western Farmer that he 
" would give $1,000 this year if any 
one would save him from the ravages 
of insects." His acreage is only a 
trifle over two hundred. The damage 
annually inflicted by these pests 
amounts to many million dollars, and 
it seems strange that so little attention 
should heretofore been paid by' our 
farmers to a matter of such great im- 
portance. 

One of the most economical and ef- 
fective means of preventing this whole- 
sale destruction, would probably be 
found in the general introduction of 



TEE LANCASTER FARMER. 



39 



the common English sparrow, which 
can be bred in this country with per- 
fect success, and the rapidity of whose 
increase is wonderful. An eminent 
English author, in a late treatise on 
"Husbandry and Gardening," shows 
from actual observation that a pair of 
sparrows, during the time they feed 
their young, destroy on an average 
3,360 caterpillars each week. 

If every farmer alive to the interests 
of his calling would send for a few 
pairs and take the care of them that 
many do of pigeons, he would be re- 
paid fifty-fold for his outlay. The 
various Granges of the country would 
do well to profit by this hint. 

A WORD FOR ANTS. 



"The ant does not bend his weary 
way to empty barns," being an author- 
ized translation of a line from Ovid; 
and that great naturalist, Aristotle, hav- 
ing extolled the sagacity of "bloodless 
animals," and Cicero ascribed to them 
not only sensation, but mind, reason and 
memory, without having read our 
scriptures (Proverbs, vi. 6), beside what 
may be found in more recent authors, 
we need not believe ail the fables about 
ants, their house-keeping or their diet 
of vegetables. Errors always contrib- 
ute to a more perfect knowledge, and 
thereby later observers have disproved 
the assertion of ants feeding u})on and 
storing up grain, and the notion that 
insects were produced /7'om putrid car- 
casses. Yet dispite the publication of 
the well authorized discovery of their 
generation and peculiar nutrition, the 
errors are still repeated by respectable 
authors. Only ignorance of anatomy 
and habits of these little creatures can 
be the apology. Mungo Ponton asks 
in "The Beginning," "How did the 
agricultural ants first acquire their won- 
derful instinct which enables them to 
vie in prudence with the human race — 
to prompt them to clear a space of 
ground around the mouth of their nest 
of all vegetation, and then to sow in it 
the seeds of a peculiar kind of grass, 
which constitutes their favorite food — 
reaping and garnering the produce for 
their winter's supply, and reaping the 
process every season ? " 



They are suctorial, carnivorous, pre-, 
dacious insects, preying upon the softer 
parts of animals, other insects and veg- 
etable juices. The mouth is but one of 
the nine breathing orifices distributed 
over the body. Since their mandibles 
are both saws and trowels, they are 
l)orn carpenter and masons, natural 
mouud-builders. if they use corn, 
starch, or woody fiber, it is only as a 
material of construction, which the 
saliva helps to agglutinate. Strong, 
courageous, voracious and numerous, 
the}^ attack other insects, and even ani- 
mals of large size, overpowering all ))y 
force of numbers or poison, and then 
with astonishing rapidity consuming 
the spoils. As butchers, they eat only 
of their own killing, or only the recent 
dead. Sugar is their most alluring 
vegetable food, and when saccharine 
fermentation begins, as between starch 
and gluten, evolving its fragrance, the 
ants scent it from afar, and hasten to 
the feast. 

Ants are endowed with extraordinary 
muscular strength in pro'poi'tion to their 
size; with a delicate sensational appa- 
ratus ; quick perception of atmospheri- 
cal changes of heat and moisture ; keen 
sight, and sense of touch and smell. A 
finger passed across their path, remov- 
ing the surface even slightly, arrests 
their attention. A broad chalk-mark 
is a perfect balk on any smooth surface 
they may be accustomed to traverse. — 
This is discovered to them by their au- 
teniiic, which are certainly feelers, and 
may also be the seat of the organs of 
smell, by which sense it is supposed 
they follow their tracks. These mem- 
bers are also the organs of speech, 
though the insect is not without a use- 
ful tongue, and saliva, both used for 
work and construction, but not for mas- 
tication, since there are neither jaws nor 
teeth in the mouth. 

Exudations from many trees, excre- 
tions from plant lice (aphides) and 
other insects are favorite foods ; the 
supply of which the ant has the reput- 
ed wisdom to protect, and not destroy 
any more than a farmer would his cow. 
Besides their proverbial affection 
among themselves {^'Formica; formica 
cara,^^) they seem to have a disinterest- 
ed friendship for a certain species of 



JpO 



THE LAJYCASTEE FARMER. 



grasshopper, for he lives in their nests ; 
but at his death all are sure to be at the 
wake, and they proceed to embcalm his 
remains in their own bodies ! We know 
Unit the grasshopper's eggs are laid iu 
the aut nests, and thus protected from 
wet, where all find sheller together 
from rain. 

They are gregarious, and besides 
males and females, there exists, appar- 
ently, an intermediate order of neidera, 
as among bees, denominated the work- 
ing-class, which, indeed, they are, hav- 
ing no duties of propagationto fulfill. — 
We have every reason to believe that 
these were females, and made neuter by 
their nurses to fit them for their situa- 
tion and labors. Sexual dilTerences are 
found in the number of joints of the 
antennae ; the male ant has thirteen ar- 
ticulations, the female and neuter but 
twelve. The male has seven abdomi- 
nal rings, while the females and neu- 
trals have only six. In these, also, the 
head and mandibles are larger and bet- 
ter adapted to work; from which and 
other facts it is judged that all the neu- 
ters are derived from the female by 
special treatment in the earlier stage of 
their existence, the same as bees. 

And nests are dwellings only, and 
not granaries, for the insects do not 
lay up winter food, since they grow 
torpid at a temperature a little below 
freezing, and then require no food. 
The mandibles are offensive weapons 
as well as tools, and capable of inflict- 
ing a deep bite or saw-cut, and of in- 
stilling into the wound a highly acri- 
monious saliva from the mouth. Some 
species have a sting, resembling in situ- 
ation and structure that of the bee, 
which -likewise conveys a poison to the 
wound. The liquor is well known to 
possess acid properties which have been 
imitated by the chemists and named 
" formic acid." This is capable of pro- 
ducing violent cutaneous eruptions, 
and even endanger human life. Be- 
side two claws on each foot, the soles 
have soft lobules, provided with numer- 
ous papillee, suppling a glutinous fluid 
to the surface, by which, without the 
penetration of the claws, the insect is 
able to adhere to smooth and clean ob- 
jects, but which dust and wet v/ill de- 
fend. Hence chalk or other powder 



and liquids are the best defenses against 
the approach of ants, since respiration 
also is liable to be arrested by them. 
Boiling water is fatal to eggs, larvse, 
and ant at home ; and those absent re- 
turn to the desolate homestead but 
once. Decoctions of tobacco, or of 
walnut leaves sprinkled in their resorts 
drive them from favorite places, even 
from fruit and sugar. Arsenic or cor- 
rosive sublimate, mixed with molasses, 
and applied to surfaces of wood, wall 
or paint, is ecjually fatal ; but cyanide 
of pottasium kills most quickly, be- 
cause they are liable to touch it with 
antennae or feet. 

Ants have numerous enemies among 
quadrupeds, birds, other insects, etc., 
but they are useful to the farmer in 
many ways. In the field, their labor 
keeps the soil open in a degree, by 
moving the wreck of vegetable matter 
to a better exposure for changes by 
decomposition. Animal remains and 
effete substances are more rapidly trans- 
formed, assisting chemical changes, and 
the superabundance of many insects 
prevented by the ant's feeding on their 
eggs and larvae. By this means indi- 
rectly they protect fruit; neither do 
they eat it through its unbroken skin, 
but ubi mel ihi apes et formicae. Their 
housekeeping is cleanly, and they leave 
no tracks — no reasons why they should 
be called a pest or a nuisance, if the 
attractions offered are not unreasonably 
without protection. 

The common garden toad is one 
great enemy to the ground ant, and at 
the moulting season can be seen a pa- 
tient watcher at the doors of their hab- 
itations for the winged ones, the queens 
or the .eggs or larva3, to be brought to 
his sight, when with the fatal shot by 
tip of his tongue they disappear to be 
converted into toad. But oftentimes 
the noise of the blow, or the displace- 
ment of material by the force of the 
shot, disturbs some of the accompany- 
ing workers, and they attack the toad, 
who will back immediately two or three 
lengths, and may be observed to wipe 
his feet or his head as if from the con- 
tact or the bite. L. B. S. 



Subscribe for the Farmer. 



TEE LAA^CASTER FARMER. 



41 



OBSERVATIONS 

ON THE ANNUAL FIRST APPEARANCE OF 
BIRDS IN LANCASTER COUNTY, IN THE 
LATITUDE OF EPHRATA, 1873. 



BY W. II. SPERA. 



Bluebird, Sialih malis, March 1-2. 

Robin. 2\irdits mujratorious, March 12. 

Crow-blackbird, Qviscalis, versicolor, March lo. 

Iled-winged Blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus, 
March 14. 

Blue Jay, Cyanvra crisiata, March 12. 

Song Sparrow, Melofqiiza inelodia, March 25. 

Kill-deer. ^Egialitis vociferus, March 27. 

Pewce, Sayornis fuscus, Mai'ch 30. 

Cuckoo (Rain-bird), Coccyzus Americanus, 
Ain'il 1. 

Night-hawk, ChordeUes popetite, April 1. 

Flic-kcr, Colnptcs aiiratv,s, April ;5. 

AVoodpeckcr (Redhead), Melanerpes erythro 
cephcdus, April 14. 

Brown Tluush, Tiirdus mvstelinvs, April 6. 

Cat-bird, Minux carolineiisi.i, April 8. 

House Wren, lYoglodytus cedon. May 5. 

Barn Swallow, Hirundohorreorum, May 5. 

Cliimuey-bird, Acanihyiin pelasgia, May .5. 

Whippoorwill. Antroslomiis voci/cra, May 7. 

Crow (nesting), Corviis Antericanus, May !). 

Blackbird (flocking;, Quiscalin versicolor, Aug. 
29. 

Wild Goose (flj'ing north)) Anser canadensis, 
October 31. 



FrO"s (first heard), Rana pipens, Mai'ch 20. 
Shadflies (flr.'it seen), Perla dorsala, MarcJi 20. 

The above record includes only a few 
of the birds of Lancaster county ; but 
so far as it goes, it is of local value, and 
is a species of information which any 
intelligent farmer might contribute, 
even if he only gave the common 
names of the birds he noticed. A 
number of these birds pass the season 
of their absence on the outer verge of 
winter, moving southward and return- 
ing northward as the temperature of 
the weather changes to warm or cold. 
We have noticed some of them — the 
bluebird, the robin, the flicker, the 
blackbird, for instance — during warm 
days in January and February, as far 
north as Kentucky and Virginia, where 
they may be seen every month in the 
year. 

DOMESTIC. 



PARLOR AND KITCHEN. 



How TO CHECK Scarlet Fever. — 
'" Stamping out" is the new and signifi- 
cant process for the arrest of many di.s- 
oases, and in none can it be ' more ef- 
fectually employed than scarlet fever. 
This should, of course, include isolation. 



All caiBes should be promptly reported 
to the health authorities, under heavy 
penalties for neglect, and all occurring 
among persons unable to afford seclu- 
sion, should be taken care of at public 
expense in appropriate hospitals, at safe 
distances from populous neighborhoods. 
And the rich should be com'pelJed to 
provide seclusion in isolated rooms for 
cases occurring among them, or else re- 
linquish the care of them to the health 
authorities, and be subject to the neces- 
sary costs. All clothes used by the 
patients should be disinfected or de- 
stroyed. Water closets, cesspools, and 
drains attached to the hospitals and 
dwellings of the sick, should be tho- 
roughl}' disinfected.— i)?\ John Morris, 
The. Sanitarian for February. 



"^ Clean Milking. — The author of 
" Ogden Farm Papers," in the Ameri- 
can Agriculturist, says that on the 
Jersey and Guernsey Islands " the 
milk is drawn not into pails, as with us, 
but into jug-shaped cans, the opening 
being about four inches in diameter. In 
Jersey this is covered with a cloth 
strainer tied on so loosely that it sags 
down several inches into the neck of 
the can. In the bottom of this bag 
there is laid a shell to receive the force 
of the stream as it is drawn from the 
teat. The milk flows over the shell 
and soaks through the cloth. This is 
the most cleanly manner of milking that 
can be devi.sed. The wet cloth pre- 
vents any foul odor of the stable from 
reaching the mass of milk, and any hair 
or dirt from the udder is at once held 
back, instead of remaining in the milk 
until it is carried to the dairy to be 
strained. The cloths are easily kept 
clean and aired, and the system, in ail 
respects, is both simple and commend- 
able." 



To MAKE Shirt-bosoms Glossy. — 
Dissolve three ounces of clean pow- 
dered white gum arable in one pint of 
water. When thoroughly dissolved, 
strain it through a piece of cotton cloth, 
and bottle for use. One tablespoonful 
of this gum water, added to a pint of 
starch, will give a beautiful smooth 
gloss to cotton or linen fabrics. 



Jf^ 



THE LA:N'CASTEIi FARMER. 



y 



Coal Oil for Hen Lice. — Hen lice 
are among the greatest drawbacks to 
the pleasure and profit of the poultry 
yard ; they are especially troublesome 
in small yards and coops where the 
fowls cannot have free access to green 
food and dry earth. We have tried 
various remedies, and have found coal 
oil to be a very effectual and safe one. 
It is applied with very little trouble ; 
pour it from the can upon the perches 
Avhere the fowls roost, and when the 
hens are ready to brood, saturate the 
inside of the box before the clean straw 
or hay is put in with the eggs. It is 
very much less trouble to apply the oil 
than to use a wash of tobacco, or to go 
through a process of whitewashing once 
a month. 



Raising Pea Fowls. — J. W., of 
Jacksonville, New York, writes: I 
have raised a good many pea fowls, 
and have had the best luck when I let 
them alone. When they were confined 
the chicks always died. I generally 
(when I fcund the nest), took the pea 
hen's first laying, five or six eggs, and 
set them under a common hen ; she 
would raise about two of them, then the 
pea hen would " steal " her nest and 
raise three or four of her chicks. Mine 
never laid more than six eggs at a lay- 
ing. If the pea hen was allowed to set 
on her first laying, she almost always 
lost them all. 



Sponge Cake. — One cup of sugar, 
one cup of flour, sifted, four large or 
five small eggs. Beat the sugar and 
yolks nicely together. Beat the whites 
to a stiff" froth, add to the sugar and 
yolks ; then stir in the flour. One tea- 
spoonful of essence of lemon. Bake in 
a quick oven. 



Washing Powders. — Dissolve two 
pounds of soap in five and a half gallons 
of nearly boiling water, and to this add 
three large tablespoonfuls of ammonia, 
and one of spirits of turpentine. In 
this the linen is to be soaked for three 
hours, when it is readily cleansed, re- 
quiring but little rubbing. Ammonia 
does not effect linen fiber as soda does. 



Pickle for Hams. — For one hun- 
dred pounds of ham, take six gallons of 
water, nine pounds of salt, one quart of 
molasses, three ounces of saltpetre, and 
one ounce of saleratus. When ready 
to smoke they can be soaked and fresh- 
ened to taste, if too salt. 



PvECEIPT FOR CURING MEAT. 



To one gallon of water, 
Take 1^ lbs. of salt, 
•i lb. of sugar. 



\ oz. of saltpetre, 
\ oz. of potash. 



be in- 
Let 



In this ratio the pickle can 
creased to any quantity desired 
these be boiled together until all the dirt 
from the sugar rises to the top and is 
skimmed oft". Then throw it into a tub 
to cool, and when cold, pour it over 
your beef or pork to remain the usual 
time, say 4 or 5 weeks. The meat 
must be well covered with pickle, and 
should not be put dov/n for at least two 
days after killing, during which time it 
should be slightly sprinkled with pow- 
dered saltpetre, which removes all the 
surface-blood, etc., leaving the meat 
fresh and clean. Some omit boiling 
the pickle, and find it to answer well, 
though the operation of boiling purifies 
the pickle by throwing off the dirt 
always to be found in salt and sugar. 



' Borax for the Throat. — A writer 
in the Medical Record cites a number 
of cases in which borax has proved a 
most effective remedy in- certain forms 
of colds. He states that in sudden 
hoarseness or loss of voice in public 
speakers or singers, from colds, relief 
for an hour or so, as by magic, may be 
often obtained by slowly dissolving 
and partially swallowing, a lump of 
borax the size of a garden pea, or about 
three or four grains held in the mouth 
for ten minutes before speaking or sing- 
ing. This produces a secretion of 
saliva, or " watering" of the mouth and 
throat, probably restoring the voice or 
tone to the dried vocal cords, just as 
"wetting" brings back the missing 
notes to a flute when it is too dry. 



THE LAJYCASTER FARMER. 



4S 



LANCASTER, FEBRUARY, 1S74. ' 



S. S. RATHVOH, Editor. 
J B. DEVELIN, Ass'l Editorand Publisher. 

Puliii.-lie'l nionlhly uiuk-r the auspices of H'e Agri- 
cultural AXDHoiiTlCCLTUHAL SOCIETY. 

SI. 00 i>er Year in A<lvai>ce. .^1.25 if not 
I>ai(l ill {ulvauce. 

One. extra coi y to persons sending a club ft ten 
sul s':riberis, and a c; py of our beautiful Steel En- 
giavnig to every bubtcriber. 

A'l commiiuicHtious. to insure insertion, must be 
in till; tiatds of the editors before the let of each 
ni.:nHi. All advertisements, subscriptions and re- 
mittances to the address of the publisher, 

J. H. DEVELIN, Lancaster, Pa. 



WE INVITE CONTRIBUTIONS. 



Wc are eometimes sad and discour- 
aged when we look over our exchanges 
and find that they have so many con- 
tributors in different parts of the coun- 
try, who monthly add their mite to the 
interest of their columns, and we here, 
in the great county of Lancaster, with 
all our machinery of school education, 
have so few who take any interest iu 
Agricultural and Horticultural litera- 
ture. Chester, Berks, Philadelphia, 
Bucks, Montgomery, York, and other 
county farmers, find time to furnish 
local articles for these journals, but it 
israrel}^ that we find anything from the 
pen of a Lancaster county farmer in 
any of them. This surely cannot be 
because nothing transpires here worth 
recording, or that our farmers have not 
the ability to write. AVhat then is the 
cause? Is it indolence, or a willful 
neglect ? Is it that selfish desire that 
wishes to conceal its light under a 
bushel, or a contempt for home enter- 
pri.-C! ? 

Many think, because the}'- cannot 
furnish a good, long-winded paper, there 
is no use in writing at all. It is true,- 
w^e do not object to long articles, where 
the subject cannot be discussed or sat- 
isfactorily stated in a short one. We, 
however, prefer short ones, and to 
the point, even if they contain but a 
single idea— a single fact. In looking 
over the pages of Science Gossip, the 
Gardener's Monthly, and other equally 
excellent journals, we find many articles 
therein containing from six to twenty 



lines, and we doubt not these are most 
surely, most eagerly, and most fre- 
quently read, because they contain 
scintillations of light reflected from 
different stand-points and through differ- 
ent mediums of thought; and therefore 
must fall upon minds capable of appre- 
ciating them, and being benefited by 
them. 

If "it is more blessed to give than 
to receive," we do not exactly see how 
this benevolent maxim can be harmon- 
ized with the neglect of those wh o 
ought, and who can contribute to the 
columns of a local journal, devoted to 
the agricultural interests of the county. 



THE SEASON. 



Up to nearly the first of February the 
winter was characterized by almost un- 
precedented moderation, if we except 
one or two short "cold snaps " in Jan., 
during which, ice, three or four inches 
thick, was made, and the Conestoga and 
Susquehanna were for a few days closed. 
The weather during the greater part 
of January was so mild that dandelions 
grew and were gathered and sold in 
market during the whole month. In 
some favorable localities they also bud- 
ded and flowered, even to the attracting 
of bees and other insects. Violets and 
sti'awberries were in bloom out in the 
open air, and vegetntion in general 
seemed ready to put on its vernal sheen. 
Bees, wasps, ants, blowflies, butterflies, 
and a fewstercoraceous beetles, at warm 
and sunny intervals, were almost as 
active as in Ajn-il or May. The wheat 
fields were decked in liveliest green, and 
another such a month might have start- 
ed them on their vegetative way, per- 
haps only to be damaged beyond re- 
covery from the intervening storms, 
winds and freezes of blustering March. 
But all this is now changed. February 
came in piercing cold, which soon modi- 
fied sufficiently, through eastern winds, 

to allow the fall of a heavy snow on 

the 6th of the month — giving the first 
opportunity for the exhilarating enjoy- 
ment of sleighing, the first of the sea- 
son. Ice was also made, about four 
inches in thickness, and accordingly the 
winter harvest was rapidly gathered — 



u 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMEB. 



ice — Avhich is now looked upon as a com- 
mon necessity m the household. 

So far as we have been able to learn, 
nothing has been injured by the mild 
winter. The g-rain is well rooted, and 
able to bear the usual spring exposure. 
At this writing the earth iscoveredby 
a heavy carpet of snow, and everything 
is favorable to a luxuriant crop of grass 
and "Tain. 



MEETING OF THE HORTICUL- 
TURAL SOCIETY. 



The Lancaster County Agricultural 
and Horticultural Society met statedly 
yesterday afternoon at two o'clock, in 
the orphans' court room, Mr. John- 
son Miller in the chair. 

Milton B. Eshleman, Esq., was ap- 
pointed to prepare and deliver an essay 
at the March meeting. 

President Miller presented to each 
member a copy of the Practical Farmer 
— sent to him for distril)ution. 

A member inquired of the chair 
whether any " Granges" existed int his 
county, and was answered that one had 
been organized at Strasburg. It was 
also explained that any one friendly to 
the cause, whether engaged at farming 
or not, could become a member. 

AVm, P. Brinton, Esq., suggested 
that the society take up some fruit 
question for discussion ; and to a ques- 
tion, he replied that Crawford's late 
was the best peach for general cultiva- 
tion. A chestnut soil is the best for 
the growth of peaches, and the ground 
used therefor should be surrounded on 
three sides by timber, with a southern 
exposure. 

The discussion was not taken up, 
and the society adjourned. 



It takes from two to three columns 
of the Reading Eagle or Dispatch to 
record the proceedings of the " ]5erks 
County Agricultural and Horticultural 
Society," and if that be an indication 
of progress, then we must be very far 
in the rear. We sincerely hope that 
Mr. Eshleman's essay will bring out 
a large attendance at the next meeting, 
and that the members will sit and 
listen to him to the end ; for we know 



from experience that it is anytfcing but 
pleasant to read an essay to empty 
benches. We also hope that the sub- 
ject of his remarks may elicit discussion, 
for it is through discussion that many 
important facts in practical agriculture 
and horticulture are developed. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

THE HORSE BIT. 



The question of the bit, and of the 
hand that rules the bit, underlies the 
consideration of the whole subject of 
man's dominion over the horse. The 
intelligence of mankind has hitherto in- 
vented but two principal forms of bit ; 
the snaffle, the simple piece of iron 
which lies across the mouth, subject to 
endless modifications, such as being 
twisted, jointed, and so forth, and the 
curb-bit, a more powerful implement 
which has likewise undergone innumer- 
able variations. The curb-bit is an 
adaptation of the principle of the lever, 
and the lengthening of the check-piece 
allows a very powerful pressure to be 
exercised upon the jaw of the horse. 
The snaffle is, so to say, a natural bit, 
and the curb is an artiticial one. The 
snaffle was used by our ancestors, and 
by the ancient Greeks ; the curb is an 
Asiatic invention, and was probabl}^ 
brought into Europe with the Moors. 
In the famous mosaic found at Pompeii, 
representing, as is supposed, a battle 
between the Greeks and Persians, and 
which, at any rate, is the picture of a 
battle between Europeans and Asiatics, 
the Eastern horsemen ride with curbs, 
and the Europeans with snaffles. The 
difference in the bit modilies the whole 
style of riding; and as there are two 
sorts of bits, so there are two quite dif- 
ferent styles of schools of horseman- 
ship, which may be called the Eastern 
and the Western styles. The typo of 
the Eastern is best seen in the Bedouin 
Arab, with his short stirrup, peaked 
saddle, and severe bit: and the West- 
ern type in its simplest form is beauti-^ 
fully exemplified in- the Elgin marbles,* 
where naked men bestride bare-backed 
horses. To ride after this fashion is an 
athletic exercise ; the strength of the ^ 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



4.5 



man id ^et against the strength of the 
horse with little advantitious aid. The 
rider restrains the horse's impetuosity 
by the sheer force of his arm, and he 
maintains a seat on his back by exercis- 
ing the muscles of hvs legs. It is the 
equitation of athletes and of heroes; 
but it is clear that the balanced seat of 
the Arab, and the more co-nplete com- 
mand over his horse, which follows 
from the greater security of his seat, 
would make him infinitely more formi- 
dable in war than the European, in spite 
of the su])erior strength and size of the 
latter. History teaches us how the 
cavalry of the Saracens — small men on 
small horses — rode down the Christian 
horsemen till they learned to ride with 
the bits, and saddles, and lances of the 
Moslem cavalry. The invention of the 
curb-bit necessitated the stirrup, for a 
man sitting upon a bare-backed horse is 
forced to bear, at times, more or less 
heavily upon the bridle; and if, so rid- 
ing, he were using a curb-bit, and he 
were to lean any part of his weight 
upon it, his horse would stop, or would 
rear, or would flinch. The ancient 
Greeks and Romans are believed not to 
have known the use of stirrups. They 
are, indeed, said not to have been dis- 
covered till the fifth century of our era. 
This, if it is true, would apply only to 
Europe. In the East they were used 
many centuries before. The earliest 
representation of one 1 know is in the 
above-mentioned mosaic, where the 
horse of a dismounted trooper in Ori- 
ental costume is drawn with clearly- 
indicated stirrups ; the Greek horsemen 
in the mosaic are without them. — New 
Quarterly Magazine. 



THE LAW OF THE ROAD. 



The great leading rule is, that no one 
has a right to be in the middle of the 
road, except when no other person is 
present to claim his right to the use of 
one half of the highway; which claim 
he has precisely the same right to as- 
sert, when traveling in the same direc- 
tion, that he has when he meets an- 
othei-. This is law of every state in 
the Union, and so far as we arc in- 
for.aed, of every civilized country ; and 



all persons violating it are liable for all 
damages resulting from their conduct. 
When teams meet, the American law 
is that each, turning to the right, shall 
give half the road. The custom and the 
law of England require teams to turn 
to the left — as expressed in an old 
doggerel : 

The rule of the road is a parodox quite ; 

In ridiii" or driving along-. 
If yow keep to the left, yoii arc sure to go right. 

If you keep to the righl, you go wrong. 

In passing, the party in front is re- 
quired to turn to the left, so as to allow 
the person in the rear who is traveling 
at a more rapid rate to pass by on his 
right. 

When teams approach at right angles, 
or intersecting roads, it is the duty of 
the party who, by turning to the right, 
would pass to the rear of the other 
team, to pull up and allow the other to 
pass. 

A person with a light vehicle, meet- 
ing or desiring to pass a heavy laden 
team, especially if the latter is going up 
a hill, will generally turn out, without 
requiring the man with the loaded 
wagon to give half the road ; but the 
law imposes no such obligations in any 
case, and under all circumstances re- 
quires each party to give half the road, 
unless by accident or some obstruction 
it is found impossible to do so. 

If a party happens to be in the wrong 
place on the road or street, a party 
coming into collision with him is not 
entitled to damages, if, by the use of 
ordinary and reasonable diligence he 
could have avoided it. — National Live 
Stock Journal. 



Packing Butter. — In answer to 
"A Subscriber," as to the best method 
of packing butter for winter use, I 
would say that success depends more 
upon working the butter so as to ex- 
tract every particle of moisture, than 
the brine used. After thoroughly work- 
ing the butter twice, I put it in two- 
))ound rolls, wrap in muslin and pack 
in dry salt, using stone jars for the pur- 
pose. Fill all the crevices (for on the 
exclusion of the air depends the suc- 
cess) and cover with several inches of 
salt. Butter will keep months in per- 
fection, packed in this way. 

Aunt Feancis. 



40 



THE LAKCASTER FARMER. 



WHAT SHALL WE DO WITH 
OUR DAUGHTERS? 

Apropos of what Mrs. Livermore's 
late lecture on the above important 
question said, the Davenport Democrat 
thus sensibly makes answer : 

Teach them self-reliance. 

Teach them to make bread. 

Teach them to make shirts. 

Teach them to foot up store bills. 

Teach them not to wear false hair. 

Teach them not to paint or powder. 

Teach them to wear thick, warm 
shoes. 

Teach theni<how to wash and iron 
clothes. 

Bring them up in the way they should 
go. 

Teach them how to make their own 
dresses. 

Teach them that a dollar is only a 
hundred cents. 

Teach them bow to cook a good meal 
of victuals. 

Teach them every day dry, hard, 
practical common sense. 

Teach them how to darn stockings 
and sew on buttons. 

Give them a good substantial common 
school education. 

Teach them to say no, and mean it ; 
or yes, and stick to it. 

Teach them to regard the morals and 
not the money of beaux. 

Teach them to wear calico dresses — 
and do it like a queen. 

Teach them all the mysteries of the 
kitchen, the dining-room and the parlor. 

Teach them that a good, rosy romp 
is worth fifty consumptives. 

Teach them to have nothing to do 
with intemperate and dissolute young 
men. 

Teach them that the moi-e one lives 
within his income, the more they v,'ill 
save. 

Teach them the further one lives be- 
yond their income, the nearer they get 
to the poor-house. 

Rely upon it that upon your teaching 
depends in a great measure the weal o"r 
woe of their after life. 

Teach them the accomplishments — 
music, painting, drawing — if you have 
time and money to do it with. 



Teach them to cultivate a garden, 
and drive a road team or farm wagon. 

Teach them that God made them in 
his own image, and no amount of tight 
lacing will improve the model. 

Teach them that a good, steady me- 
chanic without a cent is w^orth a dozen 
oil patent loafers in broadcloth. 



FIGHTING CHICKENS. 

In answer to a correspondent of the 
Country Gentleman who wants to know 
where he can get the best breed of 
game fowls, " S.," of Richmond, Va., 
returns the following answer : 

I would ask him, and many others 
like him, if he is looking for game fowls 
in reality, or has he, like many others 
fancying game chickens mistaken what 
he does in fact want ? Thousands of 
chickens are annually sold for game, 
and ))red and resold and distributed far 
and wide, that are not game, but they 
answer the purpose, as they are never 
tri(!d — they are handsome, healthy, 
beautiful, and have some game in their 
blood. They are game enough to look 
handsome and lay eggs ; but if your 
correspondent has a mind so constructed 
that he is above calling a thing by a 
wrong name, let him send to some of 
those heathenish countries south of the 
Potomac river, where they still occa- 
sionally fight " a main of cocks." Many 
of your readers will hold up their hands 
in holy horror here, but, in that case, I 
think they should stop talking about 
game fowls, and continue to be satisfied 
with high-headed niongrels, that will 
certainly squawk and leave when the 
cruel steel is driven under their ribs by 
a more quiet and less showy opponent 
that means business. 

Game is a property of the mind and 
nerve, and it may be in a black fowl, 
dominique, spangled, pure white or 
otherwise; and the only certainty of 
getting game chickens is to get them 
from strains and families and neighbor- 
hoods where the cock is tried with ]^- 
inch steel gaffs, and see if they will 
stand in dust andieat, and be stabbed 
even to the death, and whether it re- 
cpiires one pass or a hundred — always 
with face to the foe, and without a 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



47 



quiver or qualm of cowardice ; and when 
at last, blind and cut to pieces alive, be 
falls over and makes his last flutter in 
an attempt to reach his enemy, he dies 
without a word — Game ! If you do 
not like this picture, do not be looking 
for Game fowls. The writer has raised 
them, but he has none to sell. 



Sheep and Clover. — These we be- 
lieve to be the two great agencies that 
are to revolutionize agriculture in the 
south, and the one is the companion of 
the other. Sheep will enable us to 
grow clover ; clover will help us to keep 
our sheep in fine condition, and both 
together will work something like a 
miracle on our worn out lands. De- 
pend upon it, sheep and clover are the 
magic words of the new era of south- 
ern agriculture. 



How TO SELECT A GooD Cow. — The 
crumply horn is a good indication ; a 
full eye is another. Her head should 
be small and short. Avoid the Roman 
nose — this indicates thin milk, and but 
little of it. Observe that she is dished 
in the face — sunk between the eyes,. 
Notice that she is what stock men call 
a good handler — skin soft and loose — 
deep from the loin to the udder, and 
lias a very slim tail. A cow with these 
l^oints never fails to be a good milker. 



Mustard Poultice. — The following, 
if it operates as stated, is a uselul 
piece of information for every family : 
" In making a mu.stard plaster use no 
water whatever, but mix the mustard 
with the whife of an egg, and the re- 
sult will be a plaster that will draw 
perfectly, but will not produce a blister 
even upon the skin of an infant, no 
matter how long it is allowed to remain 
upon the part. 

BOOK AND SPECIAL NOTICE 
DEPAUlMENT. 

Thk American Artisan for January. — 
Tlie American Ari/nfoi, wliich has hitherto 
been a weekly publication, lias changed its 
form to tliat of a monthly, and will, here- 
after, regularly appear as 'such. The pub- 



lishers announce that this form will be per- 
manent, and that it has been contemplated 
for a considerable time. In appearance, the 
magazine is a credit to American literature ; 
the typography is excellent, and the engrav- 
ings executed in the highest style of the art. 
The first page of cover, designed by the 
special artist of the American Adif^anAs 
particularly beautiful. In the ccnire is a fine 
view of the New York and Brooklyn bridge 
over the East river, in which this enormous 
structure is represented as it will appear 
when completed. This is surrounded by 
symbolic engravings, and lettering engraved 
in the finest style and printed in tint, by 
which a most beautiful effect is secured. The 
literary character of the American Artifictn 
appears to be commensurate with its typo- 
graphical excellence. There is a happy 
blending of interesting and selected miscel- 
lany with teclmical matters, which, if the 
character of the selections and original arti- 
cles be maintained at their present high 
standard, must inevitably render this one of 
the most popular magazines vet published. 
An article entitled, ''Ill-paid Labor: A 
Social Danger," discusses some of the least 
remunerative occupations, by which poor 
but honest people manage to keep soul and 
body together. This article should be read 
by all interested in the adjustment of the 
relations of labor and capital, and all who 
wish to gather reliable information relative 
to needed social reforms. The " Inaugural 
Address of Prof. Fleeming Jenkin," who 
occupies the professorial cliair of applied 
mechanics in the University of Edinburgh, 
's full of valuable suggestions to mill-owners, 
steamship-owners, and proprietors of large 
manufactories. In the department of "Ap- 
plied Chemistry," there are several articles 
of interest and value, and a number of 
recipes which are of themselves worth the 
price of the magazine. The Artisan appears 
to have a wide influence, if we nuiy judge 
from its department of " Corresi>ondence " 
In this many important subjects are discussed 
with unusual ability. In tlie department of 
" Popular Science Miscellany," is a descri])- 
tiou, with engravings, of "Prof. Airy's 
Automaton Transit of Venus," a device now 
attracting the attention of astronomens 
throughout the world, but which, notwith- 
standing its scientific character, is so plain, 
that all may read and understand it. In the 
"Editorial Department," there is an able re- 
view of the character and life of Professor 
Agassiz. in which thS author expresses the 
belief that the opposition of that eminent 
savant to the Darwinian theory will ulti- 
mately enhance or mar his reputation. Tim 
leading editorial is entitled, " (JiMUges from 
English and American Stand-points." It is a 
c irefully written, thoughtful article, in which 



Jf8 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



the f^'i'ounds of the agricultural revolt against 
existiug monopolies is very ably stated and 
justified. The department of " Civil and 
Mechanical Engineering," contains a report 
from Gen. Newton, United §tates Engineer 
in the government works at Hell Gate. This 
report is full of interesting and important 
statistics, which are thus placed permanently 
on record. We notice an able contribution 
from Prof. Sweet, of Cornell Uuivert^ity, on 
" Tools of Accuracy," which is not only 
illustrated by some very fine engravings, but 
which discusses subjects of great importance 
to all mechanical engineers. The profuse- 
ness and excellence of engraving is a marked 
characteristic of this publication. Nearly 
every department in it contains finely execut- 
ed illustrations. This monthly is a valuable 
addition to American Magazine literature, 
and at its subscription price of .$2 per annum 
we regard it as the cheapest yet issused. It 
is to be placed on sale by all respectable city 
newsdealers. The publishers are Messrs. 
Brown & Allen, No. 258 Broadway, New 
York. 

The February number of Wood's House- 
hold Magazine is really a marvel of what 
can be furnished for only one dollar a year. 
C onsidering the cost and the quality, this is 
the cheapest magazine which comes to our 
table. We have not room to specify the ar- 
ticles which fill the pages before us, but they 
are many and excellent. The magazine 
contains three engravings— a pretty house 
design — also the New York Fashions (illus- 
trated), prepared expressly for the " House, 
hold" by Mme. Demorest. The publisher an- 
nounces that hereafter the magazine will al. 
ways be illustrated, 

Subscriptions may begin with any number. 
Only .fl a year, or with chromo, "Yose- 
mite," ^1.50. Address Wood's Household 
^tagazine, Newburgh, N. Y. 
Magazine and Farmer (1 year), - ^1.50 
" " Including Chromos, 1.75 

The Horticulturist and Journal of 
Rural Art and Taste, published by Henry 
'>'. Williams, No. 5 Beekman street, New 
York, is a regular monthly visitor, and con- 
tains a large amount of valuable infoi'matioii 
for the gardener, florists and nurserymen. It 
is ably edited, and will be sent for the re- 
mainder of the year for $1.50, if subscrip- 
tions are remitted at once to above address. 



MARI^ETS. 



CHICAGO CATTLE MARKET. 

Chicago, Feb. 14. 
Receipts, 589 ; market quiet and nomi- 
nally unchanged; shipments, 1,100. 



Hogs — Receipts, 3,317 ; market active 
and firm for good grades at !$4.90@5.25 for 
fair to medium, and $5.15@5.80 for common. 

Sheep dull and nominal ; shipments, 7,225. 



PHILADELPHIA CATTLE MARKET. 

Monday, Feb. 16. 

Market for beef cattle fairly active. We 
quote fair and choice at 5^@7|. and com- 
mon at 4@55C. ; receipts, 2,150 head. 

Sheep slow to move ; sales of common to 
prime at 5@8c. W 1). ; receipts, 7,000 head. 

Hogs very dull and lower ; sales of corn- 
fed at .1|;8.50@9; receipts, 4,500 head. 



PHILADELPHIA MARKET. 

Philadelphia, Feb. 16. 

Flour dull ; prices 25c. 1^ bbl. lower; su- 
perfine, $5@5.50 ; extra, ,f 6@6.50 ; Wiscon- 
sin and Minnesota extra family, ,'$5.7.5((f'7.75 ; 
Penna., Ohio and Indiana do. $7.50(a)8; 
fancy brands, $8.25@ 10.25. 

Wheat nothing doing, more offering, but 
limited demand; red, $1,58@1.68; amber, 
$L70@1.78; white, $1.80@1.B5. 

Rye steady at 96c. 

Corn steady ; yellow at 77c. 

Oats, 62@65c. for western white, and 
58(a) 60c. for Penna. 

Cloverseed in limited demand ; common 
and prime Penna., Ih to OjC. 



NEW YORK MARKET. 

New York, Feb. 14. 

Flour, etc. — The flour market is very 
quiet, and under liberal arrivals the low 
grades are not so firm. Sales of 9,000 bbls. 
We quote as follows : Sour V bbl., $3.25@ 
6.40. 

Grain.— The demand for wheat is less ac- 
tive, and with liberal offerings prices are 
lower. The sales are 60,000 bus. at $1.40@ 
1.52 for ungraded spring. 

Barley is dull and heavy ; sales of 8,500 
bus. two-rowed State at $1.75. 

Barley malt is in limited demand, and 
tame sales of 5,000 bus. Canada on private 
terms. 

Oats are quiet, but firm ; the demand 
only moderate ; the stock is increasing ; the 
sales are 40,000 bus. new Ohio mixed at 61 
@6Uc. 

Rye is quiet, but steady ; sales of car lots 
at .$L03. 

Corn is less active, but without important 
change ; the sales are 60,000 bus. western 
mixed at 76@79c. 




G. 




afiW 




'mutt. 



DEVOTED TO 

Agriculture, Horticulture, Domestic Economy and Miscellany. 

EDITED BY S. S. RATHVO}^ & J. B. DEVELII^. 



''The Fanner is the founder of ciinHzation." — WEBSTER. 



Vol. VL 



MltlCH, 187 Jf. 



,A^o. S. 



MEETING OF THE LAXCASTEll 

COUNTY AGRICULTLTRAL 

AND HORTICULTURAL 

SOCIETY. 



THE society met in the Orphans' 
Court Room, at 2 p. m., March 2d, 
186-1:, Mr. Johnson Miller in the chair. 
On motion, the reading of minutes of 
the former meeting was dispensed with. 
The members present were John Miller, 
Jacob B. Garber, N. D. Kendig, Levi 
G. Gross, D. G. Swartz, esq.. Ell. 
Griest, S. P. Ebj, esq., Peter S. Reist, 
Levi S. Reist, Wm. McComsey, W. H. 
Kinzer, M. B. Eshleman, Jonas Buck- 
waiter, S. S. Rathvon, H. M. Engle, 
M. Hiller, James Wood. 

Alexander Harris, Secretary of the 
Society, offered his resignation, on the 
ground of other business interfering; 
and after a few complimentary remarks 
by Mr. Engle, the resignation, was, on 
motion, accepted. 

On motion of Levi S. Reist, M. N. 
Brubak(n- was elected Secretary of the 
Society for one year. 

In report of crops, Mr. Engle remark- 
ed that the grain looks fifte. Fruit 
looks reasonably favorable, though not 
out of danger yet. 

Jonas Buckwaltcr was, on motion, 
elected a member. 

Milton B. Eshleman, esq., read a very 
interesting Essay on " Money and its 
Uses," which was well received. The 
following is the essay: 

This is a subject that is peculiarly 



interesting to us all. There is an en- 
ticing jingle about the word, "money," 
that draws the attention of every sane 
being. We are educated from our 
earliest infancy to open our eyes and 
ears, whenever the glisten or jingle of 
money is discernible. Thus we grow, 
from the child who would work a Avhole 
day for a cent, to the man who counts 
every work-day worth a dollar, and on 
to the man of prosperity who counts 
his daily income by thousands of dol- 
lars. 

Why does the MiUcr grind the grain? 

The Mason raise tlie wall ? 
The Builder cut and bore and plane ? 

The Cohbler ply his awl ? 

AVhy does the blacksmith sweat and blow 

The Doctor drive all day ? 
The Tailor cut and press and sew 7 

The Parson preach and pray ? 

It is for money 1 Yes, from the knce- 

h'-gh street beggar to the irrepressible 

Barnum, allstr-ve for money, all desire 

^mv.mey, all live for monuy. The poet 

•BuruH says — 

" For Gold f ho Merchant ploughs the main, 
The Farmer ploughs the manor.'' 

As the result of an earnest search for 
the early history of money, I have found 
the following : Iron was the primitive 
money of the Lacediemonians, while 
copper was used by the Romans. The 
coining of silver w-is inti'oduced into 
Rome 266 years before Christ, and 
gol ( 60 years later. These Roman 
coins were used in England until the 
arrival of the Saxons. The first Gre- 
cian coins were of a spherical shape, 
but by degrees they were made more 



50 



TEE LAA^CASTER FARMER. 



flat until the present form was adopted. 
The first image that graced any coin 
was that of Alexander the Great. 
Cowries, which are small sea-shells 
found at Maklines are yet used 
for money in Hindoostan and parts of 
Africa. They are valued at the rate of 
100 for a penny. The first money 
coined in the United States was in 
Philadelphia, in 1193. The present 
mint was built in 1830, and almost the 
first money coined in it was that sent 
by James Smithson, of England, for 
the building and endowment of the 
Smithsonian Institute at Washington 
It was brought over in English sover- 
eigns, and coined into American eagles. 
That money is a good thing, and "that 
it is a necessity in a civilized commu- 
nity, all will admit. Suppose we were 
deprived of it just now. Hr>w -would 
we manage to do business or to deal 
with each other ? The farmer and the 
miller might trade without much 
trouble, and each of them with the 
merchant, and they might also satisfy 
the doctor, the lawyer and the minister ; 
but the mechanics and the merchants — 
how would they trade with each other ? 
It would be impossible without some 
financial medium, or a complicated sys- 
tem of orders. Money is a very con- 
v>'n:ent thing to have in one's pocket, 
and many thousand grand speculations 
have been missed just for the want of 
money to invest. Wherever we go we 
find men with money and men with 
none ; it is necessary for the good of 
society ; it is divinely purposed that 
money should be more valuable to some 
than to others, that some are willing 
to work for stated salaries while others 
are willing to pay them. Some must 
have wealth in order to support those 
who have none ; some must be not only 
willing but able to sustain the charita- 
ble institutions, pul^lic schools and 
churches, to send missionari.es to the 
heathen and spread the gospel through- 
out the length and breadth of the earth. 
Yery true is the old rhyme: 

" riioso who have monej' liave trouble about it, 
Ami those who have none have^trouble enough 
without it." 

We daily hear from those who have 
too little, and we sometimes find those 
who have too mu2h. Thev have no 



real pleasure ; they will become either 
avaricious and miserly, or profligate — 
and their money eventually causes much 
trouble and sufferingtothcm, and often 
to those about them. Very apparent 
is the point of the beggar's song : "It is 
no disgrace to be poor, but it is mighty 
unhandy." Money, money, is their in- 
cessant cry. It begins with a cent and 
ends with a fortune. Money glistens 
in their eyes just as it does in those of 
the millionaire, and unless they have 
had the advantage of a Christian edu- 
cation, hardly will they resist the temp- 
tation to procure it even at the expense 
of virtue. Dr. Johnson says : 



"For gohl, his sword the hireling ruffian draws, 
For gold, tlie liireling judge distorts the laws. 

Wealth* heape<l ou wealth, nor truth nor 
safety buys, 

The dangers gather as the treasures rise." 

Or as another writer explains it : 

" My neiglibor Jones and I fell out 
And what dy'e think it was about ? 
Why I he had money and I had none, 
And that's tlio way the fuss, begun." 

Money is made to use. It is in- 
tended to be a convenience, and it 
cannot be a convenience unless it is 
kept in circulation. Therefore, one 
who piles it up, and keeps it hid in 
times of scarcity, renders himself a 
nuisance to society, an injury to the 
community, a drawback to trade, and 
an enemy to industry and enterprise of 
every kind. If there were no men 
to advance money to build railroads, 
factories and iron works, where would 
the millions find labor ? If there were 
none to make outlay in buildings, 
churches and other structures, where 
would the multitudes find comfort? If 
, there were no liberal, patriotic people, 
'how would wc as a nation ever possess 
the hallowed ground of Mt. Yernon? 
or, as a county, raise a monument to 
the memory of our friends and neigh- 
bors who fell in defense of their coun- 
try ? 

I have now arrived at the bottom of 
my subject, and will consider that great, 
grand mover of trade, commerce, civil- 
ization and domestic happiness — Ready 
Money, Cash, Tin, Spondulix, or what- 
ever you cho )se to call it. It lubricates 
the wheels ^f trade, as oil does those of 
a locomotive ; it supplies the force and 
power, as water does to the mill. All 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



51 



who have ever had money in their pos- 
session kaow its magic power. Ask 
for what you will, you will get it, and 
the only trouble seems to be to keep a 
supply of the needful always on hand. 
Dr. Franklin gave a rule, at once sim- 
ple, plain and sure, for making money 
plenty in every man's pocket, yet how- 
few obey the simple rule, and conse- 
quently how few enjoy the blessed 
benefits to be derived from it. This is 
his rule: "Spend every day one cent 
less than thy clear gain." Why is this 
simple rule so little regarded? Why 
are there so many who live from hand 
to mouth ? Why are there so many 
who, working day after day, and month 
after month, yet have no money? Why 
are there so many who live on the next 
month's income? Why is it that at 
every first of April the whole country 
must be convulsed, scoured, ransacked, 
for money ? Why is it that property 
must be thrown into market and sold 
at any price ? Why is it that men are 
sold out of house and home for debt ? 
Why is it that, when a business man 
dies, years and years are required to 
settle up his estate ? Why, I ask, are 
all these evils ? Why do they continue 
to exist ? Why do they yearly grow 
worse ? One small word will answer 
them all. Credit ! yes credit is the 
cause of all, as I will quickly prove. 
1st. Credit impoverishes the laboring 
classes, for the temptation is too great 
for them to resist, and when bargains 
can be made on credit, one is so apt to 
count very largely on his income and 
buy to the full amount, making no 
allowance for lost time, sickness, hard 
times, etc. Then, when the money is 
due, he has not enough to pay all. His 
creditors watch him, like so many 
hawks, and whenever he gets a dollar, 
they pounce down on him and claim it 
as their own. 2d. Credit lowers the mof 
rality of a community ; for when a man 
gets in debt if there is a spark of hones- 
ty in him he will burn for shame ; he 
will suffer from the very thought of it; 
he will work day and night to earn 
the required sum to ca eel his obli- 
gation. But in nine cases put of ten he 
is not]able to do it. Then he is in debt, 
and he is henceforth a slave to an un- 
pleasant feeling of humility. He makes 



promises that he hopes he may be able 
to fulfill; he next makes promises that he 
knows it is barely possible for him to ful- 
fill; he next makes promises that he knows 
positively he will not be able to ful- 
fill ; he then begins to work himself up to 
feel that his creditors can afford to lose 
the money better than he can raise it, apd 
finally gives up the idea of paying it at 
all. He is then a rogue, made so partly 
by bad luck, partly by accident, partly 
by carelessness, but wholly and really 
by the credit aydem. There is a class 
of persons — mostly mechanics and shop- 
men — who buy on credit, because they 
cannot get the money due them, and 
why ? just because those who era- 
ploy them take advantage of the credit 
system, and make them wait for their 
money, half a year or more. These 
mechanics then, buying the necessaries 
of life on credit, are naturally charged 
the credit price, thereby paying heavy 
interest on the money due them, well 
earned, but not received. And who is 
withholding the money ? Why, ten to 
one, it is the farmer, while his money is 
drawing interest in some bank, or his 
grain lying in the granary waiting for 
the highest rise of the market. Here, 
then, is the great deadly evil of the 
credit system. Here is where it starts ; 
here is the place to throw the blame, 
and here is the place to begin to rectify. 
In a country like this the farmer makes 
the money ; he is the producer ; he 
draws the money into the neighborhood, 
and to him must everj^ one look for his 
share of it. 

The mechanic or tradesman gets the 
most of his work from the farmer, who 
has the money, "or is able to get it," 
but, instead of paying, he puts it all 
on interest till next A pril, thus cheating 
the tradesman out of it for half a year 
or more. He, the tradesman, in turn 
must cheat the merchant and the miller, 
and so it goes on until every one is in 
debt, and things get so wound up that 
they can never be extricated. Then 
some one breaks up, and all suffer more 
or less. Then people get excited ; bill 
after bill is sent and returned ; every 
one wants money to pay to some one 
else, and none can be got. Meanwhile 
the farmer holds and draws interest on 
the money that rightly belongs to 



52 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



others, and which, if put into circula- 
tion, would give peace and comfort, 
happiness and prosperity to the whole 
community. You money-holding far m- 
ers, 1 charge the whole trouble arising 
from the credit system directly to you. 
You stand at the top of this retrograd- 
ing series; you are to blame for demor- 
alizing and impoverishing the laboring 
classes, and encouraging this system 
which drives men from place to place 
ever}'' year, getting in debt and losing 
their credit wherever they go, until 
they lose their manliness and make it 
their stud}'' to get into debt wherever 
they can, and then laugh at the law, 
for it can't touch them. But go you, 
farmer, pay cash for your work, and 
the mechanic will pay cash for his 
flour and store goods. He will buy 
cheaper and be able to buy more ; 
he will then be able to live better or 
save more. Then will retailers stop 
the credit system altogether ; they will 
keep no book accounts, and no man 
will ask for anything without money in 
his hand. Every man can then buy at 
the lowest price, for the merchant will 
not be afraid of bad debts to make a 
drawback on his profits. Then there 
will be no collecting bills before mov- 
ing time, no hard looks at each other, 
nor bad feelings between neighbors. 
All would stand on equal footing, and 
every one could sing from his heart 
that noble and elevating song — "I owe 
no man a dollar." 

Oh! then farmers, business men, 
men of means, will you learn the im- 
portance of paying' small bills, upon 
which often hang the happiness, the 
honor, the credit, and sometimes the 
existence of human beings ? Will you 
learn the Golden Rule ? Will you do 
what lies in your power to keep money 
in circulation ? Then you will see 
peace and plenty reign. Thea you 
will see happiness, prosperity and hon- 
esty stamped on every brow. Then 
you will see the decrease of crime and- 
t,he increase of Faith, Unity, Morality 
and Religiou. 

Mr. Levi S. Reist moved a vote of 
thanks to the Essayist, which was un- 
animously adopted. 

The essay was the subject of an in- 
teresting discussion, participated in by 



Mr. Engle, S. P. Eby, Esq., Levi S. 
Reist, P. S. Reist, David Gr. Swartz, 
Esq., Mr. Kendig, Mr. Johnson Miller. 
The discussion took a wide range, and 
finally embraced the subject of the use 
and abuse of tobacco. 

Levi S. Reist exhibited four varieties 
of fine apples, some of which were 
seedlings. 

Jacob B. Garber exhibited one Osage 
orange apple. 

The following roses were exhibited 
by D. L. Resh, from the " Susquehanna 
Nursery and Green House," corner 
Fourth and Chestnut streets, Columbia, 
Pa., viz : Hermosa, Malmaison, La 
Reine, Louis Odier, and Alice Durand. 
These were large, beautiful and very 
fragrant varieties of this popular bloom- 
ing shrub, well worthy the cultivation 
of all lovers of the beautiful and agree- 
able. 

On motion of Levi S. Reist, Wal- 
ter Kieffer was elected assistant secre- 
tary of the society for one year. 

The Chairman, Mr. Miller, distribut- 
ed a few of B. K. Bliss's seed cata- 
logues. 

Mr. Engle made some valuable sug- 
gestions in regard to pruning grape 
vines. 

On motion, the grange question and 
an essay on fruit culture, by H. M. En- 
gle, were adopted for next meeting. 

Mr. Levi S. Reist announced that 
there would be a distribution of seeds 
at the next meeting of the society. 

On motion, the society adjourned. 

HORTICULTURE AND THE CEN- 
TENNIAL. 



Are the Horticulturists and Flori- 
culturists of Lancaster City and county 
giving that, heed to the approaching 
Centennial Exhibition, which the 
subject so eminently demands and de- 
serves ? Lancaster county occupies a 
prominent position before the country, 
and has numerous representatives in 
almost every fertile part of it. These, 
as well as her resident citizens, will be 
anxiously looking to see what part she 
intends to act in our great national in- 
dustrial drama. Will she be an active 
co-worker in the assembled industries 



THE LAJYCASTER FARMER, 



53 



of the world, on that great occasion, or 
will she be content to be a mere spec- 
tator ? Located so near the scene of 
action, she has opportunities not enjoy- 
ed bj those who are farther removed, 
and for that reason alone, ought to be 
able to make her mark. As an illustra- 
tion of what is expected to be done, we 
submit the following, taken from the 
colunms of a recent number of the 
Public Ledger : 

THE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY AND 
THE CENTENNIAL EXPOSITION. 

The Committee of the Centennial 
Horticultural Society on Horticultural 
Buildings for the International Exhi- 
bition of 1816, consisting of Messrs. 
James Ritchie, Hugh Graham, Mar- 
shall P. Wilder, S. B. Parsons and J. 
S. Houghton, sent yesterday, to Mr. 
Goshorn, their report in reference to 
horticultural buildings. The commit- 
tee stated that they are of opinion that 
the erection of one large building as a 
gen ral conservatory should be com- 
menced at once. This building to be 
for the display of plants, and especi- 
ally palms and other large tropical -and 
half-hardy ornamental trees, and that 
this building should be so constructed 
as to be suitable for national exhibitions 
of fruits, plants and flowers. This 
general conservatory should be fitted 
up with fountains, rock-work, aquari- 
ums, hangina-baskets, fern cases, vases 
with growing plants, garden statuary, 
contrivances to illustrate windov/ gar- 
dening, and other objects of horticul- 
tural interest. 

The committee also recommend, in 
addition to the conservatory, the erec- 
tion of a practical working green-house 
on an extended scale, for keeping plants 
in a healthful condition when not re- 
(juired for exhibition purposes. 

As to the size of the buildings, the 
report states that the most desirable for 
the large conservatory and green-house 
would be one with a truss roof, covered 
with galvanized iron, and the sides to 
be chiefly glass. A house like this, it 
is believed, would supply light enough 
to keep delicate plants in health for 
m^ny days. Also, a lean-to green- 
liouse with glass roof, attached to the 
sid s of the main building of such ex- 



tent as may be required, in which to 
grow and keep delicate ornamental 
plants. The glass roof of this green- 
house to be curvilinear in form and the 
house altogether ornamental in design 
and finish. 

It is recommended that the chief 
conservatory be about 15 feet wide, 
2-iO to 300 feet long, and about 60 to 
15 feet high to the centre of the arch ; 
the sides to be mostly of glass. The 
green-house should be about 30 feet 
wide and 10 to 30 feet high, and ex- 
tending the whole length of the main 
building on both sides, and probably 
nearly across the ends, leaving spacious 
entrances at each end of the building, 
and one or more entrances on the sides 
which may be treated by the architects 
in an ornamental manner. The ends 
of the conservatory may be ornamented 
with towers or other designs. 

The committee also recommend, in 
addition to these buildings, the erec- 
tion of a. span-roofed house, about 30 to 
40 feet wide, and 100 feet long, to be 
used as a grapery to exhibit the art of 
growing foreign grapes under glass, 
and also to show some new varieties of 
such grapes suited to general cultiva- 
tion in this way which are not gener- 
ally known. Of' this kind may be 
named the Royal Ascot, which is 
more hardy and prolific than the Black 
Hamburg. The vines may be got into 
condition to be fruited in 1816, if plant- 
ed in boxes, say 18 inches square, in 
the spring of 1814, and grown under 
favorable circumstances under glass for 
two years. 

To make a good display of hardy 
fruits under glass, the committee say 
"that as it will be almost impossible, 
for a variety of reasons, to make much 
of a local display in 1816 of growing 
fruits of any kind except strawberries, 
and since fruit culture in the older 
States has suffered so much from cli- 
matic changes, insects, blight, frosts, 
fungus, drouth, etc., etc., the culture of 
ain-icots, nectarines, plums, and even 
peaches and pears, under glass, has be- 
come an jobject of so much intei-est to 
gentlemen of means as that of the for- 
eign grape, therefore, in the opinion of 
this committee, an orchard house, so 
called, for growing the fruits above 



<54 



\AJYCASTER FARMER. 



enumerated and some others, would be 
a very useful and attractive addition 
to the Horticultural Garden. The 
methods of culture and pruning re- 
quired in the Orchard House are but 
little known in America, but we have 
in and near Philadelphia, and in other 
parts of the country, many persons 
who have had practical experience in 
this art. To make a good display of 
this kind of fruit culture, a house 
would be needed about 30 or 40 feet 
wide, and about 150 feet long. If the 
house could be ready in the spring of 
1875, it could be fruited in 1876. The 
orders for trees should" be issued early 
in the spring of 1874, and they could 
be grown and pruned in various nur- 
series." 

It is also stated that many horticul- 
turists desire to have a house for that 
magnificent plant, the Victoria Regia, 
and other aquatic plants: and some of 
our citizens have made liberal offers of 
money to aid in the construction and 
support of such a house. If this desire 
can be gratified, the Centennial Horti- 
cultural Society will no doubt ascertain 
and report further, facts on this subject. 

The committee, in concluding their 
report, express a desire that the build- 
ings to be erected shall be creditable to 
the taste and skill of our people, and 
that they may become a basis of a per- 
manent horticultural garden for Fair- 
mount Park. The opinion is expressed 
that as soon as the houses are ready, 
numerous donations of rare plants will 
be made from private collections and 
commercial nurseries, as some large 
palms have already been offered, and 
that a large number of choice plants 
may be obtained from the Botanic and 
Experimental Gardens at Washington ; 
and if the work of building the conser- 
vatory shall devolve upon the city, it 
would be desirable to have these houses 
ready as soon as possible, in order to 
have something beautiful to show to 
visitors during the next two years as 
evidence that we are in earnest and do- 
ing our work well. The decorations of 
the grounds devoted to the Horticultu- 
ral Department of the great exhibition 
will form the subject of a report by an- 
other committee. 



SOLANACE JE -NIGHT-SHADE 
FAMILY. 

BY J. STAUFFER. 



A remarkable natural order of herb- 
aceous and shrubby plants. This order 
contains food and medical plants, such 
as night-shade, henbane, mandrake, 
(not the May-;apple, but the true man- 
drake) ; tobacco, stramonium, the 
potato and the tomato, the leaves of all 
which are narcotic and exciting, but in 
different degrees — from Atropa Bella- 
donna, which causes vertigo, convul- 
sions, and vomiting; tobacco which 
will frequently produce the first and 
last of these symptoms ; henbane and 
stramboniura — down to some of the 
solanum tribes, the leaves of which are 
so inert as to be used for pot-herbs. 
Yet in the potato plant there is an 
acrid narcotic principle in the stem and 
leaves, and even in the rind or skin of 
the tuber ; while the inside of the lat- 
ter consists principally of starch, the 
small quantity of deleterious matter 
being volatile and near the surface, is 
readily drawn of by the heat applied 
in boiling them. As an order the herb- 
age and fruits of these are mostly de- 
leterious, often violently poisonous and 
furnishing some of the most active 
medicines. Hence it is no wonder that 
years ago the tomato — known as " love 
apple," — was simply cultivated as a cu- 
riosity ; no one then would have dared 
to eat them raw. 

This resulted from their family con- 
nections being of bad repute, but time 
and experience changes many notions 
once very popular. As every one can 
refer to botanical works for specific de- 
scriptions, I shall not attempt to teach 
botany — but simply make references, as 
they occur to me. I'll take them up in 
order, however: one of the rare plants 
under cultivation is the Nolana — a 
family of low and spreading plants. 
The night-shade family contains the 
Lycopeviiicum esculentum — the culti- 
vated tomata. The varieties or species 
known are the L. Geraaiforme (cherry 
shaped), L. hUeum (yellow-fruited), L. 
commidatum (changed, yellow), L. es- 
culentum (eatable), L. chrysocar-pum 
(yellow-fruited), L. erythrocaiyum. 



THE LAJVCASTEB, FABMER. 



5n 



(red-fruited), L. lericocarpum (white- 
fruited), L. Humboldt it, (Humboldt's 
3^e]low), L. Peruvianum (Peruvian 
yellow). L. procumhens (lying down, 
cream color), L. pyriformic (pear- 
shaped yellow). Then comes the genus 
solanum; the S. ro^^fratum, and S. hetc- 
rodoxum, are wild western species, 
more or less prickly — like the S. Garo- 
linense (horse nettle). This is an ex- 
ceedingly pernicious loeed, and if you 
ever undertake to dig it up, you will find 
the roots well spread and penetrating 
the soil to a great depth. My neigh- 
bor Hensel tried the experiment and 
his report satisfied me by simply taking 
the top to add to my collection. This 
is found in several localities in Penn- 
sylvania, it is so tenacious, and like, the 
Canada thistle, hard to get rid of It 
comes from the south as its specific 
name implies The stem is almost 
shrubby, hollow, branching, armed with 
spreading prickles. Leaves four to six 
inches long, aculeate, prickly on both 
sides — berries small, globose. I am a 
little fuller on this species — because our 
farmers will do well to make its ac- 
quaintance, and when they meet with 
it, promptly and efiTectually eradicate it 
from their premises. It soon grows in 
patches, so thickly as to be a nuisance 
to stock in the pasture, to say nothing 
of the soil it occupies. 

The S. aculeatissimum, is another 
introduced weed in waste places, like 
the last, only smaller, and as yet very 
rare ; the S. Melongena (Egg-Plant, 
Aubergine). Thesfi we see under cul- 
tivation and on market. The next is 
the 8. nigrum (black or common night 
shade). Germ, der schwaze Nacht- 
schatlen. This is found in waste 
places, about gardens and dwellings, 
and is of little consequence more than its 
weedy appearance ; the small white 
flowers and round berries, are familiar, 
and the punctured leaves. Medicinally 
it seems to have the same properties as 
the bitter sweet (S. Dulcamara). Since 
Solaniana is found to exist even in a 
greater degree in the niger — than in 
the dulcamara, it is deemed superior. It 
is said to be powerfully narcotic, 
sudorific, cathartic, and diuretic. The 
leaves are used in Brazil, like those of 
Jamestown weed {Jimson weed, stra- 



monium) with us, in poultices or decoc- 
tion for pamful wounds. The S. tuhero- 
su:ii (potato). The *S'. Pseudo-capsi- 
cum rJerusalum cherry) a small shrub- 
b}'- house plant cultivated for the beauty 
of its red fruit. But I cannot stop to 
specify the re.st of the 101 species of 
solanum and varieties enumerated in 
the Gardeners' Dictionary, so I will i)as3 
to the genus Gapaicum. Cayenne or 
Red-pepper plant, though many kinds 
are yellow. South American plants. 
The G. annum (common) red or green, 
large, oblong, sometimes globular and 
angular. The C cerasiforme, has a 
cherry-like fruit, similar to the Jerusa- 
lem cherry, just mentioned above. Then 
comes the genus Physalis (ground- 
cherry), the cherry being in an in- 
flated or bladdery envelope. • The P. 
Alkekenqi, is the strawberry tomato. 
The P. Pennsylvanica is a wild species, 
rather smooth, while the P. viscosa is 
clammy-pubescent. We find them 
along fence rows, and woods; then there 
in the P. pubescens, has also clammy 
hairs — berry-greenish or yellow — the P. 
angulata, an P. Philadelphica, are 
apparently only varieties. A plant 
found in some gardens, called Apple of 
Peru, is the Nicandra physaloides ; has 
its fruit in an inflated angular bladder. 
Then is the Huoscyamus niger (black 
henbane of Europe), the Atropa bel- 
ladonna — these are well-known medical 
plants of great power. Then come the 
varieties of flowering-plants ; Petunia 
derived its name from petum, Brazilian 
name for tobacco — five species are de- 
scribed. The genus Nieremhergi.a, 
named after a Spanish Jesuit is allied 
to Petunia, like that is to tobacco; they 
are pretty half-hard}^ plants for flower- 
ing beds. I have five species which are 
described. The genus Nicotiana, is com- 
prised of the different species of tobacco 
of which 34 are given, 30 annual and 
four perennials, cultivated for ornament 
and the leaf; some arc simply flowering 
plants. The useful ones N. tahacum, 
and mncropliylle yield their large leaves 
for fumigating, are made up into cigars, 
etc., and numerous hybrids and varieties. 
But I am not on tobacco culture, and 
l)ass on to the Datura (thorn ai)ple), 
Stramoneum, or D. Stramonium, com- 
mon. The Jamestown Weed — vulgar- 



56 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



]y called " Stinking Toom." These are 
much too common, and are a coarse, 
obnoxious, unsifi:htly fetid weed, and 
yet the ivory bells are pretty in flower. 
The D. Tatula,has violet purple flowers. 
The D. Metel, D. metelvidas, D. ar- 
bosa and D. suaveolens, are cultivated. 
There are twenty-one species described 
in the Gardeners' dictionary. Then 
comes the Brur/mansia (this is however 
included in the list of the Datura). The 
double are odd and hence curious flow- 
ers. The genus Lycium : the L. vul- 
gare, is the matrimony vine, common 
about many dwellings, but cultivated — 
sometimes strayed out and found wild ; 
the Z. Garolinianum is low and spiny 
with fleshy, almost club-shaped leaves. 
Louden in his Encyclopedia, includes 
the genera of vcbascmn, Mullein (now 
among the scrophulariacese), 59 species 
are given, belonging to the mullein — das 
Wollkraut, Ger. Some are quite pretty 
in cultivation. The Ramondia is a 
Gesnerwort, Gasneriaceae, Alonzoa, 
scrophulaceie (6), C'elsia, scrophularia- 
ceiB (9). Mandragora, N. O. Solanie 
(3 species). This is the regular man^ 
drake of which wonderful stories are 
recorded. See, for instance, Couchet's 
Universe, pp. 468, etc.; it is properly 
ihQAlropa, Mandagora. Genus Saracha, 
of this I find no other mention than 
among the Solanese of London. Wiih- 
eringia, this is named after Dr. With- 
ering, a British botanist, allied to cap- 
sicum. Vestia, named after Dr. Vesta, 
German, allied to cestrum. Crescentia, 
(4 species). The calabash tree, N. 0. 
Crescentiaceoe. Brunsfelsia, named 
after a German physician, Brunsfelse. 
17 species belong to the order of Scroph- 
ulariacese. Solandra. named after Dr. 
Solonder, a Swedish botanist. N. 0. 
Solanacefe (0 species). Anthocercis, 
from anthos, a flower and kerkis, a ray. 
4 species, N. 0. ScrophulariaceiB ; co'lon 
or condonopsis, from kodon, a bell, and 
opsin, like. This belongs to Campanu- 
lacete. Thus I have gone over all the 
genera formerly included among the 
Solanacefe., partly for my own improve- 
ment, and partly to nutice those among 
them which may have more or less in- 
terest to the general reader. This order 
runs, on the one hand, into scrophularia- 



ceae, which a few species approach in a 
somewhat irregular corolla, but their 
stamens are as many as the lobes. This 
accounts for the mixing up in the order 
as given by Louden. In Solani the 
anthers open in pores at the end. Rev. 
Mr. Harris one time brought me a 
flower only which he he said he got ia 
his garden (then at Mount Joy). This 
flower had a six-lobed corolla and six 
stamens, and would necessarily be in 
the sixth artificial class of Linnceus, but 
I noticed the anthers opening by pores 
at the top, and at once concluded from 
that, and its general structure to be the 
flower of a Solanum, and declared it so, 
although usually only five stamens and 
five lobes. After giving my reasons for 
so coneludiug upon the natural system 
of Lindiey, he informed me that it was 
the flower from an eg-g-plant — Solanum 
Melongena. I mention this to show 
the superiority of the natural system to 
that of the artificial system of botany. 



AGRICULTURAL. 



KEEPING SHEEP. 



THE great excitement in the wool 
markets must give a new start to 
sheep farming. American farmers are 
so liable to change- — so many Avill drop 
a crop or product, when the price is 
low, and rush into it when apparently 
doing better — that hereafter we may 
expect that sheep will be in demand. 
The gradual decline in dairy products 
and the large decline in fat cattle, will 
also have some influence. For a few 
years beef and pork, and butter and 
cheese have brought good prices, while 
wool was quite low ; but the recent 
changes will restore the equilibrium, 
and at least for a time, sheep may be 
expected to pay as well as any other 
stock. 

This change will be of considerable 
advantage on grain farms, where a 
rotation of crops and keeping considera- 
ble stock is practiced. One of the 
worst difficulties, on such farms is the 
scarcity and high price of good help ; 
hence, other things being equal, the 
stock that requires the least labor and 



TEE LANCASTER FARMER. 



57 



attention will be the most desirable. 
In this respect there is scarcely any 
stock that is ahead of good grade 
merino sheep. In the winter they need 
less labor in their pens or sheds — they 
should have shelter — than any kind of 
cattle in stables ; and in summer, al- 
though they should have water, they 
need less labor and attention than most 
other stock. A moderate number of 
these sheep are very easily and cheaply 
kept on a good grain farm. If teams 
are pastured they must have good feed 
to keep them in good condition for 
labor ; cows must also have good pas- 
ture in order to give ])rofitabre returns; 
hence many fields that no longer afford 
suitable pasture for teams and cows 
will answer well for sheep. Summer 
fallows will also afford some feed; in 
fact they are the only stock that should 
be kept on a fallow after it is plowed. 
On the smaller farm a few sheep will 
glean after other stock to good advan- 
tage ; on large farms, where labor is 
not plenty, besides the teams, cows and 
other stock needed for the use of the 
farm, such sheep may answer as well 
as any other stock. 

But on all grain farms much care is 
needed to avoid overstocking the land 
with sheep. It is not good policy to 
feed i)astures too close ; many have 
been injured by feeding them down 
very short with sheep. It is also poor 
policy to leed meadows down close in 
the fall, as overstocked farmers are 
often forced to do. Beside it is never 
good policy to keep more stock than 
can be kept improving. Sheep in good 
condition can usually be sold to good 
advantage ; those not in condition, that 
the owner must sell because he is over- 
stocked, are often sold at loss. It is 
most profitable to sell finished products. 
If a farmer must sell his surplus, his 
wethers and dry ewes in moderate con- 
dition, he must not only sell so the 
purchaser can get pay for feeding, but 
there must be an allowance for contin- 
gencies and profits beside. Hence it is 
better for all farmers to maks such 
sheep fat — to sell finished products in- 
stead of dividing the profits with others. 
Sheep in good condition also shear 
better, and are less liable to losses from 
diseases and accidents ; hence it pays 



in this way to keep sheep well, giving 
the two-fold advantage of better re- 
turns and better sales for those thus 
kept. 

Of course this mainly relates to com- 
mon farming, where wool is the main 
object, and only the moderate surplus 
of such flocks go for mutton. But in 
improved farming, where all necessary 
care can be given, sheep may be man- 
agied so as to return a good deal more 
money. There are two principal ways 
in which this can be done. One is in 
keeping some one of the leading long 
wool breeds, in which combing wool 
and mutton will both pay well ; and the 
other is in raising early lam1)s for mar- 
ket. It has been repeatedly demonstra- 
ted that using a buck of some one 
of the larger breeds on good com- 
mon or grade merino ewes, so the lambs 
will come in the winter, these lambs 
may be made to .sell for $5 or more a- 
piece in the spring, and the ewes give 
a good fleece besides. If the ewes are 
well fed, as they should be to have the 
lambs do well, some two months' feeding 
after the lambs are sold, so they may 
be ready for market soon after shear- 
ing, may make them sell well also. So 
it should not be difficult to realize $10 
each in lambs, fleeces, and advance on 
cost or value at the commencement, for 
less than a year's keeping, on such 
ewes. With warm stables and barn 
cellars, so lambs could come in the 
for-^ part to the middle of winter, and 
near large markets, much better than 
this has been done ; hence this may be 
considered a safe estimate where there 
is good management. 

This is the next thing to, though not 
equal to keeping long wool sheep; as 
with such sheep more and heavier 
lambs may be raised, and more money 
realized. It is also probable that if the 
increase of such sheep is ke])t until 
some 20 months old and wel] fed, giv- 
ing a heavy fleece in the meantime, 
they will pay still better. If good 
blood is secured, and the best are sold 
for breeding, no doubt a still larger 
profit may be realized. 

On good farms, in all the older sec- 
tions, in reach of good markets, some 
such course of raising lambs or mutton 
sheep for market should be adopted. — 



S8 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



Then keeping sheep mainly for wool 
may be confined to the poorer farms 
and farming in the older States, and to 
the very extensive, rich, and cheap 
pasturage of the Western and South- 
western States and Territories, where 
wool growing is attended with very 
little expense. — Country Gentleman. 

SPECIAL USES FOR GRASSES. 



In various quarters we find consider- 
able discussion as to the value of the vari- 
ous grasses used in agriculture. The 
majority prefer timothy ; but now and 
then some one is sure that orchard 
grass is best of all, while othei's con- 
tend that blue grass, red-top, or some 
other is best of all. 

After all it seems to us a matter of 
climate or soil, or season. In Kentucky 
the blue grass becomes famous, not 
only for the heavy crops it yields, as 
for the large amoi"int of nutrition it 
seems to yield. The same grass is 
widely known in Pennsylvania as 
green grass ; but no one seems to have 
observed in this State that this species 
has any specially nutritive character 
upon any other. 

Orchard grass has many admirers. 
It yields heavily, and as it will do tol- 
erably well in situations where other 
grasses do not do so well, it has this ad- 
vantage. Again, it pushes up its herb- 
age earlier than some others ; and as 
anything green in Spring is inviting to 
animals kept on dry food all winter, 
they seem very grateful for an early 
turning-out to graze in an orchard grass 
pasture. 

It is interesting to note how littl 
heat seems to be necessary to get some 
kinds of grasses to grow, and how 
much it takes to start others. Thus 
timothy hardly begins to start till long 
after all others. Green grass and 
herds-grass, or red-top, as it is some- 
times called, is also rather late. The 
two which seem most easily started of 
the popular kinds are rye-grass and 
orchard-grass. In this part of the 
world rye-grass has become rather 
common as a pasture-grass. Many 
English people at various times have 
settled about here, and rye-grass being 
the favorite English grass, has naturally 



been extensively tried by them. So 
far as we have been able to see, how- 
ever, in no case will it yield anything 
near the amount of hay that timothy 
will ; but for a pasture grass it proves 
one of the very best. Many of our 
lawns have rye-grass among its other 
herbage, as it is a chief element in 
many popular lawn-grass mixtures, 
and here the first lawns to put on a 
green spring dress, as the gardeners 
say, are those in which a liberal stock 
of rye-grass prevails. It is quite as 
early, to say the least, as orchard- 
grass, and though, as we have said, 
cattle seem to eat orchard-grass with 
great avidity in early spring, they will 
leave it for rye-grass if they have a 
chance. 

The occasional rye-grass pastures we 
have a])out this city have been splendid 
cow pastures this season. The few 
tolerably warm days we had early in 
December made them rush rapidly into 
growth ; while most of the others kepe 
a dingy brown after the brief cold No- 
vember spell. In the favered rye-grass 
pastures we have reference to, cattle 
are being turned out to graze up to the 
time we now write, near Christmas, 
knd seem to have all they desire. 
From the preference they show for it 
over others, it is probably nutritious 
grass, as cattle, unlike so many of the 
human species, seem to have an in- 
stinctive knowledge of what is good for 
themselves. But we have never seen 
any figures in regard to this subject. 

In the South they seem to have no 
especial grass on which they run. In- 
deed, there is a sort of tradition that 
grass will not grow in the south, al- 
though as a distinguished southernman 
has recently said, half the summer-time 
of the south is spent in weeding out the 
grass which grows spontaneously be- 
tween other crops. No doubt there are 
many grasses which would do well in 
the south, if care were taken to select 
the kinds best suited to that region. 
Even here, a country fitted by nature 
especially for grass, we see how much 
depends on soil and climate, as well as 
indeed whether we want the grass for 
pasture or for hay. It will also be 
well for our friends to remember in 
discussing the grass question, that we 



THE LAJf CASTER FARMER. 



59 



cannot stick to one kind alone for all 
purposes The advocates of this or 
that variety — orchard grass or what- 
ever it may be — may also take a hint 
that we need all the kinds we have for 
various purposes. 

TOBACCO CULTURE. 

3Tessrs Editors : A New York State 
reader of the Country Gentleman writes 
me : "I have eight or nine tons of to- 
bacco stems from cigar factories here, 
and intend to use them as fertili/.ers for 
tobacco the coming season. Then I 
have two plots of ground of about two 
acres each ; one in clover mowed twice 
in '72; the other was planted to corn 
and potatoes in '71, and nothing in '72 
for lack of help. Both pieces are in 
good heart, the soil a warm, rich 
gravelly loam. Now for the questions. 
1st. Which piece would be your choice 
for tobacco? 2nd. Would you apply 
the stems before plowing to either 
piece ? I have not much doubt that 
the clover sod would be best, but would 
like to mow it again next season, if the 
other piece would produce as good a 
crop of tobacco. 3d. I have thirty 
loads of well rotted barnyard manure 
with which I could compost the stems, 
if you think it would be well. With 
these resources at command, I want to 
raise a first-rate crop. Please tell me 
what would be your mode of procedure 
were you in my place. I have been in the 
cigar trade about 20 years, and know the 
importance of raising a good crop. Also 
know how to handle it after grown. 
Have been a farmer only tw^o years ; 
raised in '71 a poor crop of tobacco, 
and do not want any more like that. 
The farm I occupy has raised some 
very fine crops, and I want to do like- 
wise." 

1. With your resources, I should as 
soon take the old ground as the clover 
sod, at least with my experience on 
Connecticut soil. Here we grow good 
crops of tobacco following corn or po- 
tatoes. 

2. Yes ; the stems should be evenly 
spread and plowed down five or six 
inches, as early in spring as you would 
work the soil if it were manure you 



were plowing down for a crop of corn, 
soon as the ground will work well. 
The ground should be plowed twice, 
the second time just previous to trans- 
planting; the second time an inch or 
two deeper than the first, doing it 
thoroughly well. 

3. The labor of composting can be 
saved and nothing lost, by adopting 
the following course, which I should 
do for myself: Apply and plow down 
the stems, as above, and after plowing 
the second time, cart on and broadcast 
evenly over the tw^o acres the thirty 
loads of well rotted fine manure ; har- 
row and cultivate till the whole was 
well incorporated in the surface soil. 
Then I should use a " tobacco ridger" 
for fitting for transplanting. With 
such an application of fertilizers, and 
the necessary manipulation of the soil 
to do it thoroughly, I should expect a 
good growth, if thoroughly tended 
through the growing season. High 
manuring must be accompanied by 
thorough working of the soil, or we 
fail to realize the greatest profit from 
the application to the crop. 

On our valley soil we should expect 
to grow a good crop from the applica- 
tion of the tobacco stems alone, but 
with the extra manure, api)lied as ad- 
vised, we would expect an extra crop ; , 
yet after all vevj much would depend 
upon the attention to the preparation of 
the ground and the culture given 
while growing, as well as the handling 
after being cut in the field, etc. 

W. H. White. 

Country Gentleman. 

OAT HAY. 



One of our farming friends, who re- 
sides near Philadelphia, and has a large 
milk-trade, tells us that for the past 
four years he has cut oats for hay and 
has found so much good to result from 
the practice, that he is thinking of mak- 
ing it a complete substitute for hay for 
regular cow feed, as far as other cir- 
cumstances will allow. He cuts the 
oats just while the grain is forming and 
while the whole plant is yet green ; 
and takes rather more pains in the dry- 
ing, as the oat is rather more likely to 
mould than the ordinary grass. He 



60 



THE LAJVCASTERFARMEB. 



claims that he can get a heavier ci'op 
of at least as good food from the same 
space of ground in a shorter time in 
this way than he can from an ordinary 
hay lield. 

This may he so, yet there seem to 
be some objections. In this part of 
the country at least, if March be wet, 
or the season late, oats cannot be got 
in till the middle of April, and it is one 
of those things which requires to Jbe in 
very early in order to do certainly well. 
Again, the oat is more fastidious in re- 
gard to soil than grass is. It often 
happens that land which seems favor- 
able Lo a good crop of oats so far as the 
grain is concerned, makes very little 
straw ; and a field of oats not much 
over a foot high would not be very 
profitable as a " forage crop." Then 
again animal labor must be spent on an 
oat crop, while on a good stand of 
timothy, the same sowing will do al- 
ways for two, and sometimes for three 
years. This saving, of labor, alone, 
seems to us to be a strong item which 
ought not to be overlooked. 

Yet it seems quite likely that this 
oat hay idea might very often be taken 
advantage of to good purpose, and so, 
as the correspondents often moderately 
say, we offer it for whatever it is worth. 
— Germantown Telec/' aph. 



4^HUNT 



THE TEXT CATERPIL- 
LAR. 



NOW while the trees are leafless 
and the glistening eggs of the 
coming caterpillar attract the accus- 
tomed eye, take a light ladder, a pair 
of shears and a basket, and go to work. 
One clip of the pruning shears surely 
and completely severs a whole army of 
embryo destroyers from their destined 
scene of attack. And the easy work 
of destruction can go on thus, all the 
winter through, until not a nest of the 
devourers is left for the warm spring 
sunshine to develop. 

We have tried this ourselves, and 
have completely headed oif the armies 
of caterpillars, by this winter work of 
clipping the eggs from the twigs. This 
was done when the neighbors still al- 
lowed the pests to rule on their pre- 
mises and in their trees. And we know 



that if every farmer and gardener 
would persistently, earnestly and care- 
fully take up the task, the otherwise 
lost odd minutes would double the re- 
turns of the orchard, and rid us of the 
terrible leaf-destroying armies of spring. 

Who will try ? Who will use the 
spare minutes of winter, if for no other 
reason, at least to prevent the hurry 
and worry of destroying the webby 
tents and the detested armies, when 
other work presses, and after half of 
their growing and poisoning is over. 

There is need of working- for the 
trees, for the health and the life of the 
struggling orchards ; of fighting the 
enemies that aim to blight and destroy. 
See the clubby apple trees wherever 
you go. Don't these half-dead trees 
and their clubby limbs, implore the 
help of man ? 

You will find the shining, silvery, 
wax-like ring of eggs glued to some lit- 
tle twig or on some larger limb. But 
while at work some other hidden pests 
will attract the eye. The cocoons of a 
hundred insects will be found attached 
to some remaining leaf. Some of these 
may be the dormant destroyers of other 
pests. Study the matter, ask about 
these cocoons, and learn to distinguish 
the assistants from the destroyers. 
Why not make a move from the stove, 
get out and pay a little attention to the 
fruit ? Certainly, all wish to enjoy 
fruit ; but it is hard indeed to get a true 
interest awakened so that the waste 
minutes shall be devoted, steadily and 
continually devoted to relieving the 
fruit trees from the ravage of every 
form. But a haphazard and uncertain 
resolve will be of no vise. A steady, 
unwavering purpose of warring against 
the foes of fruit, must be set before the 
mind so that the eye shall ever greedily 
peer iuto the tree-tops, or into the 
secret haunts of many a secret foe. 
This steady, continued warfare is a 
demand of the age — a warfare against 
the destroyers of fruit, of shrub, of 
everything that grows with the blade 
or the leaf. And let us all reach out 
for the protection of the noble growth, 
reaching out for the nobleness and the 
contentment and the ^wealth that will 
follow a noble warfare against the foes 
of fruit.— J. G. B..— Farmers Club. 



THE LA Jf CASTER FARMER. 



61 



[The above very sensible, very ap- 
propriate, and still very timely article, 
we cop3^ from a remote number of the 
Farmers^ Club, as something that is 
needed, if it is heeded. There are 
many people who only "smell some- 
thing burning " after their own night- 
caps have caught fire, and these are 
always the very persons who will stu- 
pidly wonder "What's the reason?" 
Nearly a year ago we passed through 
a young orchard of thrifty peach, pear, 
apple, and cherry trees, and in the 
forks of many of the trees we observed 
compact clusters of minute caterpillars 
covered with a close web, only waiting 
for warm weather to scatter over the 
branches and devour the foliage. Call- 
ing the attention of the proprietor to 
these, be at once set his hands to work 
and destroyed hundreds of them, con- 
taining thousands of the worms. If 
the eggs cannot readily be seen, these 
masses, and the cocoons and chrysalids 
can. We feel convinced that the larger 
portion of our farmers, either, do not 
read, or do not heed, else there cer- 
tainly would not be so many destruc- 
tive insects suffered to develop and prey 
upon their crops. If all followed the 
above advice, all would be benefited, 
otherwise the work is only imperfectly 
done. 

Ed.] 

INSECTS AS FOOD. 

# _ 

Man does not refuse to use insects as 
food. Even we, highly civilized as we 
are, do not reject the lobster, the crab, 
or the shrimp, which, though not 
strictly insects, are only articulate ani- 
mals, and, until recently, were classed 
with insects by our best entomologists. 
Now the Arab would be disgusted to 
see us feeding on lobster salad ; yet he 
finds great delight in masticating a lo- 
cust. In both the Indies, epicures eat 
the grub of the palm weevil, which is 
as large as your thumb ; and Sir John 
la Forey concurs in opinion with the 
ancient Greeks mentioned by ^Elian, as 
esteeming a roastedgrub very delicious 
food. In Jamaica and the Mauritius, 
a certain grub, which is as large as a 
man's finger, forms an article food. 



The Mexican Indians prepare a drink 
from a beetle, by macerating in water 
and spirits. 

Locusts are an article of food in 
many parts of the world. The Ethio- 
pians were called locust-eaters on this 
account by the Romans. The Arabs 
make them into bread, lirst grinding or 
pounding them, and then mixing them 
with, their flour. They not unfrequently 
eat them boiled or stewed. The Hot- 
tentots esteem them highly, and grow 
fat on them. They all make their eggs 
into soup. Their traditions teach that 
they are indebted to some great con- 
jurer for the coming of the locust. He 
lives a long way northward, they say, 
and removes a huge stone from the 
mouth of a deep pit, so that the locusts 
escape and fly to them for food. 'I"he 
Moors of Barbary prefer them to pig- 
eons. 

Butterflies were highly relished 
among the ancient Greeks ; and the 
Parthians use them freely for fiod. 
American Red Indians are fond of 
them, as are natives of New South 
Wales. The Chinese who cannot af- 
ford to waste any edible thing, cook 
and eat the chrysalis of the silk worm, 
and the larva of the hawk moth. Ants 
have their place with articles of human 
diet. Hottentots eat them both raw 
and boiled. East Indians mix them 
with flour, and convert them into a 
popular pastry. In India, ants are 
used to flavor brandy. In Ceylon, 
bees are used for food. In New Cale- 
donia, the people eat a large spidei", es- 
teeming it a luxury. Reaumer says 
he knew a young German lady Avho 
ate spiders. It is recorded that the 
authoress, Anna Maria Schurcmann, 
ate them like nuts,, and declared they 
were not unlike that fruit in taste. 
Balande, the celebrated astronomer, 
was equally fond of these " delicacies," 
and Rosel knew a German who spread 
them on his bread like butter. Hum- 
boldt caps the climax of these edible mon- 
strosities, assuring us that he has seen 
Indian children drag centipedes, eigh- 
teen inches long, and more than half 
an inch broad, from their holes, and 
devour them. 

[Perhaps the above may be sugges- 
tive as an ultimate means of decimating 



62 



THE LAJWASTER FABMER. 



insects in this country. Many people 
are asliing* wiiat insects were ever 
created for, and this may, perhaps, lead 
to a solution of the question. Any 
subject involving the interests of the 
pocket or the stomach, is likely to com- 
mand attention. There are places in 
the world where insects are regarded 
as a blessing instead of a curse, aad the 
greater the number, the greater .the 
blessing. The Digger Indians of Cali- 
fornia are noted as grasshopper eaters, 
and esteem them as a great relish after a 
long season of root-diet. Why should 
not a grasshopper be as relishable and 
as nutritious as be f, or veal, or mutton, 
or any other herbivorous animal ? A 
Californian assured us that "grasshop- 
per cake," as prepttred under the rude 
cookery of the Indians, was rather 
pleasant and palatable, to those who 
could so far overcome their prejudices 
as to taste it. Just think of the time 
when our restaurants will be serving 
up fricaseed grasshoppers, fried cater- 
pillars, stewed tree-borers, hashed po- 
tato-beetles, and curculio soup. Then 
we shall get rid of those pesky insects, 
and enjoy a millenium. In some parts 
of Central and South America, 'tis 
said, the large white grub of the palm, 
and the tender sprouts of the tree, are 
cooked together and form a dish equiva- 
lent to our "spheck und weiskraut." 
Why could not our large white " grub 
worms" be so utilized ?] 



ACREAGE AND PRICES OF 
\ . CORN IN '^2 AND '73. 



The department of agriculture fur- 
nishes some interesting statistics in re- 
gard to the yield and prices of the 
principal farm productions of the 
country. The decline in the yield of 
corn, as compared with 1ST2, is consid- 
erable in all sections of the country, 
but greatest in the heart of the corn- 
growing region. Illinois furnishes the 
lowest acre rate of any Western State 
— 21 bushels, and Michigan the high- 
est — 31 bushels. California shows the 
highest average of any State — 41 bush- 
els, and South Carolina the lowest — 
9^ bushels. The average yield of 1812, 



for the whole country was 30.7 bushels, 
while that for 1S73 was only 23.3 
bushels. The average of prices of 
corn for 1873, as compared with those 
of 1872 shows a large increase in the 
following Western States : 

Dec, 73. Dec, '72. 

Cts. Cts. 

Ohio 4-2 34 

liuluuiji 40 29 

lUinois 32 29 

Iowa 31 24 

Nebraska 28 18 

These are the average of prices rul- 
ing in the home markets of each county. 



NUTRITIVE VALUE OF WHEAT 
MEAL. 

The London Dietetic Reformer 
shows, by scientific data, that wheat 
meal, which is cheaper than bolted 
meal or fine flower, contains one-third 
more nutriment than flour does, from 
which the bran has been sifted. Fine 
flour, according to this journal, is not 
food at all, in the proper sense of the 
term ; that is, the elements of the grain 
which are separated in the process of 
bolting, being essential to perfect nu- 
trition, those who use fine flour are 
obliged to subsist mainly on other 
things, or lose their health — that no 
one, therefore, who makes baker's break 
a principal article of diet can long main- 
tain health, while those who use wheat- 
meal bread, unfermented and unadul- 
terated, can maintain their health with 
a very small addition of other foods. 



PIG MANURE. 



Market gardeners often find it diffi- 
cult to obtain the needed*' manure at 
high prices, besides hauling several 
miles. Would it not be profitable for 
them to feed grain to pigs, with a re- 
turn in pork for the outlay, and get 
large quantities of manure at their own 
doors tor the labor of feeding ? » 



Tallow for Gapes. — A common 
half-penny tallow candle melted and 
mixed into about a quart of oatmeal 
stirabout, is an excellent remedy for the 
Gapes in chickens. 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



63 




BEANS — Phaseolus et Vicia. 



HORTICULTURAL. 



J- BEANS — Phaseolus et Vicia. 



" None so well as the fiii-mer knows, 
Where oats, peas, bkans and barley grows." 

There is perhaps no species of vege- 
tation that yields proportionately a 
greater amount of available nutriment 
than the bean, or rather the seed of the 
bean. The immature pods, known un- 
der the names of "snaps," or "string- 
beans," divested entirely of the included 
seeds, yield little more nutriment than 
cabbages or turnips. The economic 
value of beans is often illustrated by 
the story of the poor widow and her 
two children, who were sustained for a 
whole season on the "layings" of two 
common barn-yard hens. Eggs hap- 
pened to be scarce and dear, and beans 
abundant and cheap ; therefore, she 
daily took her two eggs to the grocers 
and traded them on white beans, which 
she converted into both "coffee" and 
nutritious, soup, and thus the little fam- 
ily fared more sumptuously than they 
possibly could have done, ou their two 
hen's eggs alone. licans arc said to be 
native to the East Indies, where they 
originally grew wild. Others say they 



originated in Egypt, because the Greeks 
from whom we have the earliest ac- 
counts of them, received them from that 
country as a cultivated vegetable, and 
some travelers affirm that they found 
the bean growing wild in Persia. But 
it is of little consequence to us, just at 
this time, where they came from, seeing 
that they are a " good thing," and be- 
come easily adapted to our soil and 
climate. 

The common bean — Vicia faha, has 
been cultivated in Great . Britain from 
a very remote period of antiquity, hav- 
ing in all probability been introduced 
by the Romans before the Christian 
era ; but now it is very widely cultiva- 
ted as far eastward as China and Ja- 
pan, and also in Africa, as well as 
North and South America. According 
to Dr. Gray, there are four native 
species of the bean found growing wild 
in this country, all belonging to the 
genus Phaseolus. This botanical name 
is derived from the resemblance of the 
pods, in shape, to that of a kind of ship 
supposed to have been invented at 
I'haselis, a town in Pamphylia. P. vul- 
gar/sis the common " Ividney bean," 
and P. lunatus, the "Lima bean," of 
our gardens ; but there is a long list of 
varieties, of both Pole and Bush beans. 
Among the former are prominently the 



GJi- 



THE LA.NVASTER FARMER. 



Large Lima, Horticultural or WreiVs 
E(j(j, and the German Wax. Among 
the latter are Early Mohawk, Early 
Yellow, Black Seeded Wax, While 
Heeded Wax, Newington Wonder, Red 
Sjy^ekled and Brown Valentine. Ex- 
cept the Limas and the "White field 
beau," this vegetable is usually cultiva- 
ted tor its esculent, edible pod, which 
together with the included immature 
seeds, makes it very popular as a culi- 
nary preparation and a pickel. 

'I'he term Kidney beau cannot be ap- 
plied to any particular variety, because 
m point of fact the shape of the seeds 
of nearly ail beans approaches that of 
the Kidney of some animal ; but it is 
usually applied to " Bunch " or "Dwarf 
beans." 

It would be almost impossible to es- 
timate the quantity of beans consumed 
at this time m the world. A hundi'ed 
years ago, the annual consumption of 
Great Jiritain and her colonies, was 
four millions of bushels, and nearly the 
same amount of peas. 

According to the Census of 1870, the 
crop of the United States in 18G9, was 
over five millions and a half (including 
peas), of which little more than forty 
thousand bushels were raised in Penn- 
sylvania, and about twelve hundred 
bushels in Lancaster county. Com- 
mon and abundant as beans are, they 
are a delicate crop ; being liable to suf- 
fer by late spring frosts. The middle 
of May is early enough to plant beans, 
under ordinary weather contingencies, 
but under favorable circumstances they 
may be planted nearer the beginning 
of the month. Beans prefer a light 
rich soil, upon a rather dry sub-stratum ; 
indeed, almost anything is better than 
a wet, tenaceous clay soil. Forcing 
beans is often resorted to, where there 
is an object in having a very early crop ; 
but not much would be gained by this 
process, should there happen to follow 
a " cold spell," alter they are removed 
from the hot bed and " set out,'' even 
if it were not cold enough to freeze 
them. Beans are also very liable to 
the depredations of the "cut worms." 



[J^^SuBSCRiBE for the Lancaster 
Farmer. 



THE DECLINE OF THE QUINCE. 



Why have we not more quinces of a 
good quality, in our market, is a question 
more frequently asked than answered. 
Occasionally we meet with a basketfull 
of passable ones, but ver}' rarely indeed 
with any quantity that may be called 
superior. A few years since William 
Parry, of Cinaminson, N. J., used to 
show splendid quinces at the various 
exhibitions, but these have disappeared 
with the rest, and we have nothing 
offered for sale now but the gnarled, 
knotty specimens, which reach us from 
Western New York, or some other far 
away region. The writer distinctly 
remembers the time when golden-yel- 
low quinces as big as a man's double 
fist, and perfect in form and fiavor, 
were not uncommon. What has be- 
come of them ? The fruit is always in 
demand for preserving purposes, and 
in which respect it has no superior. A 
high price is always obtained for even 
the wretched specimens that are brought 
to the market, and for those of a better 
quality there appears to be no limit to 
the figures asked for them. 

My impressions are that the quince is 
being starved out. It is a rank feeder, 
and requires not only a good soil, but 
plenty of the right kind of fertilization. 
I can readily recall a score of flourish- 
ing quince trees in the gardens of the in- 
terior of the State, the fruit on which 
was always abundant and fine. These 
trees in nearly every instance were lo- 
cated in the immediate vicinity of the 
old styled privies, where doubtless they 
found the food best adapted to their 
wants. 

I am aware that the quince is very 
subject to the attacks of the borer, but 
this difficulty, too, can be overcome, 
with proper care. 

SALT FOR PEAR TREES. 



The Horticulturist says: " Last year 
we introduced the topic of salting 
around pear trees to prevent the blight. 
We learn on a recent visit to Central 
New York, that the practice is becom- 
ing general, and regular applications 
yearly of 400 to 600 pounds per acre, 
are now the custom." 



THE LAA' CASTER FARMEB, 



65 



CONDENSED GLEANINGS. 



Reneio the old peach tj-ees. — With a 
fine toothed saw, a ladder and a prun- 
ing knife, go at 3'our half dead peach 
tree determined to kill or ture. Saw 
off the large half dead branches ; 
smooth the stub with the knife. It 
would have been better to have done 
this in January, but any time before 
spring is over will answer. Expect 
the old trees to renew their vigor and 
repay you with bushels of choice fruit. 
Requisites for successful pear culture 
in Eastern Virginia. 

1. Perfect drainage. 

2. Stiffest clay soil. 

3. Proper planting of the trees. 

4. Clean culture. 

5. Healthy trees. 

6. Supply of proper manure. 

7. Thinning the fruit. 

8. Judicious pruning. 

9. Handling the fruit with care. 

10. The right kind of au agent to 
dispose of them. 

The dandelion. — Sow the seed each 
year in deep rich loam. Fit the ground 
as for an onion bed. Sow in May or 
June. Rows should be about one foot 
apart ; plants as thick as onions in the 
row. Summer culture is simply to 
keep out the weeds. 

' Try a small bed for the family use 
and not depend on getting chance 
messes of greens from the fields. 



Yacavill, Cal., Feb. 21, 18U. 
J. B. Garber : 

My Dear Sir — Your welcome letter 
of February 3d came duly to hand, 
finding us yet in the midst of our Califor- 
nia winter, for the rains, though not 
continuously, yet fall enough to hinder 
all work, stop sales for trees, make 
roads impassable, and make discomfort 
and growling generally. We have had 
very little irost and no ice since the 
first start of playing winter. * * The 
spring is fairly open now, for the al- 
monds are in bloom and peach buds 
nearly open. All buds are swelling, so 
that 1 cannot take up any more trees. 
Everyone must now pitch in and take 
advantage of fine days to work the 
ground' as fast as it gets dry enough. 



The roads i% places are still impassa- 
ble. No team has passed my house — • 
on a main county road — for over six or 
eight weeks, when otherwise there is a 
constant stream of travel. Our Granges 
are going ahead bravely ; have estab- 
lished business houses in San Francisco, 
and will make monopolists and specu- 
lators step around. They are influ- 
encing legislation at Sacramento in fa- 
vor of reform and retrenchment, and 
causing an overhauling of various com- 
missions, among others that of the Ag- 
ricultural College affairs, both financial 
and otherwise — and it needed looking 
into certainly. The Regents are run- 
ning it for every other interest but ag- 
riculture. 

It is very strange I never can co-me 
across that Tonraya seed, yet I hear of 
bearing trees in scattered localities, and 
yet can^t get the seed. I must try 
this year to go myself and collect some. 
We have indigenous chestnuts, hickory- 
nuts, &c,, as good as, or finer, than 
those in the Eastern States. This year 
oranges have come into fruit, in many 
counties up north, which confirms what 
I have been for years urging around 
me — that we can raise better oranges 
than at Los Angelos. They have been 
sold at $100 per 1,000, alongside of Los 
Angelos' best at $35 per 1.000, and 
grown, too, at Sonoma, 30 miles north- 
westerly from San Francisco, and on 
Puta Creek, where I lived three years 
ago. Also, some on the foot hills 
above Marysville, almost as fine as- 
those from Puta Creek. 

It is astonishing how property rises 
in value ; a small place at Oakland was 
sold in 18G3 for .|7,000, and is now 
worth over a million of dollars. 

I am writing now without any fire 
since dark — now 9 1-2 o'clock ; ther- 
mometer, out of doors, 59 deg. 

Hoping to hear often from you, I re- 
main as ever, Yours truly. • . 



Damp Walls. — It is said that a solu- 
tion of two-thirds of a pound of Castile 
soap to a gallon of water laid on a 
damp wall as a wash, and next day fol- 
lowed by another wash of alum water 
— two ounces dissolved in a gallon — 
will cure the inconvenience and prevent 
any further recurrence of it. 



66 



THE LANCASTER FARMEB. 



RANDOM SKETCUES^.ND FARM 

ITEMS. 



BY II. M. ENGLE. 



A late autumn and a mild winter 
have given advantages to the tiller of 
the soil for spring operations, which 
the e]>izootic and a severe winter pre- 
vented a year ago. Should the spring 
prove favorable, there is no reason why 
the farmer and gardener should not 
have their spring and summer crops out 
in good time. There is often a great 
difference in favor of early planting or 
sowing of some crops, especially po- 
tatoes, oats, peas, cabbage, onions and 
others which flourish best in a cooler 
latitude, hence the conditions most 
congenial to their natures should be 
supplied, or, rather they should be 
placed in such conditions as n'^arly as 
possible. It is, however, equally im- 
portant that no crop should be put in- 
to the ground before the latter is in 
good friable condition. A great mis- 
take is ofttimes made l)y planters who, 
not willing to be behind their neigh- 
bors,, put out their crops while the 
ground is yet too wet, which no culti- 
vation for that crop can remedy. ^ In 
many instances, soils in close proximity 
vary so much in texture, as to make a 
difference of nearly a week in their 
time proper for tillage. Again there 
are crops, such as corn, beans, melons, 
squashes, cucumbers, etc., which will 
not flourish unless the ground is warm. 

It is more than probable that the cab- 
bage worm and potato beetle will make 
their appearance in greater numbers 
this season than heretofore, which 
makes it necessary to have the crops 
suVyect to their ravages, planted and 
matured as early as possible, as said in- 
sects multiply, and consequently are 
more destructive to crops later in the 
season. 

In some sections of country, these 
insects have become so numerous and 
destructive, as to cut short the supplies 
of the crops which they prey upon. 

The question now is, shall a few 
careless and slovenly planters be per- 
mitted to aid the multiplying of said 
insects indefinitely, while a majority 
are laboring with might and main to 



prevent their spread and destructive- 
ness. Should not government come to 
the rescue ? Should not the motto ap- 
ply here as in other cases ? viz.: The 
greatest amount of good to the greatest 
number. A law similar to that apply- 
ing to noxious weeds in our State 
would cover the case. It would do in- 
justice to none, but in addition it would 
be a benefit to the very parties for 
whom the law would be made. It 
would stir them up to activity and duty 
which would, in addition to their own 
benefit, make them better citizens. 
Should not the object of all legislation 
be, to more nearly equalize the duties 
and the benefits of all ? It is probable 
however, that legislators generally are 
bent on larger game, so that beetles and 
worms would be too insignificant for 
their consideration. 

The time will soon arrive, if not al- 
ready, when the question of fc-ncing 
will be discussed frunKidiff'erent stand- 
point of that by which the laws of 
fencing ar^ now governed in our State. 
At present a man is compelled to fence 
out his neighbors stock, wiiile in the 
more progressive states, every man is 
compelled to fence his own in. The 
latter will soon be the question for the 
citizens of our State. There are many 
farmers and others owning cattle, who 
do not pasture at all, but who have 
adopted the . soiling system, conse- 
quently they need no fences on their 
own account, but must under present 
laws build and keep them up for the 
benefit of their neighbors. This is cer- 
tainly unfair. 

The soiling question is one only of 
time, for, as fencing becomes more ex- 
pensive so must soiling or herding of 
stock be resorted to. In connection 
with fencing comes the timber ques- 
tion, which must be met some day, and 
the sooner the better, for at the present 
rate of consumption it will soon be im- 
possible to procure the necessary sup- 
plies, not only for fencing but for all 
other purposes. There is, therefore, no 
time for delay. The question should 
be discussed and agitated in all our ag- 
ricultural and horticultural meetings, 
for it is certain that but comparatively 
few comprehend the situation. If for- 
ests could be grown in a few years 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



67 



there would not be so much cause for 
agitation ; but as it will require a gen- 
eration, our posterity may censure us 
for such criminal neglect. 

The Farmers' Grange movement 
seems to be the great topic at present. 
In the Western States it has brought 
about great changes ; in the South it is 



under fair way, and the East is bring- 
ing up the rear. What the final con- 
sequences will be it is not easy to fore- 
tell ; but the past has inaugurated some 
wholesome reforms. The present au- 
gurs well, and the future will no doubt 
be cared for b}"^ young America. 



y. 



BOTANIC PERIODIC PHENOMENA FOR 1873. 



D 



By W. H. Spera, Ephrata, Pa. 



Anihernix arvensls — Wild chamomile 

Avena Hativa- Outs 

Barbarea proecox — Scurvy Grass 

Chilidonium woj«.?— Celandine, 

Cimi/iiga raceni'oxa — Black Snake-root. 

Tragana F(r(;in(o/uV(— Virginia Strawberry 

MertensUi Virginica—'^niooWi Lungwort 

NaxturUum officinale — Water-cress 

I^aslurtiumonnoricUt — Hoise-radish 

Poilfiphi/lhino pelUil urn— May apple 

Pole III iila CV/nc/n.den.sts— Cinquefoil 

Phleum prdti'iise — Timothy 

Phyiolacca decandra — Pok'eweed 

Manunculu.s rcpi-ns — Biittcrciip 

S(nigiiinfiri(i CaiiKdensis — Dloodroot 

Cecale eereale — Rye 

Taraxacum dens-'leonis — Dandelion 

Thaliciruin anernonoides — Uue-anemone 

Trifolium arvcnsis — llal^bit-foot clover 

Tri/oliuni prnlcnae — Red clover 

Triiicirm vulgare — Wheat 

Viola cuculuLla — Violet 

I'l-rhaseu.'; ihnpsus — Mullien 

Jiibes rubnon — Red currant 

Jiubus villasus — Blackberry 

Rubxis occidenlalis -Raspberry (wild) 

Jtitbus hla:us — Uardi^n Raspl^erry, 

Ribe-s gros.sularia — (jrossi'berry...'. 

iSambtiCus Canaden.'iix — Blk frt Elder 

tSiiriiKjiu vidgariii—\A\».(i 

Vitiii labriiscii — (Joncoril Grape 

Viii/' cordifoUa — Erost Grape 

Vilis eordijoUa- {\'&v.) Clinton Grape 

Vi,burnuinprunifollmn~\.lii\v 



Budding. 


Elow'ring 


Fruiting. 


Leaf-fall. 




June 18. 


Julv 20. 




May 14. 


May 17. 
Julv 1. 


:: 




" 


May 21. 


June 21. 




" 


June 2. 


** 




" 


May IS. 


" 




tt 


'• SO. 


K 




" 


" -24. 


June .30. 




(( 


4 


4k 




" 


June '■il. 


July 10.. 




" 


July '2. 


Oct. 1. 




" 


May 7. 






April 1. 


April 15. 


" 




" 


June 3. 


Julv 3. 




" 


^MayO. 


»■ 




" 


May '2. 


" 




" 


Mav 23. 


" 




4 


June 2. 


" 




" 


June 8, 


July 8. 




" 


May 2. 


" 




" 


July 2 


41 




April 15. 


May 7. 


July 1. 


Aug. 29. 


" 


June 2 


Au^. 4. 


Ocl. 15. 


April 1-2. 


INlay 1"). 


Julys. 


Oct. 12. 


April U 


May 20. 


'■ 


Sept. 4. 


April \i. 


May 1.). 


" 


Seot. 6. 


April '27. 


June 18. 


Aug. 9. 


Nov. 1. 


April 16. 


May 2;J. 


'• 


Oct. 15. 


May 13. 


June y. 


Sept. '0. 


ijct. 8. 


*. 


*' 


Oct. 0. 


Oct 15. 


May 12. 


Junes. 




< 


May 7. 


June 9. 


Oct 9 


Oct. 1(5. 



We are under obligations to our correspondent for the above, and other phe- 
nomenal and meteorological contributions, which will appear in future numbers 
of the Farmer. The abo\'^e gives the dates of the frondescence, florescence and 
fructescence, of a few of the herbaceous plants, shrubs and vines of Lancaster 
county, as well as the periods when they begin to shed their foliage. No at 
tempt has been made at scientific classification. The botanic and common names 
are merely given, as comprising as much science as the common reader may care 
to master at one time; and, seeing that the world is progressing in that direc- 
tion, we cannot see how any progressive farmer can afford to do with less. The 
old generation may feel no interest in such things, but there are generations 
coming, that certainly will look upon knowledge of this kind as worthy of their 
respectful attention, and therefore in the discharge of present duties we should 
work for the future, aided by the experiences of the past. [VjV>. 



68 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 






'^-mtm 



e 



LAM CASTER, MARCH, 1874. 

S. S. RATHVON, Editor. 

J B. DEVELIN, Ass't Editorand Publisher. 

Publifihed luoiitbly under the auspices of the Agri- 
cultural anpHokticultukal Society^ 

§(1 00 per Year in A<lv!inee. §1.25 if not 
paid in advance. 

One extra cot y to persons seiidicg a club cf ten 
suls'^iibers, and a copy of our beautiful Steel En- 
graving 10 eyery bubfccnber. 

All communications, to iusure insertion, must be 
ill the liaiids of the editors before ttie 1st of each 
month. All advertisements, suliscriptions and re 
m:ttances to the addrei-s of the publisher, 

J. B. DEVELIN, Lancaster, Pa. 
ISO. 43 North Queen St. 



THE 



WEATHER AND THE 
CROPS. 



Although February came " in like a 
lion" it went " o'ut like a lamb," and 
on the whole, the weather was a du- 
plication of January. About the same 
degree and continuation of heat and 
cold prevailed ; about the same quan- 
tity of snow fell, and about the same sup- 
ply of ice was harvested. At intervals, 
bees wore humming, flowers were 
blooming, butterflies were flitting and 
beetles were flying. Up to this writing 
( March 5) everything in the realm of 
vegetation looks promising, especially 
the grain, grass and fruit crops ; and 
should the month of March be not more 
severe than February was, the pros- 
pects will be good. It appears that 
nature does not go to sleep in the win- 
ter season, according to the old theory 
on that subject, but on the contrary 
both cold-blooded animals and vegeta- 
tion are in a state of temporary suspen- 
sion, controlled entirely by light and 
he,at, and will start into activity as soon 
as these two conditions supei^'vene sim- 
ultaneously. Indeed, from the extract 
in our January number, it appears that 
the sap in fine-grained, healthy' trees, 
never freezes. We have often found 
caterpillars in extreme cold weather 
(also pwpse. and mature insects) which 
seemed to be frozen as hard as an icicle, 
but on keeping them for a short time in 
a warm room they have revived and 
become quite as active as they are found 



in spring and summer. Things ani- 
mate and inanimate seem only to be 
waiting for their proper conditions. 



Raising Peanuts. — Familiar as we 
all are with the taste and quality of 
peanuts, but few of us are aware of 
where they are raised. The little State 
of Delaware has the honor of growing 
about all that are grown in the United 
States. The ground pea (peanut) grows 
beneath the surface of the ground, as its 
name imports. The plant has the ap- 
pearance of the common dwarf garden 
pea, though more bushy. It is culti- 
vated in hills. The pea grows on ten- 
drils which put out from the plant and 
take root in the earth. The fruit is 
picked from the roots by the hand, and 
the vines are a favorite food for horses, 
mules and cattle. From 30 to 80 
bushels are produced on an acre. 
There are some planters who raise from 
1,000 to 15,000 bushels a year. 

ARROW ROOT. 



The arrow root most esteemed in 
this country, is that grown and prepared 
in the Bermudas, whose salubrious cli- 
mate more nearly resembles that of 
Persia, with the peculiar and agreeable 
addition of constant sea breezes, and 
which appears best adapted to produce 
the tubers in perfection. As the ex- 
tent of these isles — nearly 500 in num- 
ber — is only about 12,000 acres, occu- 
pying a space of scarce twenty miles in 
length by six in breadth, but a small 
proportion of our supply is derived 
from them, and Jamaica arrow root, 
being nearly equal to it, comes largely 
into competition with genuine Ber- 
muda. The East Indian is not so 
highly valued, it being too often adul- 
terated with substitutes for the genu- 
ine. The cultivation has also been 
profitably conducted in Africa, and in 
the Southern United States, where a 
large quantity, though of inferior qual- 
ity, is annually produced. Sir S. W. 
Baker, in his journey through Arabia, 
speaks of a peculiar bulb resembling 
sweet potatoes, but exceedingly long 
and thin, which was known to the 



THE LAJyCASTER FARMER. 



69 



Arabs as "baboon," and from which 
he " made excellent arrow root " in a 
somewhat primitive manner. The 
Arabs simply roast the roots on embers, 
and eat them as we do potatoes. — N. 
Y. 3Iercant/le Joii nal. 



STARTING SWEET POTATOES. 



sensitive to cold, and should therefore 
not be planted out before all dang-er of 
frost is over. 



Some of us pioneers would like to 
know how to raise sweet potato plants ; 
when and how to fix hot-bed, etc. — 1\. 
P. High, Red Willow Co., Neb. 

REPLY BY DR. F. M. HEXAMER, 

In Jie vicinity of New York, sweet 
potatoes are started about the middle 
of April ill a moderate hot-bed or forc- 
ing pit. When but a small number of 
plants are wanted, make a bed of fresh 
horse manure 12 inches thick, and two 
feet wider and longer than the frame to 
be used. Then cover with three inches 
of old rotted manure, put the the frame 
in its place, and spread in it two inches 
of very light, sandy soil ; rake level 
and place the tubers close together 
over the surface. Small tubers may be 
used whole, large ones should be cut 
once lengthwi.se, and the cut side laid 
down. Fine soil is then sprinkled over 
and between the seed, so that it is cov- 
ered about one inch. Put the sashes 
on at once and keep the bed rather wet. 
There is little danger of keeping the 
bed too warm as long as the sprouts 
have not started ; after these appear 
above ground, the bed has to be filled 
up again with two or three inches of 
fine soil or mold. When the sprouts 
have pierced through this layer, plenty 
of air has to be given during warm 
days to make strong and thrifty plants. 
In about five to six weeks from start- 
ing, the sprouts are large enough to be 
separated from the tubers and fit to be 
planted out. After this thinning other 
l)lants will start, which can be pulled 
in a week or ten days. In this way 
three or four crops of slijls are raised 
from the same tubers. When sashes 
arc not at hand, and the plants are not 
wanted early, frames covered with 
muslin may be used instead, and the 
whole covered with boards in cold 
uifhts. The young plants are very 







MILD WINTERS. 



The mildness of the present season, 
though unusual, bears no comparison 
to that of some winters " long gone 
b3^" In 1172 the temperature was so 
high that leaves came out on the trees 
in January, and birds hatched their 
broods in February. In 1289 the win- 
ter was equally mild, and the maidens 
of Cologne wore wreaths of violets and 
corn-flowers at Christmas and on 
Twelfth Day. In 1421 the trees flower- 
ed in the month of March, and the 
vines in the month of April ; cherries 
ripened in the same month, and grapes 
appeared in May. In 1572 the trees 
were covered with leaves in January, 
and the birds hatched their young in 
February, as in 1172; in 1585 the same 
thing was repeated, and it is added that 
the corn was in the ear at Easter. 
There was in France neither snow nor 
frost throughout the winters of 1538, 
1607, 1609, 1617 and 1659; finally in 
1602, even in the north of Germany, 
the stoves were not lighted, and trees 
flowered in February. Coming to la- 
ter dates, the winter of 1846-47, when 
it thundered at Paris on the 28th of 
January, and that of 1866, the year of 
the great inundation of the Seine, may 
be mentioned as exceptionally mild. — 
Fall Mall Gazette. 

[What a short-sighted people Ave are. 
The last deviation from our ordinary 
expectations is always the most remark- 
able. The last winter in the routine of 
our experiences is generally the coldest 
or the warmest, the last summer the 
hottest or coolest, the last times the 
dullest or briskest, and the last crop 
the greatest or the poorest. But when 
we return to the records of the past, we 
find it differs very little from the pres- 
ent ; perhaps only a trifle colder, 
warmer, duller, brisker, greater or less 
prolific than it is now. All this arises 
from the fact, that so little attention is 
paid to the details of the pending now. 
Bare facts, disconnected with results, 
arc remembered or recorded. For in- 



70 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMEB. 



stance, there has not been a sing-le 
month since April 18*73, that we have 
not noticed, " Flowers blooming- and in- 
sects roaming," out in the open air. 
This, on the whole, indicates that we 
have had a mild winter in 18T3-4, but 
it does not follow that it has been more 
mild than many which have preceded 
it, as the above extract plainly shows. 
We must also remember that the river 
was closed, and ice was made four 
inches thick.] 



BUSINESS LAWS. 



It is not legally necessary to say on 
a note " for value received." 

A note obtained by fraud, or from a 
person in a state of intoxication, cannot 
be collected. 

•If ,a note be lost or stolen it does not 
release the maker ; he must pay it. 

An endorser of a note is exempt from 
liability if not served with notice of its 
dishonor immediately after its non-pay- 
ment. 

A note by a minor is void. 

Notes bear interest only when so 
stated. 

Principals are responsible for the acts 
of their agents. 

Each individual in a partnership is 
responsible tor the whole amount of the 
debts of the firm. 

Ignorance of the law excuses no one. 

It is a fraud to conceal a fraud. 

The law compels no one to do im- 
possibilities. 

An agreement without consideration 
is void. 

Signatures made Avith a lead pencil 
are good in law. 

A receipt for money paid is not le- 
gally conclusive. 

The acts of one partner bind all the 
others. 

Contracts made on Sunday cannot be 
enforced. 

A contract made with a minor is 
void. 

A contract made with a lunatic is 
void. 



Here are the ten commandments of 
Buddha : 
' First— Thou shalt not kill. 



Second — Thou sbalt not take for thy- 
self what belongs to another. 

Third — Thou shalt not break the 
laws of chastity. 

Fourth — Thou shalt not lie. 

Fifth — Thou shalt not slander. 

Sixth — Thou shalt not speak injuries. 

Seventh — Thou shalt not excite quar- 
rels. 

Eighth — Thou shalt not hate. 

Ninth — Have faith in holy writings. 

Tenth — Believe in immortality. 



HOW TO MAKE STAR PHOS- 
PHATE. 



Below we give the receipt for making 
this celebrated phosphate. Thisreceipt 
was sold for ten dollars last year and 
found many purchasers. Our sub- 
scribers have it free. Take of 

Ground bone 600 lbs. 

Sulphate of soda 150 " 

Nitrate of soda 10 " 

Plaster 300 " 

Salt 50 " 

Sand too " 

Mix all but the plaster and sand ; 
moisten with water and then add : 
Oil of vitriol 200 lbs. 

When it stops working add the plas- 
ter and sand. 



WHAT IS MEANT BY A HORSE 
POWER? 



The power of prime movers is meas- 
ured by horse power. Watt found that 
the strongest London draft horses were 
capable of doing woi'k equivalent to 
raising 33,000 pounds one foot high per 
minute, and he took this as the unit of 
power for the steam engine. The horse 
is not usually capable of doing so great 
a quantity of vvork. Raukine gave 
26,000 foot pounds as the figure for a 
mean of several experiments, and it is 
probable that 25,000 foot pounds is a 
fair minutes average work for a good 
animal. It would require five or six 
men to do the work of a strong horse. 
AVatt's estimate has become, by gen- 
eral consent among engineers, the 
standard of power measurement for all 
purposes. — Scientific American. 



THE la:n'caster fabmer. 



71 



BOOK AND SPECIAL NOTICE 
DEPARTMENT. 



NOTICE. 



Special notices inserted in this de- 
partment at 25 cents per line, nonpareil 
measurement. Address orders to 
J. B Develin, Publisher, 
No. 43 North Queen St., 

Lancaster, Pa. 



Wanted ! Canvassers for the Farmer 
and (rardcHer, Lancaster, Pa. Large com- 
mission and premiums given. Send 25 
cents for an agency subscription. Samples 
6 cents. 



LI lERARY RECORD. 

Among the journals received during the 
last month it gives us pleasure to enumerate 
the Pottsviile Daibj Stavdard, German- 
town Teler/raj^h, Farmers' Club, Osborne 
Weekly Times, Southern Homestead, New- 
ark Mamifacturer, Carthage Gazette, 
Farmer and Gardener, Industrial Bulletin, 
Journal of the Farm, Practical Farmer, 
Neio York Rural, Sanitarium, Pennsyl- 
vania SchoolJourncd, Gardener's Monthly, 
National Lire Stock Journal, The Albion, 
Penn Monthly, Laivs of Life, and Wood's 
Household Magazine ; all of which are excel- 
lent publications in their respective depart- 
ments, and some of them too well known to 
need the commendation our limited space will 
allow us to give. 

Among the annual pamphlet literature, 
we aclinowledge the receipt of Henderson's 
Catalogue, Fleming's Seed Catalogue, 
Vick's Catcdogue, Bliss & Son's Potatoes 
for Seed, and sundry other favors, which we 
hope to be able to notice in future. Any 
information on this subject oUr readers may 
desire will be cheerfully imparted. 

The Neivark Manufacturer, published at 
Newark, N. J., under the auspices of the 
Manufacturer's Association of that city, has 
been changed from a quarto to a folio, in- 
creased in size, and otherwise improved. 
The main object of the publication, which is 
furnished at the mere nominal price of fifty 
cents per year, is to call attention to the 
great varieties of trade in that city, and of 
a consequence, the importance to inventors 
and others in need of work to be done to 
come thither and have it done. The Manu- 
facturer is ably edited, and is well filled 
with matter of interest to the m.anufacturer, 
artisan and inventor, and an investment of 
fifty cents will secure the mailing of for it 
cue year. 



The Bi.oomfield Times, published by F. 
^lortimer & Co.. New Bloomfield, Pa., visits 
us regularly and drives awJiy dull care. Its 
spicy original stories, merit the patronage it 
receives. Our friend Mortimer will accept 
our congratulations on his success. 

Printer's Circular, by R. S Meuamin, 
Minor street, Philadelphia, is always on 
deck as regular as the ticking of a cloc'<. 
It is invaluable to the printer as a guide, 
and should always be consulted before pur- 
chasing material. 

Ai,Kx. Harris, late editor of the Parmer, 
and Secretary of the Agricultural and Hor- 
ticultural society of this county, has taken 
up his old profession, and will always be glad 
to meet his friends at his office. North Duke 
street, this city. lie has quite a reputation 
as a scholar and student, and we presume 
well versed in the law, and should soon have 
an extensive practice. 

Peterson's Magazine is truly a ladies 
friend. All the latest styles appear regularly 
in each issue. " Blowing Bubbles "is the 
title of the frontispiece, and is an elegant 
representation of two little cherubs in full 
glee. The music is an elegant schottiscli 
arranged for the piano. The stories are all 
of the best, and must be read to be appre- 
ciated. C. J. Peterson, 306 Chestnut street, 
Philadelphia, publisher. 

The Ii.lu.strated Annual of Phrenolooy 
and Phy.siogxomy for 1874, contains eighty 
large octavo pages, with more than fifty 
engravings, representing Heads, Faces, 
Mouths, Noses, good and bad. with "Signs 
of Character;" also. My Schoolmates, and 
What Became of Them ; A (iood Memory ; 
'I'he '■ Leak ; or a Hole in a Pocket through 
Bad Habits;" and How to Save Money! 
One Thousand Boys Wanted ; Bad Breath, 
Its Cause and Cure; A Fascinating Face; 
What the Savans are Doing for IMental 
Science, etc. Agents wanted. Sent })re- 
paid, by first post, for 15 cents, by S. R. 
Wells, Publisher, 389 Broadway, New 
York. 



NEW YORK MARKETS. 

New York, March 16. 

Ashes — Are quiet and unchanged at 
$6 1^ for pots. 

Fi.ouR.— Receipts, 9290 bbls. The flour 
market is heavy, and 5@l0c. lower, with a 
little more doing for export at the decline. 
The home trade are only buying to supply 
pressing wants. Sales of 12 300 bbls. super- 
fine Western and State at .'jj;r).70(q^6.10 ; 
common to good extra Western and State 
.S6.!i0((» 6.60 ; good to choice do., .$;6.6r)@ 
6.80 ; common to choice white wheat Wes- 



72 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



tern extra, $6.80@7.80; common to g-ood 
extra Ohio $G.40(«; 7. G5 ; common to choice 
extra St. Louis, $6.55@11, the market clos- 
ing dull. 

Southern Flour — Is dull and declining. 
Sales of 650 bbls. common to fair extra, 
.$6.50@7.50; good to choice do , |;7.5r)(«)ll. 

Rye Flour — Is dull. Sales of 200 bbls. 
at $4.75(r()5.75. 

Corn Meal — Is quiet. Sales of 300 bbls. 
Western at $3.60(a)4.35 ; Brandywine at 
$4.50. 

Wheat — Receipts. 12.3G0 bush. Wheat 
is dull and in buyers' favor. Sales of 52,- 
00^ > bush at .|I.f)0@1.51 for No." 2 Chicago ; 
%lMia)l 55 for No. 2 Milwaukee ; .$1 48@ 
1.55 for ungraded Iowa and Minnesota 
spring; $1.5(;@1.50 for No. 1 Minneso- 
ta and MilwauV ee ; $1.55 for No. 1 Chicago, 
and $1.44(«)1.49 for No. 3 spring. 

Rye—Is" dull at 99c@$l.03.^ Sales of 
201'0 bush. Pennsylvania and Jersey at 99c. 
on dock. 

Barley — Is dull and heavy. Sales of 
10,000 bush. German chevalier at ,$1.95. 

Barley Malt — Is quiet and in buyers' 
favor. Sales of 700 bush. No. 3 Western at 
$1.85. 

Corn— Receipts, 16,200 bush. Corn is 
in buyers' favor, with rather more doing. 
Sales of 67 000 bush, at 84@88c. ; new Wes- 
tern mixed, 887@90c ; high mixed and yel- 
low Western, latter an extreme, and 88@90 
c for old Western mixed in store and afloat. 
Also 30.000 bush, damaged at 73c , and 20.- 
'0 bush, old Western mixed to arrive in 
twelve days at 88c. 

Hay — Is firm at $1@1.05 for shipping. 

Hops — Are unchanged at 1.5(7/)25c for 
low to fair, and 30(«i35c. for good to choice. 

Oats — Receipts, 13,900 bush. Oats are 
dulUnd lower. Sales of 39,000 bush, at 
62(a)64c. for mixed Western, and 63|-@65 ; 
for white Western. Stock of grain in store, 
March 14, 1874 : Wheat, 1,363,723 bush. ; 
Corn 664,487 bush ; Oats, 654,475 bush. ; 
Rye, 47,050 bush:; Barley, 58,958 bush,; 
Malt, 22,778 bush ; Peas, 623 bush. 

PHILADELPHIA MARKETS. 

Monday, March 16. — Cloverseed is steady 
at 9(«)10|^c. for good and choice. Timothy 
is looking up, and 400 bush, sold $3.12^. 
Flaxseed sells on arrival at $2 25. 

In the absence of sales of Bark we quote 
No. 1 Quercitron at .$35 per ton. 

There is not much demand for Flour, and 
sales of moment could only be effected at a 
decline from recent asking prices. Sales of 
1000 bbls., including superfine, at $5.37^ ; 
Minnesota extra family at i8;7@7.25; Penn- 
sylvania do. do. at $7,50(a'7 7o; Ohio and 
Indiana do. do. at ,$7 .50(fr 8. and fancy lots 
at $8.50@10, as in quality. Rye Flour 



sells as wanted at $4.75. In Corn Meal no 
sale,s. 

Wheat is held with more confidence, but 
there is not much doing. vSales of 4,100 
bush, at Sl,60@l,73 for 'red ; .S1.73(«)1.75 
for amber ; $1.50 for No. 1, and $1.57 for 
white spring ; 400 bush. Pennsylvania Rye 
sold at 95c. Corn attracts very little atten- 
tion, Salesof 50 iObush. yellow at 83(o) 83c 
In Oats but little doing. Sales of''3700- 
bush, at 60@64^c. for white, and 57@58c. 
for mixed. In Barley and Malt no sales. 

NEW YORK CATTLE MARKET. 

Monday, March 16. 

Beef Cattle,- The market for the past 
week has ruled firm, with a fair demand. 
We quote poor to good at 9@12c, ; good to 
prime, 12|@12^c, ; and prime to extra choice 
at 12^@loc. Receipts tor the week, 7,114 
head. 

Miloh Cows. — Prime have been firm at 
$50@80; common are quoted at $35@50. 
Receipts for the wee'-'. 91 head 

Calves have ruled heavy. We quote 
milk fed at 8(rrl0^c. F It); common and 
grassers at SGOr 12 V head. 

HoGS.^Drersed at 12@13ic. for milk fed, 
and <6{a).\\(i. for fed and grassers. Receipts 
for the week, 976 head. 

Sheep and Lambs.— The former have 
been firm, closing at 6(7?) 8|c. for common to 
choice." We quote mutton at lie. Receipts 
for the week, 17,436 head. 

SwiN.E. — We quote live hogs nominal at 
6@6|<;. Fft; dressed have been steady at 
75@7|c for Western, and 6§(fl')7:}c. for 
city. Receipts for the week, 23,716 head. 

PHILADELPHIA CATTLE MARKET. 

J ONDAY, March 16. 

There was a lively demand for Beef Cat- 
tle this morning, and free prices were ob- 
tained. Sales of fair and choice at 6@7|c., 
and common at 4i@5ic. ; a few extra 
brought 6c. Receipts, 2,* 00 head. 

Sheep met a good demand at rather bet- 
ter prices; sales of fair and choice at 7(fl)8c., 
and common at 5^@6|c. Receipts, 6,500 
head. 

Hogs moved freely at $8.50@ 9 for corn- 
fed. Receipts, 4,< 00 head. 

CHICAGO CATTLE MARKET. 
Monday, March 16. 

Cattle active and firm for all grades ; 
fair to choice native steers $4,75(r()5.85 ; 
extra $5.75@6 ; stockers $3,2.5(^4. 

Hogs dull and weak and a shade lower; 
common to extra $5@6; bulk of sales at 
$5.25@5.75. 

Sheep firm and higher and fairly active 
at $5.50(«;7.37^ for common to fancy. 



DEVOTED TO 

Agriculture, Horticulture, Domestic Economy and Miscellany. 

EDITED BY S. S. RATHVONf & J. B. DEVELIN\ 



•The Farmer is the founder of civil izaf ion." — WEBSTER. 



Vol. VL 



APRIL, 187 Jf. 



JVo. 4. 



ESSAY. 



ESSAY OX FRUIT CULTURE. 



Read before the Agricultural and Hor- 
ticultural Society of Lancaster 
County, April 5th, 1874. 



BY H. M. ENGLE. 

WHEX the parents of the human 
race were placed in the Garden 
of Eden, their food was to be exclusively 
fruits. The Creator knew what was 
best adapted to their needs. They, no 
doubt, lived .and flourished on tlieir 
simple and healthful regimen. That 
their ejectment from the garden produ- 
ced any anatomical or physiological 
changes in their systems, we have no 
reason to believe, but remained fruit- 
eaters, all their lives, hence the natural 
temptation and craving for fruits by the 
human family, almost without excep- 
tion. 

I shall not now enter into a discus- 
sion whether luan is by nature fructiv- 
orous, omnivorous or carnivorous, but 
assert that he has departed very far in 
bis habits of living, from what had been 
designed for him by his Creator. One 
thing s<?ems however to be not only 
conceded, but advocated by many of 
our ablest luedical and scientific men, 
i. e., that if a larger proportion of fruits 
entered into the general bill of fare, the 
human family would be healthier, and 
consequently happier for it. There is 
now a nmch larger proportion of fruit 



used in our culinary department than 
had been used 25 or 50 years ago. 

According to census reports, the 
average longevity of man has risen con- 
siderably within half a century. We do 
not claim that the increased consump- 
tion of fruits has been the only cause of 
such advance, but it certainly has con- 
tributed a large share thereof But, 
with all the increased consumption, it 
is not what it might and should be. 
Asserting our theory to be correct, the 
question naturally arises, where shall 
the increased supply come from ? This 
brings us to the subject at the head of 
this article. 

Having some reputation as a fruit- 
grower, was no doubt the reason why 
I was requested to prepare an article on 
this subject for this occasion. If, how- 
ever, any of you expect that I shall give 
directions whereby fruit growing will 
be a certain success, you will learn 
some day the effects of misplaced confi- 
dence. Fruit growing is about as pre- 
carious as any other occupation, for 
after applying the best known methods, 
the fruit grower is at the mercy of the 
elements, so that ofttimes when he feels 
the assurance of a bountiful crop, his 
prospects are almost momentarily 
blasted. There are, however, a few 
important rules, which when followed, 
add to success. 1st. Plant only such 
fruits as are adapted to your Soil and 
situation ; before planting, however, 
have your ground prepared at least as 
well as is necessary for any farm crop. 
2d. Plant only healthy and thrifty stock. 



7A 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



od. Practice clean culture, for small 
fruits always, for trees until in bearing 
condition at least. 4th. Never over- 
crop. These are a few rules which the 
planter cannot ignore without detri- 
ment to his success. Another very im- 
portant requisite is to learn the habits 
of noxious insects, and eounteract their 
ravages. 

On the foregoing general rules there 
is scarcely a dissenting voice among 
the best practical fruit growers ; but 
when we come to pruning, manuring, 
and the selection of varieties, the differ- 
ence of opinion is probably as great 
among practical fruit growers as it pos- 
sibly can be ; hence the difficulty to 
enter into details of these subjects. 

Continued agitation and discussion 
of these questions will however event- 
ually bring all these different views into 
a smaller compass, so that many of the 
present seeming contradictions will be 
harmonized. I shall therefore venture 
some remarks on these also. Between 
,the pruners and anti-pruners there is 
certainly a medium. Nature has de- 
signed that there should be a proper 
balance between root and branch, hence 
the necessity of severe pruning at the 
time of transplanting, unless all the roots 
can be taken with the tree, which is al- 
most impracticable. After-pruning is, or 
should be, simply directing the growth 
of the tree, which if done when the 
Avood is yet green and soft can be effected 
by pinching, which will leave no large 
wounds to heal, and therefore cannot do 
the injury consequent on removing large 
branches. To train a tree in symme- 
trical form by the former method is, 
however, one of the fine arts in pomol- 
ogy. Pruning when the foliage is off" 
will cause a tree to put forth increased 
efforts to restore its balance, conse- 
quently we see the strong, vigorous 
shoots following such practice, but ex- 
cessive wood growth is generally detri- 
mental to fruit growth. Severe prun- 
ing when in foliage may and will induce 
fruit growth, but at the expense of the 
vitality of the tree, hence pruning to the 
best advantage is only accomplished by 
the few. 

That trees as well as some other veg- 
etable growth may be over-stimulated 
by manures in quantity, or of an im- 



proper quality, but when they get into 
bearing condition, the fertilizing proper- 
ties for cropping must be in the soil, 
either naturally or placed there artifi- 
cially, if the desired results are to follow. 
As to varieties, we find very few of any 
species of fruits that succed everywhere, 
but the different sections have their 
favorites. It seems to be well estab- 
lished that fruits almost invariably suc- 
ceed in the localities of their origin, 
although there are some which succeed 
well over a large scope of country. 
The safest rule is to rely as much as 
possible on such as are not too distant 
from their nativity. 

Among Strawberries, Wilson's Al- 
bany seems to have as yet no rival 
for all soils and extent of territory. 
In sandy and loamy soils the Agi'icul- 
turist. Green Prolific, and others, have 
given very satisfactory results, while 
the Jucunda, De Gand, and those of 
the same class have, in heavy soil, 
enriched some .growers. Among the 
newer kinds, Charles Downing, Boyd- 
en's No. 30, and others, promise well. 
The Monarch of the West is just on a 
high pinnacle, at least as to price of 
plaftts — hope it may sustain its present 
high reputation. 

Of Raspberries, (Red) the Philadel- 
phia still holds its own; and Doolittle, 
and Miami among the Black Caps will 
not soon be crowded out. 

Of Blackberries, the Kittatinny has 
superseded the once famous Lawton, 
in consequence, of its being more hardy, 
and its fruit being clear of that astrin- 
gency, as soon as fully colored. • The 
Wilson seems to be a great berry for 
New Jersey, but has not gained much 
reputation beyond that State. 

Among Currants the old red Dutch 
stands as well as ever for productive- 
ness ; although Cherry, La Versailles 
and others, are of larger size they have 
not proven so generally reliable. 

Of Gooseberries the old Cluster is as 
productive and free from mildew as 
ever, but with the new native varieties 
continually added we may reasonably 
expect soon to see it far superseded. 

The Concord is not yet robbed of its 
fame as a general success. Although 
we have varieties of better quality, 
none has, as yet, proven so generally 



THE LAJYCASTER FARMER, 



75 



successful. The Martha (seedling of 
Concord) bids fair to stand high among 
hardy white grapes. With proper man- 
agement most of Rogers' hybrids are 
worthy a place in a general collection, 
lona, Eamelon, Israella, Telegraph, are 
valuable wherever they succeed ; the 
latter, we think, will do so everywhere. 
There are, however, some later hybrids 
produced by several amateurs, which 
bid fair to outstrip all former acquisi- 
tions. 

The Peach, being so partial to soil and 
situation, has become in a measure 
sectional. Among the leading varie- 
ties are the Early York, Early and Late 
Crawford, Old Mixon, Smock, Stump 
the Wbrld, Troth's Early, etc. Light 
soils, not too rich, are best adapted to 
peach culture, and unless adjacent to 
large bodies of water, elevation and 
protection seem to be essential to suc- 
cess. 

The Cherry is in many sections a 
very uncertain crop, but as a rule where 
the peach flourishes it will also, and in 
some sections where the peach does not. 
Among the Hearts and Bigareaus, 
Early Purple Guigne, Rockport, yellow 
Spanish, black Tartarian, Conestoga 
and others, stand prominent. Among 
Dukes, early Richmond and English 
Morella stand at the head. 

Among Pears, Bartlett is still leading 
off, and will do so for many years to 
come, but Lawrence, Howell, Buerred' 
Anjou, Seckel, and a few others, should 
not be left out of any collection .of 
standards. Duchess is the pear for 
dwarfs ; although a few others do well 
as dwarfs, none gives such general sat- 
isfaction. 

On Apples we have been running too 
wild in looking abroad for good varie- 
ties, and thereby neglected many kinds 
of our own State, which are of far more 
value to us. Most of the young or- 
chards of Pennsylvania are planted 
with a large majority of Northern apples 
and those planted as winter fruit, ma- 
ture in autumn. Such is the case at 
least in eastern and southern Pennsyl- 
vania. This mistake is, however, pretty 
generally known, and will no doubt be 
avoided hereafter. 

The most difficult task is now to 
make a good selection of native varie- 



ties from the fruit catalogues, as they 
contain by far the largest proportion of 
Northern and Eastern apples, but far 
better plant fewer kinds, which have 
proven to be of most value in the dis- 
trict where you wish to plant. Much 
more might be written or said in detail, 
but time and space forbid. 

Could I induce every farmer of this 
county only to put out one plant or tree 
of each kind referred to in this article, 
I would consider myself a benefactor. 
Why should not every family, having 
one acre and over, have a full supply of 
strawberries, at least once a day, when 
they can be grov»m with as much cer- 
tainty, and equally as productive, as the 
potato. When that time arrives, which 
may — we hope soon will — -then will 
there be a prospect that a supply will 
also be grown for those who have no 
ground of their own. 



4- FORESTRY. 



George May Powell read the follow- 
ing paper, which was addressed to the 
Club : 

In response to your kind letter, in- 
viting me to prepare a paper on the 
subject of Forestry, please allow me re- 
spectfully to submit the following sug- 
gestions : 

As Professor Hough so aptly said in 
his recent address at Portland: "We 
must make the people themselves fami- 
liar with the facts and necessities of the 
case." Among these "facts and ne- 
cessities" are: First. The frequent loss- 
es of millions of dollars to the manufac- 
turing interests of the country in a 
single season from depletion of hydrau- 
lic power in the mill streams made 
scanty by droughts. Second. The 
sweeping of vast values in dams, dykes, 
fence, etc., to destruction by freshets. 
Third. A still greater damage to the 
agricultural interests from droughts. 
Fourth. The unhealthy influence of 
these droughts, and of the absence of 
the conservative influence of foliage. 
Fifth. Deterioration of soils not easily 
computed. Sixth. Waste of wealth of 
material for fuel and for manufacturing 
purposes. Seventh, and not least. The 
marring of the beauty of our fatherland 



76 



THE LAJV'CASTER FARMER. 



hj the ruthlessness and ig-norance with 
which the beautiful robes of forest 
green have been and are being stripped 
from the hills and valleys. Eighth. 
Loss of opportunity in the years that 
pass to repair and prevent these evils 
from not understanding their existence 
and remedy. On the other hand, it 
will pay, as proved by experience, in 
raising a second growth of timber in 
New England, sixteen per cent, on capi- 
tal invested, to plant trees for such pur- 
poses as for cabinet, and especially oar- 
riage-makers' use ; and, more still, -if 
material were as closely worked up for 
charcoal, faggots, etc., as science abroad 
works up what is termed refuse here. 
Second, by examining the prices of 
hoop-poles, and also the space nursery- 
men occupy to grow a certain number 
of young trees, it will be seen that an 
acre planted to oak and hickory may, 
in five years, be yielding, with good 
management, from $20 to $50 a year 
for several years thereafter, and still 
leave abundance of trees for permanent 
growth. This is made more plain by 
the statement that the New York 
jH-iees for hoop-poles is as follows: For 
eight-foot poles, $2 to $4 per 100 ; ten- 
foot, $4 to $5 ; twelve-foot, $7 to $8 ; 
and fourteen-foot poles, $10 per 100. 

As we proved a few months since in 
the work of the Oriental Topographical 
Corps in Egypt and Spain, a consider- 
able number of reliable persons caH be 
pledged; as a matter of public good, to 
plant 1,000 tree-seeds a year. A little 
system or effort would soon establish 
the custom of planting seeds of trees 
along the highways, division fences, 
and other waste places. This alone 
might soon add many millions of dol- 
lars to the aggregate value of property 
in any State in the Union. The time 
and labor of planting one small tree 
will plant dozens of seeds. The seeds 
of the maple, elm, ash and several 
others of the most valuable trees are so 
small that scores of them may be car- 
ried in the vest-pocket to plant at con- 
venience. It is important to give the 
people through the press some of the 
.simplest ways of collecting, keeping 
and planting tree-seeds. There are, 
perhaps, points to be developed also 
which have not occurred to even Euro- 



pean foresters. I have noticed, for 
example, in maple-sugar orchards there 
is often a tree or two in each which is 
called the "sweet tree," because there 
is more sugar in a given quantity of 
sap from one of them than from the 
same quantity from. one of the other 
trees. I believe science will yet show 
how to make all the trees of an orchard 
as rich or richer than these in saccha- 
rine matter. If so, any one of the ma- 
ple-sugar producing States has a large 
annual increase of cash receipts to se- 
cure from this source — an item worth 
considering by a nation sending tons 
of gold abroad annually for nearly 500,- 
000 tons of susrar for home consump- 
tion. The stumps of most of tbe«hard- 
wood trees could be made worth more 
than any other part of the tree by 
working them up into the finer kinds 
offurniture requiring variety of color and 
curl of fiber in the wood. Now they are 
a nuisance. The oak stumps now used 
to make plank for heavy sled-runners 
illustrate this. Such timbers would 
make the finest veneers, and it can be 
saved by grubbing down the trees. 
The labor of felling by grubbing down 
would be far less than digging out the 
stumps after felling in the usual way. 
The tree in the wind would be the 
lever to bring it down after less work 
in digging and cutting the surface roots 
than would be needed to dig up the 
stump if the tree were cut by the com- 
mon method. 

The argument that tree planting 
does not pay because only a coming 
generation can reap the benefits, is false 
as well as selfish and unpatriotic. A 
piece of ground on which the seed has 
been planted only long enough for the 
little sprouts to be above ground has, 
then, an increase in value many times 
the cost of putting in the seed. Each 
year of growth of these young trees, 
thereafter, is also many times the value 
of putting in the seeds. Many a land- 
holder is growing " land-poor" with 
idle land which would make him rich 
at a trifling expense of putting forest 
tree seeds on it. 

The club is strong in proportion as 
it proves itself useful. Perhaps it sel- 
dom finds a richer field of usefulness 
than, first briuffiug together what has 



TEE LAJS'CASTER FARMER. 



71 



'y 



been done in this country by way of 
advancing in forestry. Second, in get- 
ting full information on what has been 
done in countries where they have had 
more centuries than we have had years 
of efperience. Third, as " what is 
everybody's business is nobody's busi- 
ness," it may be wise to appoint a com- 
mittee to at least begin to gather this 
information. 

Geo. May Powell. 
— Transcribed froT\i " The Friend.''^ 



THE USE AND POETRY OF THE 
DANDELION. 



BY JACOB 8TAUFFER, 



This very comraon plant, that dots 
our fields and fence rows, is so well 
known as to need no description, and 
yet there are facts and fancies connected 
with it, both useful and interesting, 
which everybody does not know. Of 
course, those who know all about it can 
not be edified - only such as feel an in- 
terest in the subject. 

The young leaves of this plant in a 
blanched state, have the taste of endive, 
and make an excellent addition to those 
plants eaten early in spring as salads. 
This, of course, is nothing new. 

I noticed an article in the Weekly 
Pre.s6- which is suggestive, and deserves 
a general spread among your readers. 
However much we may know of the 
dandelion, few are aware of how it is 
prized in other countries as a salad, and 
bow much pains are taken to improve 
the varieties. Just now the French 
agricultural papers are loud in praise 
of two improvements. The Piss-en-lU 
a eceur plein, which has a round, full 
head, like a small cabbage ; and the 
Piss-en-lit a large feuilles, which has 
long, broad leaves like a cos lettuce. 
Even the English are catching the en- 
thusiasm of their excitable neighbors ; 
for a leading newpaper styles the intro- 
duction of these improved dandelions in 
England as quite an event. They are, 
it says, the greatest acquisition of the 
season among salad plants. 

It is somewhat remarkable that, with 
the dandelion growing everywhere in 
our fields, no attempt has been made by 



our gardeners to prepare it for salad 
and bring it to public notice. It re- 
quires blanching to deprive it of its bit- 
terness. It is usually gathered by 
children and sold, without being blanch • 
ed, around here, and hence is not so 
palatable as to produce a demand for 
it. It grows, however, at a very low 
temperature, so that any body's cellar 
would properly prepare the plant. 

The roots in early spring transplanted 
thickly in boxes of earth, and these set 
in any dark place where there is a tem- 
perature of about 50°, will grow and 
produce a good quality of white leaves 
as crisp and nutty as the finest white 
solid celery. 

Considering the abundance of this 
plant, the ease of its culture, it is truly 
wonderful that no advance in its 
improvement has been made among 
us, and it is with the view to stimu- 
late some of our progressive horticul- 
turists to try their skill on this familiar 
wild plant, and see what can be done, 
that this article is written. Since it 
will grow at a low temperature, we 
need no hot-house, and really there is 
no reason why it should not be raised 
during the winter season, when other 
salad plants are scarce. This is much 
in its favor, and hence I may be excus- 
able for reproducing what was gleaned 
from other papers, to give it still a 
wider circulation among the readers of 
the Farmer. Botanically I have much 
of interest, and find five species are 
described under the name of Leontodon 
derived from the Greek, a lion and tooth, 
a compound name in reference to the 
jagged leaves resembling the teeth of a 
lion. Linna3us preferred the Greek 
name to that given it by Tournefort, 
compounded from the Latin — "Dens 
Leonis.''^ The Germans call it Lnewen- 
zahn — Lion's tooth. The cut-teeth of 
the leaves pointing backward (or "run- 
cinate," scientifically expressed). 

The diuretic effects of this plant gave 
rise to the vulgar name of Piss-a-bed, 
and it is remarkable that the French 
have adopted this name instead of the 
former " Dent-de-lion,'''' and from which 
we have the common name corrupted 
to "Dandelion." AVhile in the late pub- 
lications, the French call it " Piss-cn-lit"' 
— our vulgar English name translated. 



8 



TEE LAJYCASTER FARMER. 



It is interesting to trace these com- 
mon names. I will barely mention the 
different species known and described. 
Leontodon Taraxacum is the old botan- 
ical name of the common dandelion. 
This is now changed to Taraxacum 
Dens-leonis. Making it into a separate 
genus, as it differs sufficiently in its 
habit. The only plant mentioned by 
Dr. Gray is the Leontodon Autum- 
nale, Fall Dandelion or Hawkbit. This 
has pinnatifid or lacinated leaves, a 
shuider scape 8-12 inches high, branch- 
ing, heads small, scaly bracted, and 
comes in the section having the pappus 
of rather numerous and stout, long- 
plumose bristles. While the Taraxacum 
belongs to the section ; pappus of ex- 
tremely copious and soft hair-like ; when 
matured, the pappus is raised on a very 
long, slender stalk-like beak and the 
only species is the Taraxacum Dens- 
leonis, the common well known plant. 
In an old botany I find the Leontodon 
palustris, the Marsh Dandelion. This 
has also golden yellow flowers, and is 
found in England. The L. Serotinus, 
Late-flowering Dandelion, a native of 
hills in Hungary. The L. lasvigaius. 
Smooth Dandelion, a native of Spain. L. 
Obovatus — Obovate Dandelion, also 
found in Spain ; this differs remarkably 
in its leaves from all the rest. Louden 
adds a variety and a 6 th species — L. 
besserabicus. Our plant is introduced 
without question ; the Germans also 
know it by the name oi Pfaffenrolirlein 
and Dotterblulime. 

The roots dried, ground and powder- 
ed, are used like chicory roots, as a 
substitute for coffee. It is hard to ex- 
tirpate as a weed. Swine are fond of 
it, sheep and cows seem to dislike it, 
and by horses it is refused. It has met 
v.ath considerable favor as a medicine 
and much has been said of its virtues 
in various diseases ; this has no doubt 
led to the introduction of " Dandelion 
Pills." 

Park, an old English writer, says, 
" Whoso is macilent, drawing toward 
a consumption, or ready to fall into a 
cachexia (I suppose he means a vitiated 
state of the solids and fluids,) by the 
use hereof (Dandelion) for some time 
together, shall find a wonderful help." 
Boerhaave had a high opinion of its 



powers, and esteemed it capable " if 
duly continued, of resolving obstinate 
obstructions and coagulations of the 
viscera." The idea led Haller to name 
it specifically. Taraxacum derived from 
the Greek Tarrasso, to stir or disturb. 
It may interest but few in tracing 
back the history of a simple weed. 
Nevertheless tastes vary, and while 
tbe practical reader may skip what is 
not to his taste, perchance some one is 
glad to know its scientific position and 
nomenclature ; perliaps a little of the 
poetical fancies of the observant ram- 
bler may not be amiss. Howitt refers 
to a school-boy habit, he says : 

" Dandelion, with glolie of down, 
The school-boy's clock in every town, 
Which the truant putis amain. 
To conjure lost hours back again." 

The bright yellow flowers of this 
plant open in the morning between five 
and six o'clock, and close in the even- 
ing between eight and nine ; hence this 
was one of the plants selected by Lin- 
naeus to form his floral clock. This 
served the solitary shepherd for a 
clock, while its feathery tufts are his 
barometer, predicting calm or storm. 

" Leon-to-dons unfold 
On the swart turf their ray-encircled golrl ; 
With Sol's expanding beam the flowers un- 
close. 
And rising Hesper lights them to repose." 

— Darvin. 

Moore alludes to its hanging its head 
in the absence of the sun, 

" And keeps sad vigils like a cloistered nun, 

'Till the reviving ray appears 

Waking her beauty as he dries her teai"s." 

But old legends tell us the globose 
heads of the winged seeds serve for 
other purposes. Thusly (for young 
folks) are you separated from the ob- 
ject of your love ? Cai-efully pluck one 
of those feathery spheres ; charge each 
of the little feathers composing it with 
a tender thought ; turn toward the spot 
where the loved one dwells ; blow, and 
the little aerial travelers will faithfully 
convey yoiu' secret message to his or 
her feet. Do you wish to know if that 
dear one is thinking of you, as you are 
thinking of her or him, blow again ; 
and if there is left upon the stalk a sin- 
gle aigrette it is a proof that you are 
not forgotten. But if you do not wish 
to be disappointed, I will add — blow 
very gently lest you dispel the pleasing 
illusion by rudely blowing too forcibly. 



TEE la:n'casteFo farmer. 



79 



I will state a remarkable fact — that 
Johnston in his new edition, and exten- 
sive supplement to the Gardener's Dic- 
tionary, London, 1870, in which I find 
almost every known plant, after a dili- 
gent search under each of its known 
names, do not find any notice of it 
whatever. This is rather remarkable 
from such an author. But surely I 
will be acquitted on the charge of brev- 
ity if not from that of needless prolixity. 
What is written is wrilten, whether the 
reader is pleased or otherwise. 



AGRICULTURAL. 



THE CULTIVATION OF INDIAN 
CORN. 



[The following essay on the cultiva- 
tion of Indian Corn, was read by John- 
son Miller, of Warwick, before the 
last meeting of the Agricultural and 
Horticultural Society of this county.] 

GENTLEiMEN : Many of you are 
aware that at the last meeting of 
our society it was agreed that to-day 
each member should bring a sample of 
corn along, and give his mode of culti- 
vation, and to have a general discussion 
of the subject of corn raising. As I am 
not so well posted, always, to give my 
ideas in public in speaking, I have pre- 
pared my plan of cultivation in the 
shape of an e.s.*ay, which will cover my 
ground of cultivation from the selection 
of seed to the housing of the crop. The 
selection of seed is the most important 
point. Here, I am satisfied, most farm- 
ers make the mistake; and the general 
failure of last year's crop is mostly at- 
tributable to this very point. The win- 
ter before the one just closed had been 
one of unprecedentedeold weather. Last 
spring, when the time came for corn 
planting, farmers, as was the general 
custom, went out to the crib and got 
their samples of corn and planted. The 
result was that some fields came up 
about half, while others were entire 
failures, and had to be replanted ; and 
in this Way hundreds of fields of corn in 
this county were spoiled, and produced 
but half a crop — the result of improper 
selection and care of seed corn. Mv 



plan in selecting seed corn is the follow- 
ing : I select the Ijcst and well-formed 
ears when I unload, at husking time, 
and put them in the house in a dry and 
warm place ; here I let it until I need 
it for planting, and w^ith this plan I 
never had any trouble, and was never 
obliged to replant to any extent. Even 
last year, when the cry of replanting 
was general all over the count}^ I had 
no trouble. I did not replant last year, 
and got about 2,800 bushels in the ears 
from a twenty-acre field. The prepara- 
tion of soil is the next question to be 
considered, of which plowing is the first 
in order. A grass field is genorally 
taken, *u^hich I like to plow in the fall 
of the year, in which I see this advan- 
tage : That it is a help for the farmer 
in the spring, when there is plenty of 
work on all sides without plowing for 
corn ; and I know this from experience,, 
that a field plowed in the fall is not so 
lial)le for grass and weeds during the 
summer, thereby saving considerable 
labor in cultivating corn, and the ground 
can be made much more agreeable to 
plant when plowed in the fall. I apply 
lime in the spring at the rate of 100 
bushels to the acre, and then I shovel 
it with a large shovel-harrow, followed 
by the spike-harrow and roller, until I 
have my field as fine as a garden. I 
don't believe that the ground can be 
made too fine for corn or any other crop. 
I now run over with my marker, which 
makes two furrows at a time — four fur- 
rows on a round trip — three feet three 
inches apart. After having marked five 
or six acres in this way, I run over at 
right angles with a pole having five 
chains attached — also thi*ee feet three 
inches apart ; now I drop two, and 
mostly three, grains at every corner 
where the chain runs across the furrows. 
I cover the grain to the depth of about 
two inches. After I am done planting, 
I drag a plank over the whole field. la 
this condition it remains until the corn 
comes up ; say a week or ten days, 
when the cultivator (called a small 
shovel-harrow) should be started and 
run through. And as in my plan, I 
have it checkered three feet three ijiches 
apart each way, I run through one time 
north and south, and then cast and west; 
so in succession until the corn is too 



80 



THE LAJf CASTER FARMER. 



large. No scraper will be tolerated in 
my corn field, for the simple reason that 
I want my corn field even, so that the 
water will not be run off the stalks, as 
is the case when piled up with the 
scraper, as is generally done. My father 
and I have been raising corn for twenty- 
five years without the use of a scraper, 
and it is unnecessary to say that we 
have the reputation of being the most 
successful corn raisers in old Warwick. 
One thing I. had almost omitted in re- 
gard to planting. We plant always by 
hand, and cover with the hoe or foot. 
I would never recommend machinery 
for planting, because it cannot be done 
on the checker plan ; and, secondly, I 
am free to declare that there has never 
been a machine made that would plant 
regularly ; and without regularity in 
planting, corn raising is a failure. I 
have seen fields that were planted with 
a machine, and when the corn came up 
sometimes there were stalks three feet 
apart, sometimes si.K feet, and then six 
or seven stalks together; then for twen- 
ty feet nothing ; again a bunch of stalks. 
If not so bad as this, I have the first 
field to see which had anything like 
regularity when planted by a machine. 
For these reasons, I strongly recom- 
mend and practice hand-planting. After 
the corn is up, and during cultivation, 
it should be thinned out, as I said in 
the foregoing part of my essay. I plant 
three feet three inches apart, and three 
grains to a hill. After I am done cul- 
tivating I thin out to two stalks to a 
hill. Another great mistake is, that 
farmers plant too thick ; and the result 
is a good crop of nubbins when husking 
time arrives. When cultivating is fin- 
ished, it should be gone through be- 
tween haymaking and harvest, to pull 
out the suckers or side stalks. This 
should be carefully and in time attended 
to. Chopping is next to be considered. 
It should not be performed while too 
green, as the corn will dry much better 
out on the stalk than when placed in 
shocks. The shocks should never be 
too large. About forty-two stalks to a 
shock — six by seven hills is my rule. I 
let it stand ten days or two weeks be- 
fore it is husked. After the husking, 
the fodder will be bound and hauled into 
a barn on a foggy day, where it will 



remain nice all winter. Thus ends my 
essay on corn raising. I have now 
given my plans and ideas as fully as I 
am able, having delayed my v/riting to 
a late hour, and in the hurry may have 
committed some errors, but I hope some 
of the other members will more fully 
give their plans ; and my desire is to be 
corrected in anything that I have said 
which is not in accordance with a good 
plan of cultivating corn. I further hope 
that the members will fully discuss and 
consider this question, as it is an im- 
portant matter at this time of the year ; 
and as I believe the farmers of Lancas- 
ter county study the proceedings of 
their local Agricultural Society, let us 
exchange plans and ideas, and they will 
insure good results if properly practiced 
and systematically followed. 



AGRICULTURAL INTELLI- 
GENCE. 



UsrNG Manure on the Farm. — 
Oiie of the most successful farmers that 
we know in California, says the Agri- 
culturist, always applies all the manure 
he can save from his stables as a top- 
dressing to his hay fields. He prac- 
tices rotation from hay to pasture, and 
then to grain. He manures the land 
just at the commencement of the rainy 
season, and simply harrows the sur- 
face after it is spread on. The increase 
of hay pays the first year, and the 
next year's pasturage is also excellent. 
When the ground is again })lowed there 
is no coarse, strawy stuff to plow under 
to dry out the soil, but the decomposed 
substances are in the best condition to 
incorporate with the soil. A large 
yield of grain, clean from foul weeds, is 
the result of this system, for two years 
in succession. Then the soil receives 
another coating of manure and is crop- 
ped to hay as at first. The prejudice 
against using manure which so gener- 
ally prevails arises from a wrong sys- 
tem, or rather no system of using it. 
When coarse manure is plowed under 
the soil a few inches, the surface dries 
out to the depth of the manure", in our 
dry climate, and the grain or other 
crops are injured, unless irrigation is 
resorted to. But manure, if rightly 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



81 



used, may be quite as beneBcial as in 
any other climate. Certainly the appli- 
cation to the surface, before a hay crop, 
is in no way objectionable, Instead of 
drying out the soil it rather shelters it 
from the action of the sun, and acts 
beneficially in a mechanical as well as 
a nourishing manner. To keep up the 
fertility of the soil and produce good 
paying crops every year is easy enough 
if a correct system of farming is followed. 



SMALL FRUITS FOR FAMILY 
USE. 



Persons who have traveled about thfi 
country among farmers need not be told 
that not one in ten of them makes any 
calculation whatev(?i" for having a sup- 
ply of small fruits for family use. All 
fruits of this sort are picked by their 
wives and children in the fields, around 
stumps and along the fences and old 
hedge-rows, the pickers tearing their 
clothes and skin in many instances se- 
verely, and getting more or less wet by 
pressing their way through tall weeds 
and grass which grow on every hand, 
and are wet with heavy dews. In order 
to be sure of getting any berries they 
start out early in the morning or else 
some one will be before them, for every 
woman, boy and girl, who has the least 
bit of time, is on the alert just as soon 
as wild berries commence ripening, 
etc. " It is the early bird that catches 
the worm "in this vocation as well as 
in many others. 

If farmers would add a quarter of 
an acre to the dimensions of their gar- 
dens, and set the additional part with a 
few of the best varieties of strawberry, 
blackberry and raspberry plants, and 
let their wives and children spend one- 
half the time lost in running around 
the fields and through the woods hunt- 
ing wild berries, in cultivating the 
plants, a thing which most of them 
would cheerfully do, they would get 
five times as many ])erries, besides sav- 
ing sev(^ral dollars worth of clothes and 
shoes, to say nothing of the weary steps 
and lacerated hands and arms. 

By laying off a piece of land 8x10 
rods, and using one-half for vegetables 
and the other for small fruits, setting 



all in straight rows the long way, so 
that a horse and cultivator could be 
used, very little hoeing would suffice to 
keep it as clean as the most fastidious 
could wish. In putting this hint into 
practice, set two rows of Kittatiny 
Blackberry, one of Davidson's Thorn- 
less Raspberry, one of Doolittle's Black 
Cap, two of Golden Thornless, two of 
Philadelphia, one of currant and goose- 
berry, and four rows of strawberries, 
comprising four varieties, choosing those 
known to do well in your vicinity. 
Stretch a line twelve inches from the 
fence to set the first row of blackberries 
by, setting the plants four feet apart in' 
the row, then move the line eight feet, 
and set another row of bjackberries, 
then move seven feet and set a row of 
Doolittle's Black Cap, and so on, mov- 
ing seven feet each time, till all the 
raspberry and currant plants are set, 
then move three feet each time for the 
rows of strawberry plants, setting them 
about fifteen inches apart in the rows. 
The raspberry plants should be set three 
feet apart in the row. 

Three hundred and thirty raspberry, 
39 currrant, 12 gooseberry, and 500 
strawberry plants, to set a quarter of 
an aci'e, requiring a cash outlay of $12 
for plants, provided they are bought of 
some fruit grower, and not of some 
straggling " tree peddler." During the 
first year potatoes could be grown be- 
tween the rows of raspberries and black- 
berries. The second year the strawber- 
ries would produce a full crop, and the 
raspberries about half of a crop, if the 
canes are cut back to within 10 or 15 
inches of the ground, which they should 
be in order to make a lasting plantation. 
The blackberries would probably yield 
two or three bushels tbe second year, 
and each succeeding year from ten to 
fifteen bushels, if well cared for. 

One-fourth of an acre of land stocked 
with berry plants, as above described, 
Avould afford the farmer and his family 
more pleasure and profit than any other 
piece of same dimensions on the farm, if 
taken care of as it should be. It would 
produce annually, for several years, from 
twenty to forty bushels of the finest 
quality of berries. — Journal of the 
Farm. 



82 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



SURGERY AS APPLIED TO 
SQUASH VINES. 



In August of 1872, I noticed when 
walking through the field where my 
squash vines were growing that some 
of them were withering and others 
quite dead. Wishing to learn the cau^e 
of this, I examined the vines closely to 
detect, if possible, the point where the 
mischief began to work. Just where 
the vine in branching from the root 
makes an angle, I found a slight knot 
or protuberance. With my pocket-knife 
I cut the vine longitudinally for a 
couple of inches above and below this 
knot, and gently turned the vine at this 
opening nearly inside out, and found at 
once the ca^use of the mischief A borer 
with a black head and about three- 
quarters of an inch long dropped from 
the opening upon the ground. Gently 
closing the vine together, I wrapped a 
bit of muslin about the cut, tied it up 
with a woolen thread, killed the borer, 
and satisfied that this little creature 
was at the root of the growing mis- 
chief, I went carefully over all my vines 
applying the knife and bandage to every 
vine on which the little knot appeared. 
A few days after I examined my 
squashes again, and found that many 
of the vines that had begun to wither 
were fully restored, and the wounds I 
made had healed. In the fall I har- 
vested a large number of fully ripe 
squashes, having a larger yield from 
that field than usual. The past season 
my vines were entirely free from the 
ravages of this noxious insect. I find 
this borer described in " Harris on In- 
sects," page 331. It seems that " after 
devouring the interior of the stem the 
worm enters the soil, forms a cocoon of 
a gummy substance covered with par- 
ticles of earth, changes to a chrysalis, 
and comes forth the next summer a 
winged insect. This is conspicuous 
for its orange-colored body, spotted 
with black, and its hind legs fringed 
with long orange-colored and black 
hairs. The hind wings only are trans- 
parent, and the fore-wings expand from 
one inch to one inch and a half It de- 
posits its eggs on the vine close to the 
roots, and may be seen flying about 
the plants from the 10th of July till 



the middle of August." The name of 
this insect is jEgeria Cuciirbitse, and 
it attacks other ciicurbitaceoas vines 
than the squash. In the hope that this 
bit of experience in rural surgery may 
be of profit to your readers I have de- 
voted a part of this rainy day to writ- 
ing it out for you. — L. E. L., Queens 
county, L. I. 

— — ^M^^ 

Potato-Plow. — The ' 3Iark Lane 
Express has the following on one of 
the implements exhibited before the 
Royal Agricultural Society: 

Corbett & Peele's plow has a single 
mold-board, and has a revolving disc, 
composed of several teeth or tines, 
which, by a simple attachment, is fixed 
to the handles of the plow, and works 
just behind the mold-board, catching 
the furrow as it is moved by the plow 
and tearing it in pieces. As it is fixed 
to work at an angle to the mold-board 
and to the furrow, the potatoes are de- 
posited on the surface of the pulverized 
land, and very few fall into the furrow 
sole, where they would be covered by 
the next ride, unless gathered immedi- 
ately after the plow. By this single 
mold-board, two-thirds, or nearly all 
the ridge, is turned over and broken up 
on the mold-board side, and the furrow 
sole left has scarcely a potato in it. 
The revolving disc, acting on the whole 
furrow, at once produced a fine level 
and broad bed for the potatoes to fall 
upon. The plow was put to work 
upon regent potatoes, the tops of which 
were ripe, and made capital work. A 
few potatoes were buried by the mold 
thrown up by the disc, but there was 
no scratching at all for the gatherers, 
and they could gather much more rap- 
idl}^ than after the ordinary plow used 
in the district. A great merit of this 
principle is that it is adaptable to any 
ordinary plow at a cost of £3. The 
plow with a rotary disc is here shown 
as one implement, but virtually the in- 
vention consists in an apparatus to be 
attached to a plow, and forming part of 
its fittings or furniture, like the share 
or the coulter, but only to be used for 
special purposes. It will, however, 
pulverize land, winter-plowed in ridges, 
or at the time of plowing, most effi- 
ciently. 



THE LANCASTER FARMEH. 



88 



Specialties in Farming. — General 
farming or mixed husbandry, says the 
TFe.v/cr/i Farmer, in more than nine 
cases out of ton, will be found to be 
better than exclusive attention to any 
one specialty. The owners of cran- 
berry marshes cannot be generally 
farmers; those who have no land fit for 
tillage cannot grow grain, but the gen- 
eral rule holds good. The reasons are 
many, too many to discuss in full. The 
general system enables the farmer to 
more economically make use of his own 
or hired labor ; work can better be dis- 
tril)utcd throughout the year. It is as 
a rule better adapted to retaining or in- 
creasing the fertility of the soil, and it 
secures the farmer from the evil follow- 
ing the fluctuations in price in all speci- 
alties. With a good crop of tobacco 
or hops selling at fifty cents per pound, 
the specialty farmer can look with un- 
disguised pity on his plodding neigh- 
bor ; but if one of these crops be his 
sole dependence, and sells at three cents 
per pound, the plodding neighbor may 
be asked for the loan of enough money 
to buy the necessaries of life for a year. 
It seems paradoxical, but we cannot 
always afford to cultivate those crops 
which pay the best. 



Good Yield of Potatoes. — A cor- 
respondent of the Country Gentleman 
writes : 

On the 25th of May last I planted in 
drills three feet apart one barrel of 
Peerless, and one barrel of Prince Al- 
bert potatoes, cut into pieces containing 
one and sometimes two eyes. They 
were rolled in plaster, and stood a day 
or two before planting ; they Avere 
dropped from nine to twelve inches 
apart in the drills. The ground was 
manured liberally with^ well-rotted barn- 
yard manure last fall, spread broadcast 
and plowed in. No other fertilizer was 
used at the time of planting, except a 
slight sprinkling of ))one-dust and plas- 
ter scattered along the drills. The 
potatoes were cultivated three times 
and kept free from weeds, and were 
dug September 20th to 25th. The 
yield of Peerless was 68i bushels of 
large and 5 bushels of small potatoes. 
The yield of Prince Albert was 72i 



bushels of large and 4 of small potatoes. 
Total yield, 1 19 bushels from two bar- 
rels of seed. Extent of ground used, 
four-tenths of an acre, or at the rate of 
312^ bushels to the acre. Soil, a clay 
loam that had been cropped three years. 



"^Cloveti Hay Cut with Green Tim- 
othy. — Harris Lewis, the great Herki- 
mer dairyman, says that green timothy 
cut with clover in bloom, if well cured, 
makes the best hay for milch cows. He 
calls the timothy dried grass. George 
Geddes says the believers in old pas- 
tures and old meadows and the natural 
grasses very much dislike his testimony 
in favor of clover hay as being Avorth 
more than the best meadow hay, if it is 
only cut early and well cured. Bous- 
singeault's farm experiments show that 
seventy-five pounds of clover hay cut in 
full bloom and well cured is worth as 
much as one hundred pounds of ordi- 
nary meadow hay. The reason why 
clover hay is not better estimated is that 
when sown with timothy, farmers gener- 
ally wait for the timothy to ripen before 
the field is mowed ; others do not cut 
clover until it is dead ripe, to save the 
labor of curing. I have found that a 
little slacked lime will prevent clover 
from burning in the mow, even if not 
thoroughly dried. Some farmers apply 
salt, but this only creates moisture and 
increases the evil. 



To Plow Down Grass. — The Can- 
ada Farmer says: Notwithstanding 
the utmost pains and care in plowing, the 
grass, especially if long, will bristle up in 
beards and tufts here, there, and every- 
where, injuring alike the appearance of 
the field and its capacity for growth. 
Do you wish to remedy this great diffi- 
culty ? If so, use the chain and ball to 
your plow. No matter what kind of a 
plow you have, try them. A piece of 
ordinary trace chain will do very well. 
Fasten one end of it to yom- coulter, 
and to the other end attach a round 
iron ball of from two to three pounds' 
weight, leaving the chain long enough 
to permit the ball to reach back to about 
the middle of the mold-board, and there 
let it drag along, on the off side, of 
course. 



8Jf 



THE LAjYCASTER FARMER. 



When TO Cut Hay. — It would seem 
as if by this time we should understand 
sufficiently the theory and practice on 
this subject to be able to dispense with 
further discussions. But its magnitude 
is such, that, like the celestial bodies, 
some new phase is continually present- 
ed and new theories thereby evoked, 
and it is only when the test of actual 
experiment is applied that a critical ob- 
server can become satisfied. As to the 
time of cutting grass for hay, the testi- 
mony of the farmers in Massachusetts 
was drawn out some dozen years ago 
by the action of the State Board of 
Agriculture, and it was emphatically 
to the point that timothy and red top 
should be cut when in full blow, aad 



red clover when half the heads are in 
blossom. 



The Product op two Kernels of 
Wheat. — About a year since Mr. Wm. 
C. Ralston, President of the Bank of 
California' received in a letter from 
Europe five kernels of wheat. They 
were carefully planted on the farm of 
Thos. H. Selby, Esq., in San Mateo 
county, Cal. Three kernels failed to 
germinate, the other two growing finely. 
One produced 103 stalks, yielding 2,701 
kernels of wheat; the other yielded 2,110 
kernels, the two producing 4,811 kernels 
of good merchantable wheat. However 
fabulous this account may appear, the 
truth is nevertheless unquestioned. 




SQUASHES. 



HORTICULTURAL. 



n 



SQUASHES. 



THESE well-known and highly es- 
teemed vegetables are members 
of the cucuRBiTACEA or Gourd family, 
some species of which are small, very 
beautiful, and are mainly cultivated for 
ornament; others on account of their 
immense size are considered as curiosi- 
ties, while others are used for culinary 
purposes. By many, the squashes have 
been regarded as a sort of link connect- 
ing the melons and the pumpkins. 
Squashes have been considered such 
universal favorites in this country, that 
in times past no kitchen garden was 
considered complete without them ; but 



on account of the large space they usu- 
ally occupy, and their liability to inter- 
mingle and intermix with other vines, 
it is advisable to give them a wider 
berth, and exclude them from the gar- 
den altogether, in all cases where the 
cultivator is in possession of other 
grounds that can be used for this pur- 
pose. Among the more desirable old 
varieties are the Early Orange, Early 
Bush, Large Green Striped, Autumn 
Marrow, etc. The Valpai-aiso, which 
is an excellent kind, and usually attains 
to nearly a hundred pounds, was at one 
time a greater favorite than it appears 
to be now. At the head of the new 
varieties may be placed Mr. Gregory's 
Marblehead SquasJi, as one that must 
eventually become popular, but per- 
haps the ijest of all for winter use, is the 
Hubbard. As a standard summer vari- 



THE LAA'^CASTER FABMER. 



85 



ety, there is none better than the Vege- 
table Marrow. The American Tur- 
ban, .and the Boston Harrow are good 
fall varieties. The Golden-bush, the 
WiUe-bush and the Summer Crookneck 
are fine early varieties. These " crook- 
neck" squashes in our locality usually 
take the name of " Cashaws," of which 
the Canada Crookneck and the Winter 
Crookneck are good varieties. Among 
recent foreign novelties is the Yoko- 
hama Squash, but many of these 
imported vegetables, soon lose what 
little reputation their first introduction 
may have given them. As instances 
we might mention the famous Japan 
Pea, and the greatest of all vegetable 
fizzles, the duly trumpeted liaphanus 
caudatus, " nice, crisp and tender rad- 
ishes, a yard long, growing on the 
tops, in bunches, instead of a single 
root under ground." 

According to practical squash grow- 
ers, " all vines delight in a warm and 
rich soil." In preparing the ground it 
should be thoroughly pulverized and 
manured at the rate of about seven 
cords to the acre, working it just under 
the surface. The bush varieties may 
be planted five or six feet apart, but the 
running varieties should l:>e from eight 
to ten . feet apart. As the squash is 
quite sensitive to cold, it would not be 
advisable to plant before the first week 
in May.' Although it requires much 
less care than the melon or the pumpkin, 
still generous culture will produce bet- 
ter results than a neglected and slovenly 
treatment. For full particulars as to 
this department of garden culture, we 
would recommend Mr. Gregory's work, 
entitled " Squashes and how to Grow 
them," and to whom we are indebted 
for the illustrations in this and former 
numbers. 



HOW TO DISINFECT A HOUSE. 



(specific gravity 1-8), a weight double 
that of the manganese. Make all open- 
ings, except chimneys, air-tight, and 
have no water or wet things within, or 
polished metals, unless you want them 
dimmed. Then pull the string that 
pours the acid on the powder. The ob- 
ject is to fill the house with chlorine 
gas, which, being heavy even while 
warm, will accumulate from the ground 
upward, expelling the air by the chim- 
neys. However tight the lower open- 
ings, you will probably smell a little of 
it as a warm sea-breeze. By next morn- 
ing the law of gaseous ditfusion will, 
even through the chimneys only, have 
disposed of all its traces; and it will 
meanwhile have found out every un- 
clean atom, lurk where it may, and 
killed every germ or sperm, zymotic or 
auimalcular, deader than any other kill- 
ina: known. 



Mix common salt and black manga- 
nese, about equal weights, and take 
about a pound of the mixed powder for 
each cubic yard in the house. Place it 
in a pan where you can arrange to up- 
set a vessel of acid into it by pulling a 
string outside the house. This will be 
oil of vitriol, or boiled sulphuric acid 



Meal as Feed. — We have fed a 
great deal of corn and cob meal to both 
horses and cows, and never discovered 
any injurious effects from it. Our own 
opinion is, however, that it does not 
pay to grind cobs with the meal to feed 
to horses. ^We had rather feed the 
corn meal alone with hay or steamed 
straw; but we had rather have the 
corn and cob meal for milch cows. We 
believe the distension of the stomach 
Avhich is produced by feeding the 
ground cob with the corn meal is an 
advantage over feeding clear meal. 
Some dairymen claim that milk is 
largely increased by feeding boiled 
cobs to cows. We once heard a far- 
mer of considerable experience say that 
he believed sixteen quarts of boiled 
cobs equal to four quarts of corn meal 
as a milk-producing feed. 



Killing Poultry. — An exchange 

says the easiest, quickest and best way 
to kill a fowl is to open his beak, and 
then, with a pointed and narrow knife, 
make an incision at the back of the 
roof, which will divide the vertebroe, 
and cause immediate death ; after which 
hang the fowl up by the legs till the 
bleeding ceases; then rinse the beak 
out with vinegar and water. Fowls 
killed in this manner keep longer, and 



86 



THE LAJKr-CASTEU FARMER. 



do not present the unsightly .external 
marks of those killed by the ordinary 
system of wringing the neck. In this 
connection we wish to impress on our 
readers the importance of special care 
in dressing poultry for market. The 
difference in price will more than com- 
pensate for the trouble. Also, don't 
send in poultry in poor condition ; holi- 
day customers all look for and will 
take only fat birds. 



KEEPING EGGS THROUGH 
THE SUMMER. 



Take eggs that you know to be good 
(for if stale of course they will not keep 
well), and place them in a firkin — first 
sprinkling two inches depth of salt all 
over the bottom of it. Put in the eggs 
the small end downward, so that the 
yelk will float in the middle of the 
white, and not cling to the side of the 
eg^^ and spoil it. Fill up the firkin with 
eggs and lay a board over them or a 
plate, to prevent them from floating 
when the brine is poured in. Then 
slake three pints of lime in six gallons 
of water and add to it two and a half 
pints of coarse salt, stirring it up 
thoroughly. Let it stand over night 
to settle, and pour the clear water care- 
fully over the eggs. 

The eggs must be kept entirely under 
brine — for if allowed to float upward 
they will spoil. 

A brine thus prepared will keep eggs 
for a year at least, but care must be 
ta^keii not to let one of them break in 
the brine, and spoil it ; if this occurs 
turn it all out and make a new brine 
for them. 



Frosted Feet. — Some one wishes 
to know what will cure the itching of 
frost-bitten feet of many years standing. 
Mine troubled me very much every 
winter for several years, and were so 
sore that I could wear only a loose 
stocking and a felt shoe, and was 
obliged to cut a hole in the other shoe, 
over the large joint, which enlarged 
the joint. I cured them with Cantha- 
rides cerate, and have never been trou- 
bled since. That was six years ago. 
I have given it to several persons, and 



have never known it to fail to cure. 
Two or three applications are generally 
sufficient. 

To make it^rub into simple cerate 
as much of the tincture of cantharides 
as it will hold. Any druggist can pre- 
pare it for you. A small box will cost 
about ten cents. Cantharides is made 
from Spanish flies. / think it is a 
harmless remedy. Rub a little on. the 
feet before going to bed, after bathing 
them in warm water. 

Ruth Norman. 



Keeping Milk from Souring. — 
The Southern Fai'mer says that a tea- 
spoonful of fine salt or horse-radish in 
a pan of milk will keep it sweet for sev- 
eral days. Milk can be kept a year as 
sweet as when taken from the cow by 
the following method : Procure l)ottles, 
and as they are filled immediately cork* 
and fasten the cork v/ith pack thread or 
wire. Then spread a little straw at 
the bottom of a boiler, on which place 
the bottles, with straw between them, 
until the boiler contains a sufficient 
quantity. Fill up with cold water, 
and as soon as it begins to boil draw 
the fire and let the whole gradually 
cool. When quite cold, take out the 
bottles and pack them in sawdust in 
hampers, and stow them away in the 
coolest part of the house. 



Mince Pies. — Take four pounds boil- 
ed meat, one-half pound suet, four 
ounces cinnamon, two ounces mace or 
nutmeg, one ounce cloves, four pounds 
raisins, one pint molasses, one quart 
brandy, sugar to make it very sweet. 
To the above add an equal weight 
(nearly twelve pounds) of tart apples 
chopped fine. This will keep months. 
Before baking, add a tablespoonful of 
cideror vinegar to each pie. 

L. A. Floyd. 



Marlboro Pudding. — Take twelve 
spoonsful ©f stewed apples, twelve of 
wine, twelve of sugar, twelve of melted 
butter, and twelve of beaten eggs, a 
little cream spice to your taste ; lay in 
a paste in a dish ; bake one hour and 
a quai'ter. 



THIS LA.¥CASTER FABMER. 



87 



Frost Bites. — A correspondent of 
an a^q:ricultural paper furnishes the fol- 
lowing- : 

I have treated this troublesome com- 
plaint very successfully for thirty years 
in the following manner : Wash the 
hands and feet, if both are affected, in 
water as hot as it can be borne for a 
short time, then dry off and paint the 
parts' with tincture of iodine. It can be 
applied with a camel's hair brush, or 
with a rag- tied on a small stick. A 
few applications will give relief in the 
worst cases, and cure recent ones. 
After a few washings they may be 
omitted and the remaining spots paint- 
ed until you make a perfect cure. 



What does " Cooking" mea^j ? — 
Girls, read Mr. Ruskin's definition of 
cookery, and then call it a servile em- 
ffloyment, only fit for menials — if you 
can ! " What does cooking mean ? It 
means the knowledge of Medea, and of 
Circe, and of Helen, and of Calypso, 
and of Rebecca, and of the Queen of 
Sheba. It means the knowledge of all 
grains, and herbs, and fruits, and balms, 
and spices ; of all that is healing and 
sweet in fields and groves, and savory 
in meats ; it means carefulness, and in- 
ventiveness, and watchfulness, and will- 
ingness, and readiness of appliance ; it 
means the economy of your grandmoth- 
ers and great grandmothers, and the 
science of modern chemists ; it means 
English thoroughness, and French art, 
and Aral)ian hospitality; and it means, 
in fine, that you arc to be perfectly and 
always ladies — ' loaf-givers ;' and as 
you are to see imperatively that every- 
body has something pretty to put on, 
BO you are to see, yet more imperatively, 
that everybody has something nice to 
eat." 

Recipe for stimulating the growth 
OF Flowers. — As a stimulant for plants 
one tablespoon ful of Spirits of Harts- 
horn, or Ammonia, to three pints of 
water, is the proper proportion. Rain 
water, is preferable, and the application 
may be made once a week. Let the 
earth get dry and then give a free 
watering on the pot, but not on the 
leaves. The lady who gives this pre- 



scription, which she has fully tried, 
says : " Geraniums are much benefited 
by turning the pot upside down and 
immersing the leaves in tepid water." 
Somewhat differing from other plants, 
she has also found Geraniums in win- 
dows to do better with one side only 
to the light. 

Meat Pie. — Cut up some pieces 
of good, tender, raw beef or mutton, 
sea soned with pepper, salt, and if liked, 
one finely-minced onion ; boil a half 
dozen good-sized, mealy potatoes ; mash 
smooth, and wet with enough milk to 
form a dough to make the crust, salt to 
please the taste, roll cut full half an 
inch thick, and line a buttered dish 
large enough to hold the meat; lay in 
the meat, add a teacup of water, or 
less, if the pie is to be for a small fam- 
ily, then roll out a thin crust of the 
potato, covering the top of the pie at 
least an inch thick, and bake about an 
hour and a half. 



Ticks on Sheep. — Some paper has 
stated that sulphur fed to sheep will 
prove a sure semedy for ticks. This is 
true under favorable circumstances. 
An occasional feed of one tablespoonful 
of sulphur to one quart of salt will 
prove beneficial to the general health of 
sheep, and if they arc in good order 
will keep ticks away without fail. But 
no amount of sulphur will kill the ticks 
on sheep which arc already overrun 
Avith them and pinched up with too 
little food. A daily feed of grain will 
prove of more benefit, by interposing a 
layer of fat between the muscles. 



Cup Cake. — Take one cup butter, 
two of sugar, three of flour, one-half 
cup sweet milk, five eggs, one teaspoon 
cream-of-tartar, one- half spoon so^jla. 
Bake in hearts and rounds. 

A plain cake to be baked in loaves 
is also made by using the above ingre- 
dients, only substituting half molasses 
and half sugar, and adding plenty of 
spice. 

IIow a Premium Ego Plant was 
Grown. — The eggplant which took the 
first premium at the West Chester Fair 



88 



THE LA^rOASTER 'FARMER. 



last fall was grown by a young lady of 
Dillworthtown, Birmingham township. 
The modus operandi by which its 
growth was attained was as follows : 
The plant was set in rich gardfen soil as 
soon as the cold nights were past, and 
every wash-day, wet or dry, the ama- 
teur horticulturist applied a bucket-full 
of suds to its roots. This caused a 
vigorous growth, early blossoming and 
rapid development of the fruit, termi- 
nating in the production of a mamm oth 
purple e^g. 



Potato Puff — Take cold roast meat 
— beef or mutton, or veal and ham to- 
gether — clear of gristle, cut small, and 
season with pepper and salt, and cut 
pickles, if liked ; boil and mash some 
potatoes, and make them into a paste 
with an egg, and roll out, dredging 
with flour. Cut round with a saucer, 
put some of the seasoned meats with 
one-half, and fold it over like apufi"; 
' pinch or nick it neatly round, and fry 
it a light brown. This is a good method 
of cooking meat which has been cooked 
before. 



Standard Honeysuckles. — An ex- 
change gives the following directions 
to trim the hone3^suckle into a bush 
form, giving it great beauty and effect : 

Buy a plant of it, train or tie to a 
stout stake, prune freely, but not too 
severely, give good soil and culture, 
and." it will grow into a plant that will 
astonish, by its flowering capacity, 
thousands who have not seen it so 
trained." 



ENTOMOLOGY. 



INSECT SLAVERY. 



The most remarkable fact connected 
with the history of ants, is the propen- 
sity possessed by certain species to kid- 
nap the workers of other species, and 
compel them to labor for the benefit of 
the community, thus using them com- 
pletely as slaves ; and, as far as we yet 
know, the kidnappers are red, or pale- 
colored ants, and the slaves, like the 
ill-treated natives of Africa, are of a jet 



black. The time for capturing slaves 
extends over a period of about ten 
weeks, and never commences until the 
male and female are about emerging 
from the pupa state ; and thus the ruth- 
less marauders never interfere with the 
continuation of the species. This in- 
stinct seems specially provided ; for 
were the slave-ants created for no other 
end than to fill the station of slavery to 
which they appear to be doomed, still, 
even that office must fail, were the at- 
tacks to be made on their nests before 
the winged myriads have departed or 
are departing, charged with the duty of 
continuing their kind. When the red 
ants are about to sally forth on a ma- 
rauding expedition, they send scouts to 
ascertain the exact position in which a 
colony of negroes may be found. These 
scouts having discovered the object of 
their search, return to the nest and re- 
port their success. Shortly after wai'ds 
the army of red ants marches forth, 
headed by a vanguard which is perpet- 
ually changing; the individuals which 
constitute it, when they have advanced 
a little before the main body, halting,, 
falling into the rear, and being replaced 
by others. This vanguard consists of 
eight or ten ants only. 

When they have arrived near the 
negro colony they disperse, wandering 
through the herbage and hunting about, 
as aware of the propinquity of the ob- 
ject of their search, yet ignorant of its 
exact position. At least they discover 
the settlements ; and the foremost of 
the invaders, rushing impetuously to 
the attack, are met, grappled with, and 
frequently killed by the negroes on 
guard. The alarm is quickly commu- 
nicated to the interior of the nest ; the 
negroes sally forth by thousands ; and 
the red ants rushing to the rescue, a 
desperate conflict ensues, which al- 
ways, however, terminates in the defeat 
of the negroes, who retire to the inner- 
most recesses of their habitation. Now 
follows the scene of pillage. The red 
ants, with their powerful mandibles, , 
tear open the sides of the negro ant- 
hills and rush into the heart of the cita- 
del. In a few minutes each invader 
emerges, carrying in its mouth the 
pupa of a worker negro, which it has 
obtained in spite of the vigilance and 



THE LA jy CASTER FARMER 



89 



valor of its natural guardians. The 1 
red ants return in perfect order to their 
nest, bearing with them their living 
burdens. On reaching the nest the 
pupa appears to be treated precisely as 
their own ; and the workers, when 
they emerge, perform the various du- 
ties of the community with the greatest 
energy and apparent good-will. Tney 
repair the nest, excavate passages, col- 
lect food, feed the larvte, take the pupje 
into the sunshine, and perform every 
office which the welfare of the colony 
seems to require. They conduct them- 
selves entirely as if fulfilling their origi- 
nal destination. — NewmaiVs History of 
Insects. 



To impart to common pine the color 
and appearance of black walnut, the 
following composition may be used : 
One-quarter of a pound of asphaltum, 
one-half a pound of common beeswax, 
to one gallon of turpentine. If found 
too thin, add beeswax; if too light in 
color, add asphaltum, though that must 
be done with caution, as a very little 
will make a great difference in the 
shade, and black walnut is not what 
its name implies, but rather a rich dark 
brown. Varnishing is not essential, as 
the wax ffives a ffood ffloss. 



DOMESTIC. 



-h 



AN EARLY RISING FxlLLACY. 



IN olden times children were early 
taught that the instant they woke 
in the morning they must bounce out 
of bed, not waiting for a moment's 
consideration until they were safely 
landed on the floor. Some wide-awake 
children, whose eyes naturally opened 
with the coming dawn, could easily 
accomplish this feat; but alas for the 
poor little creatures who found it nearly 
impossible to shake off the drowsiness 
that pervaded their entire systems ! 
In a pitiful state of semi-sleep they 
dragged themselves from bed and tried 
to dress. 

Those who retain vivid remembra .ces 
of such experiences of childhood will 
be gratified to know that Dr. Hall says 



that up to eighteen years, every child 
should be allowed to rest in bed, after 
sleep is over, until they feel as if they 
had rather get up than not; that it is 
a very great mistake for persons, old 
or young — especially children and fee- 
ble or sedentary persons — to bounce 
out of bed the moment they wake up ; 
that fifteen or twenty minutes spent in 
gradually waking up, after the eyesara 
opened, and in turning over and stretch- 
ing the limbs, do as much good as 
sound sleep, because the operations set 
the blood in motion by degrees, tending 
to equalize the circulation ; for during 
sleep the blood tends to stagnation, the 
heart beats feebly and slowly, and any 
shock to the system sending the blood 
in overwhelming quantities to the heart 
is the greatest absurdity. 



J- 



CUT THIS OUT. 



Every person should understand how 
to treat a flesh wound, because one is 
liable to be placed in circumstances, 
away from surgical and veterinary aid, 
where he may save his own life, the life 
of a friend or of a beast, simply by the 
exercise of a little common sense. In 
the first place, close the lips of the 
wound with the hand, and hold them 
firmly together to check the flow of 
blood until several stitches can be taken 
and a bandage applied. Then bathe the 
wound for a long time in cold water. 
" Should it be painful," a correspondent 
says, "take a panful of burning coals 
and .sprinkle upon them common brown 
sugar, and hold the wounded part in 
the smoke. In a few minutes the pain 
will be allayed, and recovery proceeds 
rapidly. In my case a rusty nail had 
made a bad wound in my foot. The 
pain and nervous irritation were severe. 
This was all removed Ijy holding it in 
smoke for fifteen minutes, and 1 was 
able to resume my reading in comfort. 
We have often recommended it to 
others, with like results. Last week one 
of my men had a finger-nail torn out by 
a pair of ice-tongs. It became very 
painful, as was to have been expected. 
Held in sugar smoke for twenty min- 
utes, the pain ceased and promised 
I speedy recovery." 



90 



TEE LAJVCASTER FABMER. 



ir 



W 



<S 



LANCASTER, AtRIL, 1874. 

S. S. RATHVON, Etilor. 
J B. DEV^LIN, Assi'i Editorand Publisher. 

Published monthly under the auppices of the A gui- 

CULTUKAL ANDHoliTICCLTUKAL SOCIETY. 

$1 00 per Tear i" A«lv!H3CP. §1.33 if not 
pnid in iMtvaucc. 

One extra envy to persons sending a club rf ten 
8uts"riber!<, anda c 'py of our beautiful Steel JKn- 
graving to every 6ub.;criber. 

AH coranmiiicitions, to insure insertion, must be 
in the tiai.ils of the editors before the 1st of each 
month. All advertisements, subscriptions and re 
mittances to the address of the puhlioher, 

J. B. DEVELIN, Lancaster, Pa. 

iNO. 43 Norih Queen S". 



'COMPTON SURPRISE." 



This is the title of a new tiLher for 
solanaceous honors, and if only one- 
half can be realized that is asserted, in 
regard to its edible and prolific quali- 
ties, it certainly must ultimately be- 
come the potato of the country — unless 
a too abundant yield may be deemed 
less a blessing than a curse. If the 
average product, on a large scale, would 
realize the results which their cultiva- 
tion on a small scale exhibits, then one 
thousand bushels to the acre Avould 
only be a normal crop. We have the 
testimony of one of our most intelligent 
and respectable patrons, as to the 
beauty and superior edible quality of 
this potato, and if two bushels of large 
sound tubers to a single pound of seed 
tuber is considered a generous yield, 
he can also testify to their prolific char- 
acter. We call" the attention of our 
readers to this new potato, as some- 
thing worthy of their consideration, 
and shall refer to the matter acrain. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



J- 



FEEDING HENS FOR LAYIx^G. 



An old woman once related what she 
eaid was a very singular circumstance, 
namely, that when eggs were high her 
hens stopped laying, but when they 
were cheap she always had plenty to 
ell. A writer in the Country Gentle- 



man tells of a way by which any one 
can have plenty of eggs in the season 
when they are usually scarce and high 
priced : 

How to have plenty of hens' eggs in 
winter is an important question with 
housekeepers in the country. A neg- 
lected poultry stock is an unprofitable 
encumbrance upon the farm, and" farm- 
ers are apt to suffer a good deal of loss 
by means of neglect in this as in other 
matters of farm management, just be- 
cause they dislike to be thorough in the 
details of small attentions. It was late 
in the Fall before I got fairly installed 
in my new country house at " The 
Evergreens," but having been a high 
official in poultry associations, on paper, 
during the years of my editorial life, 
I determined to have a stock of fowls 
upon which to put ray fancies into 
practical effect. The best I could do at 
the time was to procure a lot of broody 
old hens which a blood-stock poultry 
man was willing to spare, and I went 
into the Winter with small hopes of 
eggs until next Spring. I was soon 
on familiar terms with my feathered 
flock and put them upon a course of 
feeding for practical effects. Every 
morning I fed a dish of hot mush, made 
of coarse cornmeal, in which was put 
all the potato peelings and leavings from 
the table, and scraps of refuse meats. 
This feed was washed down with clean 
cold water, of which the fowls drank 
very freely. During the day, when the 
weather was fair, the fowls ran out 
under the hedge-rows and among the 
evergreen trees, where they picked up 
a few healthful morsels of seeds, buds, 
etc., and had free access to heaps of 
old lime, mortar and gravel siftings. 
Just before roosting time in the after- 
noon they had a light feed of whole 
dry corn, which put their crops in good 
condition for a night's repose. This 
alternation produced the desired effect 
— the hot breakfast warmed them up in 
the morning and kept their bowels 
free, and the dry corn at night pro- 
longed the warmth and furnished a 
nutritious aliment which carried them 
over the cold of an otherwise torpid 
condition during a Winter's night on 
the roosts. 

The result was, that before New 



TEE LAjYCASTER FAUMER. 



91 



Year's clay my broody old hens were 
giving us all the eggs Ave needed for the 
table, and the Z(7.V8 of the poultry-yard, 
in both time and production, were very ' 
srateful. 



DIVERSITY OF PRODUCTIONS. 



Diversified industry is the true secret 
of successful farming. " Don't put all 
your eggs in one basket,^' is an old ad- 
age and a good one — and in an agricul- 
tural sense, if in no other, we would 
say "don't put all your money in 
eggs." No farmer can expect to be 
successful who depends alone upon one 
production — for as there can be nothing 
upon earth entirely free from liability 
to loss, if the one production is cut off 
all is lost, and the farmer who culti- 
vates upon that plan is liable to be 
ruined. He is safe, at least from ruin, 
if he has other productions upon which 
he can depend lor money. A late frost 
may, and gcnernlly does, destroy the 
wheat crop. Whenever that unfortun- 
ate circumstance happens, in this coun- 
try, and finds* our farmers depending 
solely upon that production formoney, 
as is too frequently the case, hard times 
and scarcity of money with them are in- 
evitable. To avoid this, diversify the 
productions on which you depend for 
money. The greater the variety of 
your monied crops, the more chances 
you will have to escape total loss, 
whenever a failure comes. Diversify 
your productions. 



POTATOES FOR ANIMALS. 



A coi respondent of the Germantown 
Telegraph says : 

. Potatoes in the raw state ought never 
to be given to any animal, with the ex- 
ception of sheep or gpese. A goose will 
thrive better, and the flesh will be more 
gratefully flavored, upon raw potatoes 
sliced, than if more or less mainly fed 
upon any other article; while sheep 
will more speedily thrive upon raw po- 
tatoes than, for instance, on turnips ; 
but, and especially in the beginning, 
raw potatoes will scour cattle and horses, 
and not unfrequently cause death, while 
there is no danger to either one or the 



other from boiled or. steamed potatoes. 
Figs will not always eat and never can 
be fattened upon raw potatoes ; while 
sound boiled potatoes, next to boiled 
peas perhaps, will bring them to the 
greatest weight they are capable of ac- 
quiring, and to greater perfection than 
any other article of food that may be 
continuously used with safety ; admit- 
ting always that from three weeks to 
one month's feeding upon corn, white 
oats or barley is necessary, if not indis- 
pensable, to make the bacon firm and 
impart flavor. 

Boiled or steamed potatoes, with 
scalded bran and a plenty of good hay, 
are very conducive to the growth of 
young horses intended for fast traveling, 
like roadsters and saddle-horses, adding 
cautiously at first bruised prime white 
oats. 

Last, but not least, it may be stated 
that manure from neat stock fed on 
steamed or boiled potatoes is better than 
that of stock fed upon turnips, unless 
the latter be liberally cffset by coi*n- 
meal, linseed cake and other material 
rich in oil and nitrogen. 

The above may be interestiong to 
farmers who, owing to location, have 
not a well-paying outlet for an abundant 
yield of potatoes. 



THE PROFITS OF POULTRY. 



From the West Chester Record of 
this week we find the following in re- 
gard to the raising of poultry, which 
will interest our agricultural readers. 
That paper says : That there is nothing 
about the farm which pays better than 
poultry, if well cared for, Ave have 
always contended. We acknowledge, 
however, that in the large majority of 
cases Avhich have come under our ob- 
servation the farmers have lost in the 
poultry business; but it is because the 
fowls have not received ordinary atten- 
tion. To let chickens wander about in 
the cold all day, searching for food on 
hard frozen ground, and then go to 
roost on the fence, or some equally ex- 
posed place, is not taking cai'e of them. 
Neither is it hel[)ing the matter to call 
the chickens up once every day or two, 
and throw to them feed in huge quan- 



92 



THE LAKCASTER FAKMER. 



titles until the foWls gorge themselves ; 
making alternate extremes of feasting 
and famine. As showing what chick- 
ens will do when well and regularly fed 
and cared for, we publish the following 
figures and facts kindly furnished us by 
Mr. William I. Pyle, of West Goshen, 
whose chickens, we would remark pa- 
renthetically, are a sight worth seeing : 
The flock, not counting the roosters, 
consists of 40 pullets, which were 
hatched last April and May, thus mak- 
ing them from eight to nine months 
old. From the first of January to the 
thirty-first, these pullets laid 621 eggs 
— 51 if dozen. Sold 45 dozen eggs at 
30 cents a dozen, making $13.50 ; used 
19 eggs in the house, and four hens are 
sitting on 52 eggs. Counting these 
latter at the same price as those sold, 
and we have $15.28. The amount of 
feed consumed by the chickens during 
this tiiiie was one and a half bushels of 
corn at 65 cents, one bushel of screen- 
ings 60 cents, half bushel of corn meal 
72 cents, one bushel of middlings (mix- 
ed) 75 cents, eight pounds of lard crack- 
lings 16 cents, quarter bushel ground 
bone 12 cents, making a total cost of 
$2.61, leaving' a net profit of $12.67. 
It must be remembered that only 
thirty-six of the hens were laying, four 
being setting. One of these latter has 
now young chickens four days old, and 
others will bring forth their broods this 
week. It should also be considered 
that these pullets are only 8 and 9 
months old and have averaged forty 
cents clear profit a day since November I 
1st. Next summer when they can get j 
grass and insects they will do better, 
and will not require so much grain. 
The eggs from these pullets will be | 
White-Leghorn and ^ Partridge Cochin, 
which I consider will greatly improve 
their laying quality. Can any one 
.show us anything else about the farm 
which will pay such a heavy interest 
■on the investment as the above state- 
ment shows that chickens will ? Mr.' 
Pyle feeds his chickens regularly twice 
a day, gives them a warm place to 
sleep in, and they amply repay him ; 
so they will every one who does like- 
wise. 



HAPvD WORK PAYS. 



Subscribe for the Parmer. 



" Honor and fame froiii no condition rise, 
Act well your part ; tlior(! all the honor lies." 

When quite a small lad, I was one 
day picking up strips in my employer's 
lumber yard, when a gentleman, who 
knew me well, said that he thought I 
ought to be engaged at something not 
so menial, whereupon I immediately 
answered him by giving the above 
quotation ; he then tapped me on the 
shoulder and said, " Good boy." But 
I was pleased and assured by.his man- 
ner and expression that he thought 
what I said had the right ring in it, 
and was greatly encouraged thereby. 
It often comes back kindly to my mem- 
ory. We too often hear the expression 
made that hard work don't pay, that 
you ought to try and live by your wits. 
I believe this to be one of the greatest 
errors of our day ; our young men are 
being brought up entirely too much on 
that idea. The professions are becom- 
ing greatly overcrowded, while skilled 
artisans in every branch of labor are 
becoming scarce. I wjll say, in con-. 
clusioi:t, that I fully admire and appre- 
ciate the effort of every man to raise 
himself — in fact it is his duty; but 
where I think the mistake is made, is 
That our young men will not enter upon 
the paths of labor of any kind, but on 
the contrary shrink from anything that 
sounds like work. Young men, ^Dor]c 
yourselves up, and remember the found- 
ation stone, viz. : to know the true 
value of labor, and that it is honorable. 
— Journal of the Farm. 



SALTING MEAT. 



Nestler considers the questions, what 
are the best proportions of salt, sugar 
and saltpeter ? and is it better to treat 
the meat with a dry mixture of the 
above substances, or to dissolve the 
salts and the sugar in water, and to 
apply this solution ? As to the first 
point, he recommends a mixture of six 
pounds of common salt, three ounces of 
nitre, and one pound of meat; these 
figures correspond very closely to the 
proportions employed for salting meat 
in England. As to the second, he is 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



93 



in fa,vor of usinp: a solution instead of 
the dry mixture, because this latter ex- 
tracts from the meat not only water, 
but also some of the most nutritive 
constituents. On the other hand, it 
must not be overlooked that salting by 
means of brine requires special care in 
order to insure thorough contact of all 
the parts of the meat with the salt, and 
also a longer time for subsequent dry- 
ing- ^ 

PARAGRAPHS WORTH REMEM- 
BERING. 



Benzine and common clay will clean 
marble. 

Castor oil is an excellent thing to 
soften leather. 

Lemon juice and glycerine will re- 
move tan and freckles. 

A DOSE of castor oil will aid you in 
removing pimples. 

Lemon juice and glycerine will 
cleanse and soften the hands. 

Spirits of ammonia, diluted a little, 
will cleanse the hair very thoroughly. 

Lunar caustic, carefully applied so 
as not to touch the skin, will destroy 
warts. 

Powdered nitre is good for remov- 
ing freckles. Apply with a rag moist- 
ened with glycerine. 

To ol)viate offensive perspiration, 
wash your feet with soap and diluted 
.spirits of ammonia. 

The juice of ripe tomatoes will re- 
move the stain of Vv'alnuts from the 
hands without injmy to the skin. 

Cold FEEx.-Dip them in cold water, 
and then rub them till you get the sur- 
face of the skin in a glow. Never go 
to bed with cold feet. 

To remove India ink marks : Rub 
well with a salve of pure acetic acid 
and lard, then with a solution of potash, 
and finally v/ith hydrochloric acid 
Sometimes these marks may be obliter- 
ated by blistering the skin and keeping 
the blister open for a little while. AVhen 
the new skjn grows, the marks will 
have disappeared. 

Here is an excellent recipe for mak- 
ing genuine erasive soap that will re- 



move grea.se and stains from clothing : 
Two pounds of good castile soap ; half 
a pound of carbonate of potash, dissolv- 
ed in a half a iiint of hot water. Cut 
the soap in thin slices, boil the soap 
with the potash until it is thick enough 
to mold in cakes ; also add alcohol, 
half an ounce ; camphor, half an ounce; 
hartshorn, half an ounce ; color with 
half an ounce of pulverized charcoal. 

The following is said to be an excel- 
lent cure for rheumatism: Half a tea- 
spoonful of Rochelle salts, to be taken 
every morning, half an hour before 
breakfast. Hot drinks, spirits, wine, 
beer, cider, pepper and spices are to be 
avoided, and all grease, except good, 
sweet butter. Fresh meat or poultry 
may be eaten once a day, but salt meat 
and fish must be abstained from. 



QUITE A SAVING. 



We have the following interesting 
statement in a Chicago paper of the 
work of the granges of the Patrons of 
Husbandry in Iowa : 

The Grange has saved its members 
in Iowa $50,000 the past season on 
ploughs ; $30,000 on sewing meichines 
(which they get for from $30 to $50) ; 
twenty-five per cent, on mowing ma- 
chines, miscellaneous implements and 
parlor organs; twenty per cent, on 
wagons ; twenty-five to thirty per cent, 
on scales and forks, etc. Altogether it 
is thought that $2,000,000 has been 
saved to the farmers of Iowa in this 
year. All orders are made through the 
State agent of the Grange, who is under 
$50,000 bonds to do his work honestly. 
Co-operative stores are also on trial in 
some sections. But the co-operative sell- 
ing promises to be on a grander scale 
than the cn-opcrative buying. The 
Grange has entered into relations with 
certain Chicago commission houses, 
which give bonds in $100,000 each to 
do their selling. Farmer.-^ or grangers 
can now ship directly to Chicago. The 
Order is also building warehouses and 
elevators throughout the State, in which 
the farmers take stock, and thus real- 
ize better prices on their produce, and 
good dividends on their investment. 



p^ 



TEE LAjYCASTER FARMER. 



FEED FOR FATTENING MILCH 

COWS. 



I keep a dairy of 15 or 20 cows, and 
sell the milk. This winter I am trying 
the experiment of feeding the cows for 
beef and milk at the same time, intend- 
ing to sell them for beef in the spring 
and buy new milch cows. I have been 
feeding six quarts of corn meal and four 
quarts shorts to each cow, but corn has 
advanced in price, selling here for 90 
cents per bushel, and I would like to 
ask through The Tribuve how oil-cake 
would do to feed, compared with corn 
at present prices, and what food and 
what quantity will give the best resuHs 
in beef and milk. — Melon Toddy Wash- 
ington CO., Me. 

COMMENTS BY MR. L. P.. ARNOLD. 

If the beef will sell well. It is a pro- 
fitable way for the dairyman to dispose 
of his cows to fatten them while milk- 
ing. The beef thus fattened will not 
be a very choice article, as the fine 
flavoring material is carried away in 
the milk, and it is sometimes difficult 
to sell it on that account. By feeding 
awhile after the cows are dry, the 
quality of the beef will be much im- 
proved. If the cows can be sold for a 
good price before drying up entirel}^, it 
will pay better to dispose of them then, 
as it is more profitable with good milk- 
ers to feed for milk than for beef, and 
the practice of fattening while drying 
down, pays better wnth young and 
middle-aged cows than with old ones. 
Corn at 90 cents a bushel would be 
cheaper than oil-meal at $42 per ton, the 
present market price, if they were equal 
in fattening properties. Corn contains 
1-i times as much fattening material as 
oil meal, and is therefore to be pre- 
ferred. Beside, feeding oil meal in such 
quantities as to fatten rapidly would 
flavor the milk unfavorably. A little 
oil meal, two or three pounds per day, 
may be fed with advantage to each 
cow. Corn meal and middlings, or 
shorts, or bran, mixed in equal quanti- 
ties by weight, will contribute to both 
fat and milk, and may be fed to any 
extent short of producing scouring, i. 
€., all the cows can digest. The meal 
will be carried into the first stomach, 
instead of the fourth, and better di- 



gested, if wet and mixed with some 
coarse fodder, cut, or even whole, and 
better still if the meal and shorts are 
scalded. There is nothing better than 
the refuse of the flouring mill for milk, 
and I know of nothing better for fat- 
tening than corn. 



PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. 



The National Grange circular for 
January shows an increase since the 
loth of December, when the last circu- 
lar was issued, of 1,566 granges. The 
total at that date was 9,296 ; the total 
at the date of the last circular was 10,- 
782. The membership is only approx- 
imately stated at about 780,000. The 
increase is largely in the South and the 
Valley States, as will be seen by the 
following table : 

former|;si.ave~states. 

I'lCreTue Total No. 

Alabama 18 454 

Arkansas 49 164 

Florida 20 

Georf^ia 4.5 437 

Kentucky 55 173 

Lc)nisiana 9 50 

IMai-yland 3 10 

]Missi8siiipi 9 516 

Missouri 301 1,500 

North Carolina 11 1.39 

South Carolina 12 206 

Tennessee 40 302 

Texas 5 51 

Virginia 3 IS 

West Virginia 4 27 

Total 565 2,96G 

Wi'STERN STATES. 

Indiana 130 862 

Illinois 23 821 

Iowa Iti2 2,000 

Kansas 48 779 

Nebraska.' 9 370 

Ores-on 7 55S 

California 1 129 

Minnesota 9 406 

Michigan 22 169 

Ohio.. 44 293 

Colorado Territory 2 

Dakota Territory 4 39 

Washington Territory 6 

Total 439 5,934 

NORTH ATLANTIC STATES. 

Maine 1 

Massachusetts 1 19 

Xew Hampshire 6 17 

Vermont 4 42 

New York 5 29 

New Jersey <> 30 

Pennsylvania 9 S6 

Total 31 194 

The only States into which the Order 
has not yet penetrated are Delaware, 
Connecticut, and Rhode Island. Since 
the circular, of which the foregoing is 
an analysis, there has been an increase 
of 300 or 400 granges. 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



95 



BOOK AND SPECIAL NOTICE 
DEPARlMEIsT. 



NOTICE. 



Special notices inserted in this de- 
partment at 25 cents per line, nonpareil 
measurement. Address orders to 
J. B Develin, Publisher & Proprietor. 
No. 43 North Queen St., 

Lancaster, Pa. 

Wanted ! Canvassers for the Farmer 
and Gardener, Lancaster, Pa. Large coni- 
missiou and premiums given. Send 25 
cents for aa agency subscription. Samples 
6 cents. 

LITERARY RECORD. 

The New York Independent : "VVe again 
call attention to the Independent as the 
American religious newspaper, of all others, 
that is always looked for with interest and 
read with the greatest satisfaction. It has 
become the great family necessity in the 
newspaper line, bringing within a less com- 
pass, and for a smaller sum of money, a 
larger amount of information, and of almost 
every kind, than can be obtained in any other 
paper we might name. On religious, social, 
literary, financial and industrial topics it is 
the organ for the people. Its articles are 
from the ablest writers of the country, all 
well considered, scholarly composed and 
evince a full knowledge of the subjects 
treated. Those not yet acquainted with the 
value of the Independent should^become so, 
and after coming to know its character, few 
will afterward williugly dispense with it. 
Price $2.50 per year. 

We have received a copy of the Buffalo 
Courier containing a number of extracts 
commendatory of " P. T. Barnum's Great 
Book." We intended inserting a few of 
these extracts in this issue, but some fiend 
has carried off the paper, and we can only 
give a partial description of the character 
of the Book, from memory. The Book con- 
tains about 900 pages finely illustrated, and 
records the career of Barnum down to the 
present time. The Book is sold by sub- 
scription, and will no doubt be introduced 



here on the arrival of " Barnum's Traveling 
World's Fair " during the coming summer. 

We are pleased to see that our former 
contributor, Mr. D. L. Resh, has become the 
proprietor and conductor of the " Susque- 
hanna Nurseries and Green House," 4th and 
Chestnut streets, Columbia, Pa. We hope 
he may find many compensating patrons, 
and also time enough to give us an occasional 
article on the Art Horticidturale. 

We had a hard freeze on the night and 
morning of April II and 12, but the injuries 
which vegetation may have sustained, if any, 
have not yet become apparent. We believe 
no fruit trees were yet in bloom in this neigh- 
borhood, but many flo .i er-buds were " ready 
to be out," as soon as the weather permitted. 

John P. Devereux's card will be found ia 
advertisins;' colunms. Parties removing west 
will do well to apply to him for information 
prior to departure. The lands he offers are 
in a good section of country and in close 
proximity to settlements of a number of 
emigrants from this county and State. 

It will be observed -by our Advertising 
columns that our old friend and late Editor 
of our Journal has taken up his profession, 
and is prepared to give advice on issues re- 
quiring the decision of the legal fraternity. 
Mr. Harris is a scholar of great reputation 
and a close student, and should be well versed 
in law. He was a member of our Bar dur- 
inz the reign of Stevens and Buchanan, and 
no doubt marked well their famed career. 



CHICAGO CATTLE MARKET. 

Chicago, April 20. 
Cattle dull and drooping at a range of 
5.50 for common to extra shipping ; 3.75a 
4 75 for stockers ; receipts 6,000 ; shipments 

2,000. 

Hogs active and firm at 5a5.50 for com- 
mon to medium ; 5.50aG for .ffood to choice ; 
receipts 10,000 ; shipments 8,500. 

Sheep active and steady at 5.50a6.25 for 
poor to common ; 6.50a8 for fair to extra ; 
receipts 1,300 ; shipments 1,400. 

NEW YORK DOMESTIC MARKET. 

New York, April 20. 
Flour and Meal — Our flour market opened 
very dull but firm. The medium and family 



96 



THE LAJVCASTMR FJBMER. 



brands are very dull and irregular. Ship- 
pine; brands steady and fairly active. At 
the close the market is better and more ac- 
tive for all grades under S7. Sales of 12.000 
barrels. Sour per barrel, 3.25af!.00, No. 2 
at4.80a5.75; superfine 5.90a6.35; State 
extra brands 6.40a6.65 ; State fancy do. 
C.75a7.25 ; \vestern shipping extra 6.35a6.65. 
Grain -The -n-heat market opened decid- 
edly better under the more favorable news 
from Liverpool and light arrivals. The 
firmness in freights and the absence of 
eteamcr room checks transactions. The 
market closes strong at the advance, but not 
very active, owing to the absence of freight 
room. The inquiry is chiefly for export. 
The supply afloat is limited, and our stock 
is diminishing; the sales are 70,000 bush.; 
at 1.48al.Gl5- for ungraded loAva and Dako- 
ta ; 1.62 for No. 1 Chicago sprina ; 1..57a 
1.58i for No. 2 do.; 1.6.5al.6G for No. 3 do.; 
1.G9 for red western, and 1.60 for white 
spring. 

Barley is steady but quiet. 

Oats are buoyant ; the supply of good 
mixed is limited. The sales are 41,000 bush.; 
new Ohio mixed at 62a64^c. white at 65a 
68c.; black at 61ia62ic.; western mixed at 
G2ia64^c.; State mixed at 63a64|c.; white 
at 64a66c. 

Rye is firm, held above the views of buy- 
ers. 

Corn in good demand and good dry is firm- 
er; damp is neglected ; the offerings of old 
are limited, and we hear of something doing 
for the future. The sales are 80,000 bushels; 
western mixed at 86a90c. for new, 90a91c. 
for old ; western white at 88a90c.; western 
yellow at 89a90c., the latter for old; southern 
yellow at 90a91c., southern white at 91a92c. 

NEW YORK CATTLE MARKET. 

M0ND.4.Y, April 21. 

Beeves. — A few very common rough cat- 
tle had to be sold at 9i- c. per ft., to dress 
5.5 lbs to the gross cwt.. and some of the 
choicest selections were sold at 12fal3c. per 
ft. to dress 59fts. and 60fts. but general range 
was 10al2|c. per ft. to dress 56 fts. to 53 fts, 
including fair Texans at lOalOic, to dress 
56 fts. One year ago extra and premium 
steers were sold at 13^al4^c per ft. 

MincH Cows. — With no fresh offerings 
there was no market for cov,-s to-day. The 
80 common to choice fresh cows received 
during the w^eek were sold partly to private 
parlies at the wide range of $35al00, calf 
included, but mainly at S;50a60. 

Calves. — Prices are tending downward as 
the receipts increase. Poor to prime live 
veals are slow at 6al0c. per pound, and hog- 
dressed veals range from 8c. to 13c. per 
pound. 



Sheep. —The demand has been weak for a 
number of days, and prices have fallen oQ" 
nearly 4c. per ft. since last Monday. Trans- 
actions to-day include ordinary to choice 
clipped sheep at 5-|a7e per ft., and medium 
to prime unshorn do. at 75a8fc., with one 
car-load at $8.70 per 100 fts. 

Swine. — A few common Ohio ho?s, 136 
pounds average, were sold alive at 5i cents 
per ft., but the sales were not sufficient to 
establish quotations on live weight. City- 
dressed hogs were doing a little better and 
closed at 7 ^ cents per pound for weights under 
180 pounds. 



PHILADELPHIA CATTLE MARKET. 

Monday, April 20, 5 P. M. 

The Cattle market was rather dull, and 
prices were weak, extra Pennsylvania and 
Western Steers selling at 7|a8c., fair to 
good do. at 6|a7c., and'conmion at 5a5ic. per 
pound, gross, as to quality. 

Cows and Calves attracted very little at- 
tention. ') he nominal quotations were .$50 
a.$80 for fresh cows, and ;t?40a$60 for spring- 
ers. Receipts, 2^0 head. 

Sheep met a fair demand, and the tone of 
the market was very firm. Sales of fair and 
choice at 6|a8ic., and common at 6c. Re- 
ceipts, 4,500 head. 

Hogs moved freely at $8.5Ca8.75 for corn- 
fed. Receipts, 5,000. 



PHILADELPHIA MARKETS. 

Tuesday, April 2L 
Flour. — A fair demand prevails from the 
home trade for Flour, and prices are well 
sustained. About 1,800 barrels sold, includ- 
ing superfine at ^5a5.50 ; extras at .^GaO.oO; 
Rye Flour sells at $4.70a5.00. In Corn 
Meal no sales. 

Grain. — Prime Wheat is in fair demand 
at full prices, but common grades are ne- 
glected. Sales of 25.000 bushels No. 1 
spring on private terms; 40'' bushels West- 
ern red at .^l.GO; 2.500 bushels Pennsylva- 
nia amber, part at $1.83al.85, and part on 
private terms, and 400 bushels choice Penn- 
sylvania white at $1.95.; Rye sells at 98c, 
Corn is in better demand at an advance. 
Sales of 6,500 bu.shtls yellow at 86a87c. 
Oats are unchanged ; sales of 700 bushels 
Surprise at 65c.; 5 000 bushels Western 
white at 63a64c., and 700 bushels do. mixed 
at? 61c. 

Seeds.- — Cloverseed is less active. Sales 
of 150 bushels at S^alOc. for fair to good, 
and QJalOic. for prime and choice. Timothy 
is unchanged. The last sale was at %'6 per 
bush. Flaxseed is in demand by the crushers 
at $2.25 per bushel. 



!tn 



DEVOTED TO 

Agricullure, Horticulture, Domestic Economy and Miscellany. 

EDITED UY S. S. RATHVOV & J B. DEVELIV. 



"The Fanner is tJie foander of ciri/izaf ion.''— WEBSTER. 



Vol. VL 



MAY, 1874. 



AGRICULTURAL. 

. ♦__ 

ON THE CULTIVATION OF IN- 
DIAN CORN. 



EDITOR LANCASTER FAR- 
MER: — We have an essay on 
growing' corn by Mr. Johnson Miller, in 
April number, and as he requests in 
the essay, " that we exchange plans 
and ideas," I will offer a few remarks 
on the subject. "In a multitude of 
counsellors their is wisdom." So there 
are more waj's than one of growing 
corn, as well as killing a dog without 
choking him with butter ; as the late 
Rhea Frazer, p]sq. used to say. 

Now Mr. Miller's plan of growing 
corn may be a good plan, but as I dif- 
fer with some of his suggestions, I will 
give my reasons why. 

In the first place, by selecting the 
ears of corn when unloading at the 
crib, is better than to select fiom the 
crib in the spring; but selecting the 
ears in the field from the stalks is a bet- 
ter plan still, as you can there select 
the earliest ripe, or those having more 
than one ear on a stalk, thereby im- 
jiroving your crop, either for earlier 
ripening, or a larger number of stalks 
with two or more ears; improving 
quality ^r quantity as may be desired. 

Plowing the corn ground in the fall 
is to be strongly recommended for va- 
rious reasons. It is a great help in the 
spring, when work is pushing to have 
the corn ground already plowed. It 



destro)S the cut worm, meliorates the 
soil, so that it works more smoothly all 
summer, besides weeds are not so trou- 
blesome as on soil plowed in the 
spring. 

A grass or clover sod is certainly the 
best for a corn crop, and if previously 
a heavy coat of stable manure is ap- 
plied and plowed under, it will do no 
harm to the corn, or subsequent crops ; 
a coat of lime in the spring too will not 
be amiss, and with a favorable season 
ought to bring a premium crop of corn, 
if well tended afterward. 

I fully agree with the essayist as to 
using machiner)' for dropping the seed. 
Grains of corn are of different sizes, 
and where alarge grain will pass through 
several small grains will pass together, 
then large grains, or two or three in a 
bunch, will clog the opening and for a 
spell none wiilpass, thus leaving vacan- 
cies in the rows, or be dropped in a 
bunch, making great gaps in the 
rows. 

As to keeping the ground level in a 
corn Geld I differ with Mr. Miller, as I 
have frequently noticed in very dry 
spells that the stalks in throwing out 
their proper roots from 2d and 3d joints, 
which should reach the ground to give 
support as well as nourihhmeut to the 
stalks ; frequently dry up before they 
reach the ground thus making the stalks 
far more lial)le to be prostrated by 
storms, than where a ridge is thrown 
up for these prongs or stolons to take 
hold of the ground at once. Again, 
sudden and thunder showers when 



98 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



most needed, will run off a level piece 
of ground — where the ridges and fur- 
rows will retain the water to soak into 
the ground gradually. I do not mean 
on fields so level as to have no inclina- 
tion in any way, but to keep the field 
level with the shovel harrow, and not 
using the plow to ridge up the corn 
rows. 

I also do not approve of a scraper in 
the corn field, but for a different rea- 
son. The scraper or Hernly plow, as 
it is called, though it expediates labor, 
during a busy time, does not please me, 
as it does not bring up lower soil like a 
plow, but simply pushes along the 
ground, slightly billing up the corn and 
hilling up the weeds as well, while a 
plow running along one side of the 
row, turns the soil bottom up, and lays 
over the small grass or weeds, so that 
when the plow comes along on the 
other side of the row, the dirt is thrown 
over and completely buries the weeds. 
This is on the supposition that the corn 
is planted in drills, which after all said 
and written on corn growing, is in my 
judgement and experience, the best 
plan for a large crop of corn. 

Again, according to Mr. Miller's es- 
say, it appears to me, he puts more 
work on his cornfield than is actually 
necessary. 

To explain ray ideas on this head I 
can best give a short statement of my 
own corn growing, while yet in the 
farming line. 

I always took a grass sod or clover 
lay that had been pastured for two or 
three years ; sometimes the grass was 
made into hay one year, giving the 
field generally a good coat of stable 
manure in October, and had it plowed 
and so left over winter for the frost to 
pulverize the soil. Next spring, when 
the ground was dry enougli, and the 
weeds began to make their appearance 
gave the ground a thorough harrowing 
both ways with a heavy two-horse har- 
row. If weeds again made their ap- 
pearance, before planting time in May, 
wiih a large shovel harrow the ground 
was again scarified to loosen it and de- 
stroy weeds. Then with a common 
two horse plow furrow out to plant in 
drills. Sometimes when I had others 



to do the furrowing out, the rows would 
not get as strait as I liked to see them, 
but they would tell me a crooked rows 
would bring more corn than a straight 
row ; so I had to be satisfied. The seed 
was always dropped by hand about ten 
inches apart, as near as could be done 
in the drill furrow, then covered with 
the large two-horse harrow, when the 
corn was up, a sprinkle of plaster or 
gypsum was applied to each sprout, 
(we used no lime at that time,) as soon 
as the corn was large enough the shovel 
harrow was run twice between each 
row. Then nothing more was done till 
the corn was a foot or so high, when 
with a two-horse plow the soil was 
turned " bottom up" against the corn 
rows; thus by running the plow on 
each side and bringing the soil on top 
from below, very little bother about 
weeds afterwards. The corn stalks 
standing single and having the soil 
raised up for the upper roots to take 
hold at once, it stood firm, and nothing 
more was done to it till ready to cut up, 
except going through once and pulling 
off the suckers if any make their appear- 
ance. 

Thus growing the corn in drills 
where each stalk stood apart from the 
rest, it had a better chance to procure 
nourishment, than where two, three, or 
half a dozen stalks stand all in a bunch 
as I have frequently seen. 

As the old saying is " the proof of 
the pudding is in the eating," so the 
proof of this mode of growing corn is 
in the produce. In favorable seasons 
I would frequently harvest eighty bu- 
shels and over per acre of shelled corn. 
Had I tried, with a little extra labor, I 
am confident a htindred bushels could 
have been grown by this simple me- 
thod. 

Though if the truth must be told I 
also in some very unfavorable seasons 
barely succeeded in raising ten to twelve 
bushels. Thus no plan of growing 
corn is a sure thing for a big crop, as 
much depends on the weather. Some 
seasons a drought sets in just when the 
corn is preparing to push the ears, and 
no cultivation will overcome the effects 
of want of moisture. So we have no 
control over the elements, we simply 



THE LAJVCASTER FABMEK 



99 



plant our crop, and trust to luck as it 
were, for an increase to I'ecompense us 
for our labor. Yerv respectfully, 

J. B. GARBER. 
Columbia, Pa., Apr. 30th 1874. 

EXPERIMENTS IX GROWING 
POTATOES. 

> 

We find the following interesting 
communication in the American Rural 
Home : Although I had grown potatoes 
for twentj^-five years, still I was not 
sure Avhich was best, deep or shallow 
planting, a large or small amount of 
seed, planting in hills or in drills. And 
when these questions were discussed 
at farmer's clubs, I found that planters 
were not agreed on these points, so I 
determined to prove them this year by 
experiments, and I feel well paid by the 
result, for the trial cost nothing but a 
little care, and the result gav^e me $10 
worth more of potatoes an acre, by one 
plan than by another that had been 
equally well recommended. 

I planted this year twenty-four acres, 
mostly of the Peerless variety, and as 
the clover seeding of this lot failed, and 
I did not have a good clover turf of a 
year's standing, which I generally find 
the best preparation for planting-ground 
I thought I would try experiments with 
manuring, which was done by spread- 
ing fine manure on the surface, about 
ten loads to the acre, on a few acres of 
each end of the lot, and across the mid- 
dle, well cultivated in before planting. 
The result showed, by actual measure- 
ment, double the yield where the 
manure was used, though planting in 
another field on a good clover turf by 
manuring in the same way only in- 
creased the yield about twenty-five per 
cent. 

Another trial was made by usfng 
ashes, about ten bushels to the acre, 
dropping a large handful upon each 
hill. Result — potatoe tops ranker and 
greener through the season, and 
twentj^-five bushels to the acre larger 
yield. 

To test the difference in yield be- 
tween planting in drills or in hills, I 
planted six rows across the field tlu'ee 
and a-half feet apart, and hills two feet 



nine inches in the row, and by the side 
of them six rows in drills with seed once 
in twenty inches, and rows about the 
same as the other. The yield by weight 
proved to be two and a-half bushels or 
twelve and a-half bushels to the acre in 
favor of the drills, although they had 
been damaged some by the horse hav- 
ing to turn around on them when 
cultivating those in hills. A former 
year I had thirty bushels to the acre 
more in favor of the drill planting. This 
experiment was with Early Rose. 

I have for years planted with a ma- 
chine, two feet nine inches apart, and 
seed eighteen inches in the hill ; but 
thinking the Peerless would want more 
room, 1 made the rows this year three 
feet three and three-fifth inches apart 
(which is just five rows to the rod), and 
the seed twenty inches in the row ; but 
to test it, planted six rows through the 
field on the old gauge of two feet nine 
inches (or six rows to the rod), and 
seed eighteen inches in the row. The 
yield was sixty-four and one-half bush- 
els from the six rows, and seventy-two 
bushels from the five rows — or about 
ten bushels the acre in favor of those 
planted furthest apart. But trying the 
same experiment with Early Rose, each 
row yielding about the same, or one- 
fifth more for planting them together. 

In cutting my seed potatoes I intend 
tp have some two or three eyes on a 
piece, and one piece for a hil[; but to 
see if less seed would do as well, I 
planted six rows with just half the 
amount of seed, which yielded sixty- 
seven and one-half bushels; but six 
rows by the side of them, planted with 
the usual amount of seed, yielded 
eighty-two and one-half bushels; or, 
by saving about five bushels of seed 
from the acre, the yield is about twenty- 
four bushels short. 

As for the proper depth to plant, I 
like to plant rather deep, or deeper than 
is usually done b}^ hand, for I think 
the potatoes will be smoother and of 
better quality than when grown too 
near the surface ; and this year a few 
rows, which I planted a little deeper 
than the others, yielded a little more, 
though that result was, perhaps, owing- 
to the very dry season. 



100 



THE LAJVCJSTER FABJllER. 



I noted also the difference in the 
yield of the different kinds I had in that 
Held, viz. : Early Rose, six rows yield- 
ing thirty-six bushels ; Jackson Whites, 
six rows, forty-nine and one-half bush- 
els ; and the r>;erless, six rows, eighty- 
four bushels. I see, too, that about 
here, where the Early Rose gave an 
average yield of one hundred bushels 
to the acre, the Peerless averaged two 
hundred bushels, and some large fields 
yielded over three hundred bushels. 



PARSLEY CULTURE. 



In our cookery we often miss those 
little trifles which give so much zest to 
European dishes We genprally have 
meats and pastries in abundance, and 
even, in many cases, a fair show of 
fruits and vegetables ; but an infinite 
variety may be given to even e very-day 
things by a judicious use of pot herbs. 

Among the most useful to the inge- 
nious cook is the parsley, and perhaps 
there is no one kind of the large num- 
ber used in Europe that is better known 
to American women. Whenever the 
head consults with the heart of the 
house about the little garden affairs, 
and the list of seeds to be procured is 
under earnest discussion, she is toler- 
ably sure to close with the injunction, 
" be sure and have some parsley sown." 
And the parsley is bought and sown; 
but how many gardeners ever have it 
for all the anxiety and care to get the 
seed ? The fact is, it is almost always 
sown too late. It takes six weeks to 
germinate, and then its early stages of 
growth are slow, so that it comes up 
about the time that the weather is get- 
ting warm and dry, and unless in a 
very favorable spot, burns out, or is in 
some way destroyed. This is if al- 
lowed to sprout at all ; for generally 
the amateur gardeners, not knowing 
that it takes six weeks to sprout, con- 
siders the seed bad, and sows something 
else in the place thereof. 

Parsley seed ought to be amongst 
the very earliest of seeds put into the 
ground, and it should have selected for 
it a rather dry spot; and yet one not 
much exposed to the full sun in sum- 
mer. Many like tc have plants in the 



fall to lift and put in pots or boxes to 
keep in the window and gather from all 
winter. For this purpose the plants 
must be kept from going to seed in the 
summer time, which they are very 
likely to do, especially if sown early. 
Sometimes when planted late there is 
no tendency to go to seed, if it grows at 
all, but remains green and stocky all 
the summer and fall. It is not always 
that early sown parsley runs to seed, 
but it often does. If allowed to perfect 
the seeds, the plants either die or be- 
come much weakened. 

When lifted in the fall for winter use, 
many put the roots rather thick in 
square boxes— any sort of boxes which 
comes to -liand; but many give orna- 
ment to utility by having tasteful boxes 
made; and some even put the roots in 
shells or hanging- baskets. We. have 
seen holes bored in small kegs, and 
after filling the keg with earth the 
roots are inserted through the holes, 
and when neatly done the effect is very 
good. Of cour.se, in such cases a hole 
must be bored in the bottom of the key 
also, in order to allow the surplus 
water to escape. 

There are several varieties of pars- 
ley, but the double curled is the best 
for general purposes. It makes a 
pretty ornament for table dishes even 
when not wanted for actual use ; and 
when the roots are taken up for winter 
preservation as described, the pretty 
figured leaves of the curled variet}' is 
as beautiful to look upon as many of 
the rare plants grown expressly for or- 
namental purposes. 

TREATMENT OF VARIOUS 
SOILS. 



Clays — It is clear that we must 
treat every soil according to its require- 
ments. It will take long to ameliorate 
and bring up to a profitable tilth a stub- 
born clay soil, yet wiien brought up to 
it is highly productive. If a fair pro- 
portion is sand, it can he made one of 
the most profitable of soils ; but it must 
be kept up, perhaps more than any other 
soil, for the vegetable material or humus 
wanting, it will become compact and 
stubborn again, though drainage will 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



101 



in a measure remedy this, and drainage 
is necessary to reclaim a harsh clay soil 
Drainage and deep tillage, with plenty 
of manure, are the means of necessary 
reeUimation. Deep tillage is needed to 
counteract the drouth, and also to aid 
the drainage of the water in a wet sea- 
son. With deep tillage, drainage and 
plenty of manure (from the barnyard,) 
a hot, dry season may be defied. Thus 
we have raised potatoes, and grain, and 
corn, and indeed almost all kinds of 
products in such soil when the drouth 
and heat were so intense that the crops 
on other lands of a sandy nature and 
dark aspect, equally rich, or even more 
so, were almost a total failure. Color 
has much to do in this case, as well as 
the arenaceous condition, in a hot sea- 
son, coupled with a drouth. To suc- 
ceed with such land, a f/?-ad«flZ deepen- 
ing is considered the best : and we have 
found it so, for the cla)^ thus brought 
u]), raw and cold, contains but little of 
the strength of the top soil. Its pro- 
perties are mostly in a state unfit for 
plant food, though the principle is there, 
dormant. Brought up in small quan- 
tity, acted upon by the elements, and 
mixed with the rest of the soil, keeping 
it mostly at top, it will even the first 
season do something, if turned up the 
Fall previous. Manure added then 
will still farther favor decomposition. 
The second year the land will be im- 
proved — that is, by the raw material 
that was brought up. This thing re- 
peated till a good depth, say eig^ht to 
ten inches is secured, there will be your 
soil, taking time it is true, but paying 
something in the operation. If much 
manure is used, the investment will be 
found to be a good one. When the land 
is wet and harsh, and that deep down, 
it is more difficult to bring it up to the 
desired condition. But it can be done, 
and should be, as such land is all but 
worthless as it is. 

Ditching with the drains close, say a 
rod and a half apart, should be the order 
here, with a gradual deepening of the 
soil as above recommended. Some of 
our best soils we know to have been 
originally such land ; and they paid 
while they were being brought up to 
their present high standard. But there 



must be thorough work made. The 
thing must be begun with drainage, the 
soil deepened, and manure worked in 
while this is being done. The mode of 
working the manure is of importance ; 
as we have said in the fall ; apply 
after plowing. This will give chance 
for the solul)le parts to work into the 
soil, enriching it, and acting chemically 
upon it. In the Spring, mix the coarser 
and remaining part with the land. The 
cultivator and harrow will do this, or a 
light covering with the plow preceding 
the use of these instruments. This to 
get the manure well incorporated. The 
more it is worked and mixed with the 
soil the better. 

THE CULTURE OP TOBACCO. 



The use of tobacco in the European 
countries is comparatively modern, but 
the growth of the universal appetite for 
the weed has been so rapid as to lead to 
the domestication of the plant in other 
than its native country, and now its 
culture has even been extensively at- 
tempted in Japan. In this country 
Virginia, Kentucky and Connecticut 
are the principal tobacco growing 
States ; Tennessee, North Carolina and 
Missouri depend largely upon it, and, 
indeed, the plant is grown to some ex- 
tent in almost every State North of the 
cotton belt, and even beyond the Cana- 
dian border. Virginia, because of the 
"skinning" ])rocess to which her plant- 
ers sui)jected the land, has been obliged 
to yield to Kentucky, which now grows 
more than any State in the Union. In 
18Y0, a poor year, the "Corn-crackers" 
raised 105,305,81)9 pounds; Virginia, 
37,086,304 pounds, and Connecticut, 
8,328,798 pounds. Wisconsin is a no- 
table instance of the rapidity with 
which the crop is extending itself in 
the North. In 1800 the , production of 
the State was 87,340 pounds, and in 
1870, 960,813 pounds. In Illinois, 
Western New York and Pennsylvania, 
tobacco is receiving more and more at- 
tention every year, and California, the 
soil of which has just been discovered 
to be finely adapted to the growth of 
the Havana variety, this year devotes 
about 3,000 acres to its culture. 



102 



TEE LAJSf'CASTER FARMER. 



The discovvTy of the tobacco produc- 
ing qualities of New England was 
quickly taken advantage of, and now its 
culture is carried on from Long Island 
Sound even to the Canadian line. In 
1840, Connecticut raised 471,G5t 
pounds, and Massachusetts 64,955. In 
1860 the Connecticut yield was 6,000,- 
000 pounds, that of Massachusetts 3,- 
234,198 pounds. Between 1860 and 
1870 the tobacco growers of the Con- 
necticut Valley were prosperous, but in 
1870 the tide turned. Many a man 
who was offered 25 cents through for 
his crop refused to sell, and held on to 
it only to see the price dwindle down 
to 15, 10 and 5 cents a pound. The 
yield of 1871 was very good, and sold 
at fair prices. A few wealthy planters, 
however, held on to their crops. The 
crop of 1872 has proved an elephant to 
both growers and packers and a large 
number of farmers, with no other re- 
source to fall back upon, find themselves 
with two or more crops of tobacco on 
their hands, with poor prospects of any 
immediate market for it, and the proba- 
bility of ultimately obtaining extremely 
low prices. This depression is mainly 
caused by over-production of an infe- 
rior grade of tobacco. Connecticut 
planters should remember Virginia's 
fate, and open their eyes to the fact 
that the valley is in danger of becoming 
a barren waste through the devotion to 
this soil-exhausting weed and the large 
profits gained by its culture. 



EFFECTS OF FELLING THE 
FORESTS. 



Many rivers have totally disappeared 
or have been reduced to mere streams 
by an irrational and heinous felling of 
the forests. In the northeast of Ger- 
many the Narp and Gold Rivers exist 
only in name. The classic lands of an- 
tiquity are rich in sad lessons of defor- 
estation. The springs and brooks of 
Palestine are dry, and the fruitfulness 
of the land has disappeared. The Jor- 
dan is four feet lower than it was in 
the New Testament days. Greece and 
Spain suffer to this day severely from 
the effects of destroying their forests. 
Many parts of the kingdom of Wur- 



temberg have been rendered almost 
barren by the felling of the trees. In 
Hungary the periodical returning, 
drought is universally attributed to the 
extermination of the forest. We attri- 
bute the present unfruitfulness of Asia 
Minor and Greece to the destructive- 
ness of the woods; steppes, ruins and 
tombs have taken the place of what 
was the highest culture. Sardinia and 
Sicily were once the granaries of Italy, 
but have long since lost the fruitfulness 
sung of by the ancient poets. On the 
other hand, man can improve the con- 
dition of the land in which he lives, 
more slowly, indeed, but equally as 
certainly, by cultivating and preserving 
the fores*"S. In the earlier years relia- 
ble authorities have told us that in the 
Delta of Upper Egypt there were only 
five or six days of rain in the year, but 
that since the time when Mebemet Ali 
caused some 20,000,000 of trees to be 
planted, the number of days rain in the 
year has increased forty-five or forty-six. ' 
The Suez Canal has produced remark- 
able results. Ismaila is built on wliat 
was a sandy desert, but since the 
ground has become saturated with ca- 
nal water, trees, bushes and plants 
have sprung up as if by magic, and 
with the re-appearance of the vegeta- 
tion the climate has changed. Four or 
five years ago rain was unknown in 
those regions, while from May, 186"^, 
to May, 1869, fourteen days of rain 
were recorded, and once such a rain 
storm that the natives looked upon it 
as a supernatural event. 

WHY CLOVER IMPROVES THE 
SOIL. 



Professor Tof^kler thus explains the 
action of clover increasing the fertility 
of the the soil : 

'■ All who are perfectly ac- 
quainted with the subject must have 
seen that the best crops of clover is 
grown for seed. I have come to the 
conclusion that the very best prepara- 
tion, the best manure, is a good crop 
of clover. A vast amount of mineral 
manure is bi'ought within the reach of 
the crop which otherwise would remain 
in a locked up condition in all the soil. 



THE LAJVCASTER FABMER. 



103 



The clover plants take nitrogen from 
the atmosphere, and manufacture it in- 
to their own substance, which on dis- 
comjiosition of the clover, roots and 
leaves, produces abundance of ammo- 
nia. In reality, the growing- of clover 
is equivalent, to a great extent, to ma- 
nuring with Peruvian guano." 

Take for instance red clover, the best 
of all green manures. The Great Eng- 
lish chemist. Professor Way, of the 
Royal Agricultural College at Ciren- 
cester, made a perfect analysis of red- 
clover and found every one hundred 
parts to contain as follows : 

Silica 0.50 

Lime 22.02 

Magnesia 0.20 

Potash..... 36.45 

Soda 90.00 

Chloride of Potassium 2.39 

Chloride of Sodium 5.53 

Carbonic Acid 23.47 

Phosphoric Acid ' 6.11 

Sulphuric Acid 1.25 

_ 99 45 

Hogs and Corn. — The Commercial 
Review publishes a table from corre- 
spondents in Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, 
Kansas, Ohio, and Indiana, in regard 
to the number of hogs likely to be sent 
to market, the present condition, pro- 
bable time of marketing find condition 
of corn crop. Of 97 points in Illinois 
58 report a less number of hogs than 
last year, 27 about the same number, 
and 12 report more. The corn crop is 
universally reported short in Illinois 
from one-third to one-half. Of 58 places 
in Iowa 27 report fewer hogs than last 
year. 20 about the same and 11 more. 
The condition of the corn crop is about 
the same as in Illinois Of 21 points in 
Indiana 11 report fewer hogs, 7 about 
the same number, and 3 more. The 
corn crop is better in several localities, 
but generally short. In Missouri 12 
points report fewer hogs, 8 al)out the 
same nuudjcr, and 3 more. The corn 
crop is short one-third to one-half. 
Ohio makes the best showing, 4 points 
reporting an increase in hogs, 15 about 
the same number, and 8 a decrease. 
The report of the corn crop shows equal 
to last year, except in Illinois. The 



condition of hogs appears about the 
same as at the same time la.st year, but 
many points in Illinois report them not 
so far advanced. 

' Comparison of Breeds of Poultry. 
— Isaac L3'nde, of Ohio, writing to the 
Poulh-y Review, describes an experi- 
ment tried by him last season. At the 
1st of September he took ten pullets, 
each of live breeds, each within a week 
of being six months old, and placed 
them in a yard forty feet square, with 
comfortable houses. For the next six 
jnonths he kept an account of their 
food and eg<j; production, with the fol- 
lowing result : 

The Dark Brahmas ate 309^ quarts 
of corn, oats, and wheat, screenings, 
laid 605 eggs, and weighed 70 pounds. 

The Buff Cochins ate 406 quarts, laid 
591 eggs, and weighed 73 pounds. 

The Gray Dorkings ate 309^ quarts, 
laid 524 eggs, and weighed 59^ pounds. 

The Iloudans ate 214^ quarts, laid 
7 S3 eggs, and Aveighed 4b^ pounds. 

The Leghorns ate 2^1 quarts, laid 
807 eggs, and weighed 36^ pounds. 

It will be seen by the above compari- 
sons that the Leghorns laid the great- 
est number of eggs with the smallest 
weiffht. 



SOllGHUMAS A SOILING CROP. 



Sorghum is one of that kind of plants 
which start into growth quite feebly, 
and in its immature state affords less 
real solid nourishment than some other 
varieties of grass ; in its mature state 
the whole plant, stalk and leaves, are 
rich in nutriment and greedily eaten by 
hogs, cows and other stock, when fed 
in connection with other food, not ex- 
clusively, and on which they thrive, 
and will u.sually eat it clean, still any 
of the sweet corn varieties, while young 
or immature, will afford more good 
fodder earlier than the sorghum. 

A farmer, keeping a few cows for 
their milk alone, invariably grew some 
acres of sorghum for winter feeding to 
his cows and hogs; as the sorghum 
cannot be cured like corn fodder, and 
retain its good feeding qualities, 
this is the way he managed his: Be- 
fore Fall frosts injure the foliage, he 



WJf 



THE LAJVCdSTER FARMER: 



cut it by the roots, and cut the stalks 
in two iu the niiddle ; it was then set 
up in shock.s in the field, well tied, to 
stand Fall and Winter weather, and 
thus left till wanted to feed, when it 
Avas hauled to the barn as wanted to 
be fed, and it would do one's heart 
good to see the cows and pigs pitch 
iu. The cows would begin with one 
end of a stalk and manage to go through 
its length, the sweet juice dripping 
from the mouth all the while. He 
claimed that an acre of good growth 
would keep six cows three months, and 
if hay were fed once a day, very much 
longer, and the cows would keep up a 
large flow of rich milk, the last of 
which I can corroborate as true. The 
sorghum should be cut before fully ripe 
after the seed is well foi-iied on the 
centre of the head ; then, if properly 
cared for, the stalk retains its succu- 
lence for a long time. There may be a 
defference, and probably is, in the difl'- 
erent varieties,- some kinds having 
smaller and more tender stalks than 
others; such should be used. 

Prepare the ground same as for a 
crop of Indian corn, and plant at the 
same time as corn ; put the rows 3^ 
feet apart and the hills 2j feet in the 
row ; there should be some fertilizer 
put iu the hills to give an early start, 
as that is very essential; put in 6 to 12 
seeds to a hill to get a stand, and 3 to 
4 plants to the hill ; cover the seed 
about \ an inch with fine soil, compact. 
The plants, when they first show, re- 
semble broom corn, or a sort of grass, 
and may be mistaken for the latter ; it 
is a very weak plant at this stage, 
grows very slow — scarcely at all for a 
long time unless fertilizers are used in 
the hill and early culture given, but 
when early, good culture is given, 
with favorable weather, it grows equal- 
ly well as corn. Give same after cul- 
ture as corn ; harvest as above. A 
warm sandy loam seems to suit the 
sorghum the best, as on such it grows 
more readily in its early stages. 



Palpitation of the heart can be re- 
moved by taking one-fourth grain of 
the triturated digitalin every four hours 
until the difficulty be removed. 



A VALUABLE RECIPE FOR 

GALLS. 



An intelligent and experienced far- 
mer, rising seventy years of age, 
residingin Allen township, Cumberland 
county, has assured us that the follow- 
ing ointment, if applied two or three 
times a day, wilt cure the most obsti- 
nate windgalls : Take one pound of the 
leaves of Stramonium, (Jamestown 
weed), bruised ; two pounds of fresh 
butter or hog's lard, and one gill of the 
spirits of turpentine ; put the whole of 
the ingredients into a clean earthen 
crock and place it with the contents 
over live conls for twenty or thirty 
minutes, stirring it occasionally; then 
strain it through a coarse cloth or can- 
vass, and it forms a consistent oint- 
ment, with which anoint the windgalls 
two or three times a day. 

Fifty dollars had been offered for the 
above receipt. So says our informant, 
who kindly furnished it. 



NEW USE FOR FLAX-SEED. 



An English paper contains a state- 
ment which would seem to open the 
door for a new use for the product of 
flax-seed, and is of value to the Western 
farmer as tenditog to enhance the value 
of this seed, as one of the products of 
the farm : 

The new use is in the manufacture 
of an article called lineolura, deriving 
the name from linum aud oium. It is 
said that it will be a rival of caout- 
chouc, or as is commonly called, India 
Rubber. The new article is manufac- 
tured of linseed oil by oxidizing it until 
it is solidified into a resinous substance, 
as we frequently find it when it has 
been exposed to the atmosphere. It is 
stated that '' in this state it is combined 
with resinous gums and other ingredi- 
ents, whereupon it assumes the ap- 
pearance and most of the properties of 
India rubber. Like India rubber, it 
can be dissolved into a cement and used 
in the manufacture of the material for 
water-proof clothing. It can be used 
as varnish for the protection of iron or 
wood, or for coating ships' bottoms. It 
is as good as a common cement, having 



THE LAM CASTER FARMER. 



105 



the properties similar to marine glue 
made I'roiu India rubber and sljollac. It 
is easily ulcanized by exposure to heat, 
and by this means becomes as hard as 
the hardest wood, and capable of the 
finest polish. The great variety of 
uses to which it can be applied in this 
form will at once suggest themselves 
to the reader. The manufacture of lin- 
eolum has thus far been made to pro- 
duce floor cloth, for which it has proved 
itself well adapted. Combined with 
ground cork, it is spread on a stout can- 
vass,. the back of which is afterward 
water-proofed with oxidized oil. The 
fabric is then printed by means of 
blocks in the ordinary way. The floor 
cloth thus produced is plialjle, noiseless 
to walk upon, washes well, preserves 
its color, and rolls up like an ordinary 
carpet. It is very durable, and its 
component parts will not decompose by 
heat or exposure to the sun or water, 
as will India rubber. 



GOOD HOMINY. 



Take, say three quarts of white flint 
corn ; put it in an iron or wooden 
morter and pound it with an iron- 
pestle, till the hulls are removed and 
the grains broken ; blow out the hulls; 
soak over night in pure fresh water, 
(soak the beans also,) and boil three 
hours; then add one pint of white 
beans, and boil two hours longer. 
Small hominy or grits will be cooked 
in half the time. It is eaten like corn 
mush, with boiled milk, with butter or 
fried in lard. In our flour mills are 
generally found hominy beaters ; the 
mortars are made of iron and conical, a 
dozen or more in a line, and over them 
a continuous revolving iron crank, to 
which the pestles are attached, half of 
them striking the corn alternately. 
Season with salt or add a small piece 
of salt pork when boiling. — Ex. 



TO TEST COAL OIL. 



How to judge coal oil or any oil or 
burning fluid that evaporates rapidly or 
generates gas below one hundred de- 
grees, is exceedingly unsafe. It is easy 
for anyone to determine the safety of 



any illuminating oil or fluid. First 
\vay : 

Take a small four-inch test tube, 
which can be obtained at an}^ drug 
store for about five cents, fill it with oil. 
If the evaporation in twenty-four hours 
exceeds the fourth of an inch, it is not 
safe. The best oil will remain for a 
day without any preceptible diniinu- 
tion. If a test tube cannot be readily 
obtained, fill the fourth of a small tea- 
spoon, pass a lighted match or blaze 
without smoke close to the oil or fluid 
to be tested ; -if it ignites at a surround- 
ing temperature of less than one hun- 
dred degrees it is totally unsafe to use 
about a dwelling. It is not the oil or 
fluid that explodes, but the vapor or 
gas they generate. 



UTILIZING HEN POWER. 



The Ohio Farmer says : " With the 
tread power for dogs, canine pets, 
otherwise useless, were made of some 
little value, but a device for turning 
hen-scratching to some account is one 
step in advance of this. Some man, 
too tired by nature to hoe, has utilized 
the scratching power of the hen — has 
bent her ever-prevailing propensities to 
the aid of agriculture. He makes long 
and narrow cages, just wide enough to 
fit between his garden rows of vegeta- 
bles, etc. : has slat sides, board tops 
and open bottoms. In these cages he 
puts his best dirt throwers and lets 
them hoe out the patch. When the 
ground is well torn up, he moves the 
cage along, and in this way keeps the 
earth mellow and the garden free from 
insects." 



CASTOR OIL AS A LEATHER 
PRESERVATIVE. 



A correspondent of the Ge.rmantown 
Telegraph, who says he has tested all 
the patented preparations and popular 
recipes for preserving leather, prefers 
castor oil to all of them. He adds . 

" We have had boots a year old that 
we have oiled with it, and tlie leather 
was soft, smooth and water-proof to the 
last time they were used. We apply it 
clear, without heat. A little lampljlack 



106 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



might be used on old leather, but is sel- 
dom necessary on new, as the oil itself 
seems to kepp the blacking on, and ren- 
ders the leather black and of fine ap- 
pearance. Those who have been an- 
noyed with hard, cracked, water-soaked 
boots, the surface of the latter rough, 
without blacking, and the leather 
shrunken and wrinkled, so as to chafe, 
gall and otherwise punish the feet, will 
find castor oil, well applied, to be satis- 
factory. We have used it for wagons 
and buggies, and find it is in every way 
superior. It will wear longer, lubricate 
better, and is less objectionable than 
anything we know of." 



USES OF RAWHIDE. 



The skin of an animal, whether cow, 
calf, colt or horse, that dies on the 
farm, is worth more at home than at 
the tanner's. Cut it into narrow strips, 
and shave off the hair with a sharp 
knife before the kitchen fire, or in the 
work-shop, on stormy days and even- 
ings. You may make them soft by 
rubbing. A rawhide halter strap an 
inch wide, will hold a horse better, and 
last longer, than an inch rope. It is 
stronger than hoop iron and may be 
used to hoop dry casks and boxes, and 
for hinges.' 

Try it on a broken thill, or any wood- 
work that has been split. Put it on 
wet, and nail fast. Thin skins make 
the best bag strings in .the world. A 
rawliide rope is a good substitute for a 
chain. It is valuable to mend a broken 
link in a trace chain. For some pur- 
poses it is best to use it in its natural 
state. For other purposes it may be 
dressed soft. 



y Lye for Apple-Trees. — We notice 
a great deal of questioning as to whether 
strong lye from wood ashes can be used 
as a wash for destroying insects on ap- 
ple trees. We wish to state, if it will 
be any benefit to the public, that we 
have an orchard upon which we have 
used strong lye washes for thirteen 
years. The application was made every 
year, between the middle of May and 
first of July, in order to destroy the bark 
lice. It has accomplished fully the 



purpose for which it was used, and the 
orchard is considered ^the finest collec- 
tion of apple-trees in the town. The 
trees are thrifty bear every year, and 
are almost frre from lice. 

Scratches. — The veterinary editor 
of Wilkes' Spirit of the Times recom- 
mends the following for scratches in a 
horse : Take sulphate of zinc, one 
drachm ; glycerine, two ounces ; apply 
every morning. 



HORTICULTURAL. 

THE WEATHER AND THE PROS- 
PECTS. 



Cold, forbidding, and unseasonable, 
as the weather has been since the 1st 
of March last, so far as we are able to 
learn, and so far has our examination 
of fruit buds has extended, the pros- 
pects are favorable to a good crop of 
fruit. It would seem hardly possible 
that fruit trees should pass through 
such an ordeal, as they have the pres- 
ent spring, without having received 
spme injury; but even "little Dela- 
ware" has admitted that the injury 
which it was thought the peaches had 
sustained in the month ot March, now 
amounts to little nothing; and we very 
much question whether the report made 
through the Monthly Bulletin of the 
Agricultural Beaureau, namely, that 
"the peach crop of Maryland is totally 
destroyed," will not prove unfounded. 
It is conceded that nothing has been 
damaged but the apricots and the 
peaches, and perhaps in some unfriend- 
ly localities this may be so, wholly, or 
in part, but has not, as a general re- 
sult, been the case by any means — not 
at least up to the present time (May 4.) 
Vegetation and farming opperations 
have, however, been much retarded, 
and getting the spring crops into the 
ground, will be later than usual, but 
this is not a calamity, especially if an 
abundant crop should follow, of which 
there is now a very promising prospect 
— a reasonable hope. 
• As is usually the case, that very re- 
spectable and ancient citizen, " the old- 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



107 



est inhabitant," has never seen such a 
cold, wet and windy spring, as that of 
1874. It makes one chilly just to think 
of it. On the morning- of April 20th, 
we find a snow of four inches on the 
ground — and still heavily falling — -and 
the thermometer down to 29 degrees 
above zero, the whole aspect of nature 
having much the appearance of the po- 
lar regions. 

" When the robin redbreust approaches your 
cot. 
And the icicles hang at your door,' 

at a season when the peach, the cherry 
and the plum should be in bloom, it 
is not surprising that people should be 
somewhat alarmed. But we feel justi- 
fiable, at the present writing, in assuring 
our readers that the fruit crop is still 
safe, so far as the effects of cold are 
concerned, and that the general agri- 
cultural outlook was never better than 
it is at this time. AVe will not indulge 
in apprehensions about what may hap- 
pen hereafter ; but endeavor to incul- 
cate a spirit of thankfulness for the 
bountiful prospect in the jfreseyit, the 
protection of the past and the hope we 
have in the future. We seem to be 
still wandering in a moral wilderness, 
and as soon as we find things are not 
going our way we are in a state of 
despondency or rebellion, 

LIMA BEAN— PHASEOLUS LU- 
NATUS— ITS CULTURE. 



This is one of the most delicate of all 
garden beans, and to a great many 
persons quite a luxury. In fact no 
garden is well stocked without it. 
Though quite common, we find but very 
few persons successful in its culture. 
Some are under the impression that the 
arbor system of support is the best 
This is a mistake as the runners become 
too crowded and shed their flowers be- 
fore the pods are set. The Lima bean 
recpiires plenty of room and free circu- 
lation of air and light, and without this 
good crops cannot be obtained. We 
have tried various modes of culture and 
supports, but find none better than the 
following way: The soil should be 
loose and rich and the place selected 
should be a warm exposure and free 
from shade. We select for supports 



good stout poles about eight or ten feet 
long. When ready for planting mark 
off the rows five feet each way, and set 
the poles firm in the ground. When 
all the poles are set, spade up the soil 
around each one about two feet, break- 
ing and jiulverizingthe soil thoroughly. 
It is better to have the soil around each 
pole elevated. After this, rake all 
smooth and open a shallow circular 
drill around the pole, and put the bean 
with the eye down and cover about 
one inch, if covered deeper the young 
tender shoots get l)roken in forcing their 
way above the surface; this is the reason 
that the Lima bean should not be 
planted in stiff or clay soil, for the ten- 
der shoots cannot come through any 
hard or baked soil. We generally 
put in from six to eight beans, and if 
they all grow, thin out to three, this is 
sufficient. When they are up the 
leaves are subject to the attacks of in- 
sects ; this must be watched and a lit- 
tle air slacked lime dusted on the sur- 
face of the leaves ; this should be done 
early in the morning when the leaves 
are wet with dew. If the lime is not 
at hand a little hard wood ashes, or 
soot will do as well It will be well 
to watch them when they commence 
to twine so as to assist them to catch 
the poles; high winds while young 
shake the young twiners from their sup- 
port ; in this case it will be necessary 
to tie some of them in. The ground 
should be kept free of weeds and grass. 
This is about all the culture required. 
Phaseolus'Lunatus, is a native of the 
East Indies and there is no use of 
planting it until the soil is warm ; from 
the middle of April to the first of May 
is a good time in almost any part of 
the South. The Carolina butter bean, 
or what is called in the South peewee 
bean, is another variety, smaller but 
equally as delicate as the large Lima 
bean ; it matures sooner and is in every 
respect much harder and more prolific, 
and much better for drying for winter 
use, and they can be grown very well 
along the sides of picket fences or 
around old dead trees. 

The Doylestown Farmers Club 
thinks of starting a butter and cheese 
factory. 



108 



THE LAJVCASTER FABMER. 







GROUP OF MELONS- 
BIT ACCCE. 



-CUCR- 



THIS group is usually included un- 
der the typical species Cucumis 
melo and Cucurbita citrullus and per- 
haps all the different varities now un- 
der cultivation, may be referred to one 
or the other of these generic heads — 
the former including the "muskmelons" 
and the latter the " \yatermelons." 

Among the muskmelons, will be 
found the richest and most highly flav- 
ored of all our fleshy iruits, and they 
are becoming more popular, and of a 



more excellent quality, through culti- 
tivation, every year, but, it seems to be 
considered, that excessively increased 
size, is always obtained at the expense 
of quality. The varities known as 
cantaloupes, or as it is most commonly 
rendered "cantelopes," are the best of 
these melons. 

The watermelon has been justly 
pronounced one of the most delicious 
refreshments that nature has provided, 
in her constant attention to the wauts 
of man, and is very popular in the 
United States, but it has not the frag- 
rance, nor the rich flavor of the canta- 



THE LAJYCASTER FARMEB. 



109 



loupes, although it is more beautiful in 
ap})earaiK.'C. 

Seventy- one varieties of these two 
melons, were enumerated in the fruit 
catalogue of the English Plorticultural 
Society, at least thirty years ago ; and 
by this time, in the United States and 
England alone, their numbers' must be 
"legion," but, as in all other fruits 
where many varieties h^fv^c been pro- 
duced, there are only a few that become 
popular and take the lead. It has of- 
ten been said that these melons are na- 
tives of Central Asia, and that they 
were first introduced into Europe from 
Persia; but the date of their first cul- 
tivation is so remote, that there is no 
certain knowledge on the subject. 
Pliny and Columellus describe the 
excessive fondness of the Emperor 
Tiberius for melons, and also the con- 
trivances by which they were produced 
for him at all seasons of the year. So 
that heated forcing houses must have 
been known to the Romans many long 
years before the general civilization of 
the rest of Europe, or even the West- 
ern Continent had been discovered. 

Melons were certainly cultivated in 
England about the middle of the six- 
teenth century, but how much earlier 
is not surely known. 

According to the reports of travelers, 
neither of these varieties and species 
of melons, attain the excellence, in Eu- 
rope or America, that they do in Asia 
and Africa, especially on the banks of 
the JSile, in Egy])t. 

Our illustrations — although we have 
seen two or three different names ap- 
plied to the same picture, in different 
catalogues and journals — may represent 
the following varieties : 1, Pine-apiile 
melon. 2, Casmbea Musk-melon. 3, 
California Citron Melon. 4, Jenmj 
Lind. 5, Common Cantaloupe. G. Nut- 
meg 3Ielon. 7, 3Iountain Sweet Water- 
melon. 8, Netted Citron 3Ielon. 9, 
Black Spaiiish Watermelon. 

Among the Muskmehms, perhaps, 
the following may be regarded as the 
leading varieties, namely : Jenny Lind, 
Nutmeg, White Japan, Green Citron, 
Long Yellow and Cassabea. 

Among the Waleriueloti.^ the follow- 
ing may be considered worthy of note : 



namely, the Gypsey, Mountain Sweet, 
Mountain Sjjroiit, Phinney's, Ice Crcajn 
Orange, Japan Cream-fieshed, Black 
Spanisi), and Lnperial. 

Tlie former are considered somewhat 
indigestible, but ihe latter, if they do 
not add any "meat to the bone," still 
yield a refreshing beverage, and are a 
healthful diuretic, when fully ripe, and 
eaten at proper times, and in proper 
quantity. 

Whilst on a tour of observation in 
the northern part of Rapho township, 
in September 1870, on Mr. Reuben 
Weaver's farm, we found a vine grow- 
ing at a place where no melons of any 
kind had ever been cultivated, which 
bore abudantly a small melon about the 
average size of cantaloupes, which we 
thought peculiarly delicious, and differ- 
ent from any we had ever seen or tasted 
before. The seeds were small and 
black — not much larger than the lar- 
gest apple seeds— the pulp was white 
and melting, the rind thin and tough. 
Thinking a new variety might be de- 
veloped from them, we distributed 
most of the seeds, but never learned 
with what result. We have still a few 
of th em, and would like to have them 
fairly tried. , 

The best soil for the cultivation of 
muskmelons and watermelons is that 
of a sandy cli^racter, but very rich, 
and having the full benefit of the sun. 
To have the different varieties in per- 
fect purity, they should not be grown 
near to others of the same family. The 
hills should be at least seven f^et apart, 
and they also should be at least four 
inches above the general surface of the 
ground. Plant about the middle of 
May. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL. 



i~ 



REMEDY FOR THE BORERS IN 
J. ERUIT TREES. 

THERE are thousands of fruit trees 
injuretl and killed every year by this 
most destructive pest, the borer. The 
l)eacl) and apple are most liable to these 
attacks. Much has been written on 
the subject, and many remedies tried 



110 



TTTE LANCASTER FARMER. 



with more or less success, but the fol- 
lowing remedy is simple and effective, 
and easily applied: 

1. llemove the earth away from the 
trunk or collar of the tree down to the' 
surface roots. 

2. Take a strip of cloth (any cheap 
kind will answer) and wrap around the 
trunk of the tree twelve or fifteen 
inches high tie at top and bottom so as 
to keep it in place. Strong paper will 
do equally well, only it is not so durable. 

3. Paint or smear the cloth with 
coal tar, replace the earth again, and 
the work is complete. Trees protected 
in this manner are perfectly safe from 
the borer for at least one year. This 
can be done at very little expense, an- 
nually. Painting the trunk of the tree 
with coal tar would be equally effective 
in keeping off the insects, but tar ap- 
plied directly to the bark is very injuri- 
ous to the tree. The earlier this im- 
portant Avork is attended to the better, 
as the beetles or moths will soon begin 
to lay their eggs. 

The above remedy has been thor- 
oughly tested and with satisfactory re- 
sults. 

Believing this information will be of 
some value t» the orchardist or fruit- 
grower, I make it known to the public 
through your valuable paper. 

Jamks Caldwell. 

Gulf City Nursery, Mobile. — Regis- 
ter. 

The above is only a repetition of 
what has been heretofore published on 
this subject, both in thiii and other pub- 
lications of the country — in substance, 
at least, if not exactly in form. 

Excellent as we believe the above 
remedy to be, the writer has entirely 
omitted an important condition — a con- 
dition, however, that is not applicable 
to the whole country at the same pe- 
riod — and that is, xi:hen this work 
ought to be done. 

Writing from the local stand-point of 
the latitude of Mobile in the month of 
April, the admonition that the work 
could not be attended to too early may 
have been exactly in point; but in 
Pennsylvania, if it is done by the 1st 
of June, this year, it will be quite early 
enough ; but for apple trees the protec- 



tion may be removed any time after the 1 
1st of August, as the beetles that de- 
posit the pernicious eggs will then have 
passed their nuptual season long 
enough to place these trees out of dan- 
ger. But on peach trees the protection 
should be continued until the 1st of 
September. This remedy, however, 
only prevents the female from deposit- 
ing her eggs on the trees the present 
season, and can have very little effect 
upon the grubs that are already in the 
base of the tree ; and as these remain 
in the larvae state for three j^ears be- 
fore they mature, and are changed to 
beetles again, it illustrates the neces- 
sity, where practicable, of dislodging 
and destroying the grubs before apply- 
ing the protection, and the duty of 
prompt attention to the matter, at the 
proper time, at each returning season. 
The "apple tree borer" is the Saperda 
Candida of entomologists, and ought to 
be familiar to every pomologist in the 
country by this time. 

The "peach tree borer," however, 
belongs to a different order of insects. 
It is a "moth," and only requires a 
year to go through all its transforma- 
tions — from the egg to the perfect moth 
again. It is never embedded so deeply 
in the wood as the former insect, con- 
fining its operations mainly beneath 
the bark, and is therefore easily re- 
moved; and this work should be at- 
tended to in June before the insect at- 
tains its winged state, and before the 
protection is applied to the base of the 
tree. This is the ^geria exitosa of 
naturalists, and ought to be known to 
all peach growers. The grubs of these 
two insects are always found about the 
bases of the trees they infest, and there- 
fore protection against them is not ne- 
cessary at any other place. 

Horses. — When the horses are 
brought home at noon give them a 
pail of water with a pint of corn or 
oatmeal stirred in it. Take off the 
harness. Wash the shoulders. If 
sweaty, rub them dry with straw, curry 
off the mud and dry sweet, and rub 
them down with a brush. Then feed 
them, and let them eat while you are 
at dinner. 



THE L^J\''CASTER FABMEB. 



Ill 



LANCASTER, MAY, 1874. 

S. S. RAIHVON, Ecitor. 

J B. DEVFLIN, Ass't Edilorand Publisher. 

Published luontlily inider the auspices of tlie A oiii- 

CULTUKAL ANDHohTICULlCKAL SOCIKTY. 

$1 00 per Year In A<lv'ince. $1.25 If not 
paid ill advance. 

One extra co'-y to persoiij seiidiiis; a club rf ten 
suT'S"ribers, and a copy of our beautiful hceel Jblu- 
giaviug 10 every subfecriber. 

AU comminiicKtiOTis. to ijisure insertion, must be 
ill the hai ds of the Kiilor*^ before the l»t of each 
month. All adverfi.senients, subfcnptions and re- 
mittances to the addn-i-'s of the publibher, 

J. R. DEVELIN, LincHSter, Pa. 

Kg. 43 North Queen tt. 



MEETING OF THE LANCASTER 
COUNTY AGRICULTURAL 
AND HORTICULTUR- 
AL SOCIETY. 



THE GRANGE QUESTION. 

The society met at the Orphans' 
Court Room Monday afternoon. April 6, 
at two o'clock, Mr. Johnson Miller in the 
chair. The minutes of the former meet- 
ing were read and approved. Mem- 
bers present, Johnson Miller, Milton 
B. Eshleman, M. N. Brubaker, Web- 
ster L. Hershey, A. Harris, C. Hiller, 
S. S. Rathvon, D. L. Resh, E. Brack- 
bill, Mr. Frey, Jonas Buckwalter, Levi 
S. Reist, Dr. Hiestand, Peter Riest, 
Levi S. Gross, Walter Kieffer,* I. L. 
Landis, John H. Moore, A. S. Her- 
shey, Jacob S. Witmer, Isaac Bushong, 
and E. S. Hoover. 

Milton B. Eshleman reported the 
wheat crop favorable. 

Mr. Kendig- reported the fruit crop of 
Manor favorable. 

The chairman rei)(>rted the crops 
favorable in Warwick. 

Mr. Frey could not see that wheat 
suffered where the seed was properlv 
put in, with the exception of fields thtit 
lay exposed to north winds, but thought 
that with a favorable season, the crops 
would yield well. 

Mr. Engle regarded the apple and 
peach crops as being particularly in a 
promising condition, and his opinion 
was endorsed by Casper Hiller. 



A. S. Hershey and J. D. Hostetter, 
of East Hempfield township, were 
elected members of the society. 

Mr. Johnson Miller exhibited fine 
specimens of "Mammoth Cent" corn, 
and Mr. Kendig exhibited a specimen 
of " Zebra-Canna " seed. 

S. S. Rathvon offered the following 
preamble and resolutions, which were 
unanimously adopted: 

WiibREAS, Alexander Harris, Esq., 
having tendered his resignation as sec- 
retary of this society, which resignation 
was accepted, and the vacancy supplied 
by a new election ; and, 

Whereoi^, Mr. Harris has been iden- 
tified with this society from its very 
origin, and has faithfully served as its 
secretary through a long series of 
years, and during ail that time never 
absented himself from a single meeting, 
and has been uniformly prompt in his 
attendance, and in the discharge of the 
duties of his office ; therefore, this so- 
ciety, in order to show its appreciation 
of such faithful service — not only as a 
complimentary testimonial to a past 
officer, but also as an encouragement to 
present and future incumbents— cheer- 
fully unite in the following resolves : 

Resolved, That this society tenders 
its thanks to Alexander Harris, Esq , 
(its late secretary), for his long and 
faithful services in that office, and the 
punctuality and interest in its welfare 
which he has exhibited on all occa- 
sions. 

Resolved, That Alexander Harris, 
Esq., is hereby elected an honorary 
member of this society. 

Resolved, That this preamble and 
resolutions be entered in the minutes of 
the society, and be pubtished with the 
proceedings. 

Mr. Rathvon also offered the follow- 
ing series of resolutions, which were 
unanimously adojjted : 

WiiEUEAS, Under the permission of 
divine providence, our worthy member 
and intelligent co-laborer, Mr. Hiram 
Engle, has been removed from the 
scenes of time, and has been transferred 
to another world since our last meeting, 
and, while we bow with submission to 
the dispensations of the divine will, we 
cannot but feel a profound regret that 



m 



TEE LAA'CASTER FARMER. 



one so peculiarly endowed, and so use- 
fully employed in the field of horticul- 
ture, should have been so suddenly 
taken away from us ; therefore 

Resohied, That in the death of our 
late member, horticulture has been de- 
prived of the services of an intelligent 
and progressive co-worker, this society 
has lost a worthy member, his family 
and his associates a beloved husband, 
father and friend, and the community 
an esteemed fellow-citizen. 

Reaolved, That this preamble and 
resolutions be entered on the minutes 
of this meeting and be published in the 
proceedings, and a copy be sent to the 
family of the deceased. 

H. M. Engle, esq., read a vei'y inter- 
esting essay on " Fruit Culture," which 
was well received, and was discussed 
by Messrs. Hiller, Levi S. lleist, Ken- 
dig and Frey. 

On motion, Messrs. H. M. Engle and 
Levi S. Keist, were appointed a 'com- 
mittee to audit the accounts of the 
Treasurer, Dr. P. W. Hiestand, and 
after retiring for a short time, they re- 
ported a balance in the treasury up to 
January, 1874, of $76.85. The report 
was recived and adopted. 

On motion of D. L. Resh, a vote of 
thanks was unanimou.sly tendered Mr. 
Engle for his able essay. 

The discussion of the Grange question 
was now proposed, when Mr. Kesh re- 
marked, that be was surprised at the 
apathy manifested by the society on 
the question. All men of business, ex- 
cept farmers, and all professional men 
are banded together for their own good, 
and why should not farmers be united ? 
He hoped to hear the subject discussed, 
at least. 

B. Eshleman, esq., said it was a hard 
question to discuss. Those who are 
not members can't understand the mean- 
ing of the order of Husbandry, and 
those who are members dare not ex- 
plain. The object of the order is a good 
one, as may be judged by their works. 

Mr. Brackbill, a prominent Granger, 
remarked that the members of the or- 
der did not like to be their own apolo- 
gists. There were some things he 
could say, hoAvever, and which he 
would say. He then proceeded to 



point out the objects of the order, the 
ritual of which had been written by 
Rev. Mr. Grosh. Bethlehem, this State, 
a very pious gentleman, and a former 
resident of Lancaster county. It was 
supposed by some persons that the 
Grange movement had its origin in the 
West. This was a mistake, the first 
charter having been issued in Karris- 
burg, Pa. Tlie speaker then reviewed 
the objects of the order, chief among 
which is the social and intellectual edu- 
cation and elevation of the American 
farmer. Though a secret order, it is 
only secret so far as concerns those 
things which are of no interest to the 
public — just as church officers have 
their secret meetings, bank officers 
theirs, and the family has ?Y.s secrets. 
The wives and sisters of the Grangers 
are admitted to membership, and one 
great object of the order is to provide 
fruit on the premises of every member 
of the order, be he land owner or ten- 
ant. Every patron must annually 
plant at least one fruit tree and one 
grape vine, while every matron must 
plant a rose bush and one creeping vine 
of some sort. Could anything be more 
beautiful than this? The speaker 
made a most excellent speech, and to 
every question propounded to him, 
answered with a clearness and earnest- 
ness that was refreshing. 

The question was discussed by 
Messrs. H. M. Engle, Frey and Brack-, 
bill, and in the course of the discussion 
the additional fact was brought out 
that while in last September there were 
but twenty-two Granges in this State, 
there are now fully two hundred ! 

Mr. Engle" presented, for distribu- 
tion, a large number of valuable grafts. 

A bill from Chester Hubley, for ser- 
vices as janitor to the room — $12 — and 
for extra labor at the exhibition last 
fall — $8 — was ordered to be paid. 

Chairman Johnson Miller, the "King 
Indian Corn Raiser," of Warwick twp., 
read a most interesting and exhaustive 
essay on the cultivation of Indian corn, 
which brought out a discussion which 
was participated in by Messrs. Brack- 
bill, Peter S. Rcist, Levi S. Reist, 
Brubaker, Engle, Eshleman and Hie- 
stand. On motion, adjourned. 



THE LAA'CASTER FARMER. 



1L3 



MEETING OF THE IIORTICUL- 
TUKAL SOCIETY. 



Tlie May meeting of the Lancaster 
County Agricultural and Horticultural 
Society was held in the Orphans' Court 
room on Monday afternoon, May 4th, 
at two o'clock. The weather was in- 
clement, but notwithstanding that fact 
the attendance was very good. 

Present, Messrs. Johnson Miller, S. 
S. Rathvon, Levi S. Ileist, Peter S. 
Heist, Ephraim Hoover, Jacob Garber, 
W. H. H. Kinzer, D. G. Svvartz, Wm. 
McComsey, S. P. Eby, John M. Steh- 
nian, Milton B. Eshleman, A P. Mc- 
Ilvaine, John Miller, Jacob "Witmer, 
Ellwood Griest and AValter Kiefl'er. 

Mr. Johnson Miller occupied the 
chair, and Walter Kieffer served as 
secretary. The minutes of the previous 
meeting were read and approved. 

Milton B. Eshleman, Esq., reported 
favorably on the wheat crop of Para- 
dise township. There is very little 
difference in the appearance of that 
sown early and the late. He believed 
the peach crop had not been injured by 
the late severe weather. 

Peter S. Heist had nothing special 
to say in regard to the crops, with the 
exception of wheat, which he thought 
looked more promising than he had 
seen for years. He had also examined 
the peach blossoms, and believed the 
crop would be all right. 

Mr. Kinzer, from the lower end, was 
unable to predict much in regard to the 
crops owing to the lateness of the sea- 
son. The grass is growing admirably 
and promises a fine harvest. If the 
season remains favorable, the wheat 
crop may prove excellent, but the gen- 
tleman thought it too early to predict. 
As to corn, he had passed through a 
section of eighteen miles in the county 
this morning, and had met but one 
man who had yet planted that seed 

Bevi S. Hoist, from Warwick, spoke 
in the most favorable terms of the 
wheat prospect, but the corn was very 
far back, there having been but little 
planting as yet. It was doubtful, in 
the speaker's opinion, whether general 
corn planting could be done before the 
middle of May. 

Chairman Miller would not take a two- 



year's crop for planting, as had been 
reconimended by some persons. The 
greatest care should l)e taken this Spring 
in the selection of seed corn. He had 
examined some of his own seed which 
he knew to be perfectly sound when 
put away, and now it is mouldy, 

Mr. Witmer believed that the reason 
why the corn crop failed with some 
persons was because they had planted 
seed-corn which had been injured by 
the severe cold of the preceding winter. 

Chairman Miller presented the fol- 
lowing written report of the crop and 
fruit prospect in Warwick township : 

In making my monthly report on the 
condition of the crop for uur meeting to- 
day, I feel a little at a loss what to say, 
the season being unusually late ; with 
the thermometer below the freezing 
point and a snow storm but a few days 
ago. Not much progress can be reported 
in agriculture, and much less in horti- 
culture. The farmers have been very 
much delayed during this Spring on 
account of rain, almost every other day 
for the last three weeks. In my own 
neighborhood nearly every farmer is 
burning from 1,0UU to 2,0UU bushels of 
lime, which makes considerable work 
even with good weather. The wheat 
looks pretty fair all over my neighbor- 
hood, but, contrary to former years, the 
early sown looks best, while the late 
sown looks only tolerably well. With 
a favorable season from now on to har- 
vest, a good crop will be put away. 
Grass is fairly started, is thick enough 
on the ground to make a large crop of 
hay. Oats are very short — just coming 
up, generally late sown. Corn, none 
planted — most farmers working at the 
lime and getting the land ready. Of 
fruit not much can be said, it being so 
backward that only yesterday I noticed 
the first peach blossom in my yard 
coming out, and apple, pear and other 
fruit-trees are just bursting their buds. 
I am of the opinion that tiuit was not 
so far advanced as to be injured yet; 
and, therefore, let all remember that, 
although we have a late season, an all- 
wi.se Providence will no doubt again, 
without exception, bless us with the 
bountiful crops that we have had the 
pleasure of having, and of which I hope 
we may again be the partakers. 



114 



THE LAJ\ CASTER FAFiMER. 



Mr. Mcllvaine stated that they were 
trying Hungarian grass in his neigh- 
borhood (Paradise township) and he 
would like to know the experience of 
others. It had done well with himself 
and neighbors. 

A somewhat lengthy but very excel- 
lent essay was read by jSlr. W. H. H. 
Kinzer, of East Earl township, on the 
subject of " Agriculture — Its Import- 
ance and Progress." 

On motion of Mr. M. B. Eshleman the 
unanimous thanks of the society were 
tendered to Mr. Kinzer for his able essay. 
Favorable comments upon the essay 
were made by Messrs. M. B. Eshle- 
man and Peter S. Reist. 

Messrs. Samuel M. and Carroll C. 
Stokes were present and exhibited the 
most powerful and perfect pruning 
shears ever seen in this section. A 
test was made by cutting in half a 
hickory club fully two inches in thick- 
ness, with the most perfect ease. Ross 
Winans, of Baltimore, the great mach- 
inest, ])ronounced it the best instrument 
of the kind he had ever seen. 

On motion of M.B. Eshleman, it was 
resolved that the proceedings of the 
last meeting, which were not published 
in the Lancaster Farmer, be publish- 
ed, together with the present proceeed- 
ings, in that journal. 

S. S. Rathvon, from the committee 
appointed to procure copies of the Lan- 
caster Farmer from its origin, and 
have them bound, presented the same 
to the Society with their bill of cost, 
$8.00. On motion the report was re- 
ceived and the bill ordered to be paid. 

M. B. Eshleman moved that here- 
after the meetings of this Society open 
at two o'clock precisely and adjourn at 
4|- o'clock. Adopted. 

D. Gr. Swartz, Esq., was asked to 
write an essay for the next meeting, and 
notwithstanding the matter was ear- 
nestly pressed upon him by the mem- 
bers, he declined. Finally, Mr. Ephraim 
Hoover was prevailed upon to prepare 
the essay for the next meeting. 
On motion, the Society adjourned. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



Greene county farmers are putting 
n oats the second time, the grain first 
owu having rotted in the ground. 



THE TRUE CAUSE OF GAPES 
f) IN CHICKENS. 

YOURS of the 19th ult. was duly 
received, and in reply allow me 
to say, that, properly speaking, the 
disease called " Gapes," in Gallinaceous 
fowls, is not caused by an insect in its 
larva state ; does not originate from an 
insect ; and, is never transformed into 
an insect ; notwithstanding the theo- 
ries which have been erected upon such 
a supposition. Its history, therefore, 
does not legitimately belong to restrict- 
ed entomology. There is some doubt 
among systematists, as to whether the 
animal that causes the gajoes ought to be 
classed with Articulates, or the Radi- 
ates, but I incline to the latter. They 
are, however, generally conceded to 
belong to the Entozoa (from entos, 
within, and zoon, an animal), a large 
family of parasites, which infest fowls, 
mammals, fishes, and even insects ; and 
from which man h.imself is net ex- 
empted. Their various changes of con- 
dition, their modes of reproduction, and 
their specific histories, are difficult to 
study, and are, therefore not well un- 
derstood, common as they appear to be. 
They belong to the genus Utroncjijlus, 
a large species of which {S. gigas,) in- 
habits the kidneys of swine. The 
Stroiigijlus micrurus is sometimes 
found in the trachea and lungs of the 
calf, in large nambers. The Stroiigijlus 
jilaria occurs in lambs and kids ; and 
in pigs, when young, are found the 
Strongyhis contorla^. The Strongijlus 
iiyngamus infests domestic fowls, and is 
found occupying their trachas and 
bronchial tudes, in such numbers some- 
times as to produce suffication. Dr. 
A. S. Packer describes an allied genus 
{EustrongyluH,) found in the brain of a 
hawk belonging to the genus Ihdeo. 
These were collected under Heyden's 
U. S. Survey of Montana, Idaho, etc, 
and described, figured, and named by 
Dr. P., Eudrongylaa buteonis — exhib- 
ited their sexual distinctions. Deising 
described Eiistrongylan jm.pillosus, 
found in the brain of a bird inhabiting 



THE LA J^ CASTER FABMER. 



115 



Florida ; and lastly, Mr. A. C. Walter 
obtained specinieus of Eiititronyylus 
dwrdeiliH from the brain of a night- 
hawk {CordeiliH Virginianus,) shot at 
Cani])ton, N. H., in the month of June, 
which has also been described and 
figured by Dr. P. Like the " Hair- 
worms," {Gordius, Flliuria, etc.,) and 
to which ihey have a family alliance — 
their transformations, or rather their 
transitions in their physical conditions, 
are didicult to follow and identify. 
Specimens of these animals have fre- 
quently been found, the females of 
which were either filled with eggs, or 
had knotted masses of eggs adhering to 
them. We have seen the female Gor- 
dnis equaiicus in this condition, (com- 
monly called the Hair-worm, and sup- 
posed by some people to be an animated 
horse-hair). We have also, on several 
occasions, noticed a peculiar mortality 
among the grasshoppers {Acrdknn et 
Caloplinus) and found that, in every 
instance, they were infested by a spe- 
cies of Fillaria, many of which pro- 
truded from one to two inches from 
their bodies. The theory is, that when 
these animals have matured in the 
bodies of the animals which they infest, 
they make their escape therefrom, and 
falling upon the earth, the females 
there deposit their eggs. If all the con- 
ditions are favorable, these eggs are 
hatched, and a very minute worm issues 
therefrom, which, in some manner not 
yet well understood in its details, finds 
its way into the body of a chicken, a 
pheasant, a partridge, a beetle, a grass- 
hopper, lamb, kid, pig, etc., and goes 
through the same process its progeni- 
tors did. 

Various are the modes proposed for 
their extinction. Prof. Riley, of St. 
Louis, seems to have great iaith in di- 
luted carbolic acid. lie dissolves " one 
grain of pure crystalline acid in ten drops 
of alcohol, and half a drachm of vine- 
gar." Then strip a quill- feather, on 
both sides, till within half an inch of 
the small end Moisten tlie pencil end, 
or brush, of the feather, in the acid and 
introduce it into the windpipe of the 
bird; turn it round several times, and 
then draw it out. This will dislodge 
the worms, many of which will be drawn 



out adhering to the pencil, and those 
remaiiiing will die in consequence of 
their contact with the acid. The fowls 
are then to be separately cooped, and 
some shavings dipped in a solution of 
the acid are added. The mouths and 
beaks of the birds should be washed 
morning and evening with the solution 
aforesaid, and also a few drops should 
be put into the drinking water. Food 
composed of coarse corn or l»arley meal 
should be given them, containing a lit- 
tle flour of sulpher and ginger. As a 
preveniive, Prof R recommends the 
feeding of young chi'-k(!ns twice a week 
with wheat steeped in a dilution of the 
solution aforenamed — say one teaspoon- 
full to a pint of water. Wood or coal 
ashes are thrown into the nesting and 
roosting houses (which should be sepa- 
rate,) and these apartments should be 
thoroughly cleansed once a week. Some 
of the solution should also besprinkled 
on the floors and the roosts of the houses 
about once a month. 

Other means for the extraction of the 
" Gape-worms" are also employed — as 
for instance, a thin wire, a stiff bristle, 
a fibre of whalebone, or a thin piece of 
gut (snch as is used for hook links of 
fishing lines,) are bent round forming a 
loop, introduced into the windpipe, 
turned round several times, and then 
drawn out. But this operation must be 
skilfully and tenderly performed or the 
patient may not survive it. We have 
seen this latter operation successfully 
performed more than five and forty 
years ago ; for singular to say, " Gapes" 
were as common then as now. 

Our article has -'spun" out much 
longer than we intended, but seeing 
there is so much error abroad in regard 
to the .v/a^/zs of this animal in natural 
history, we have endeavored to "de- 
fine its position." — .S'. It. It. From the 
Journal of the Farm. 

^DEFECTIVE DRAINAGE. 



The terms, drainage and sewerage, 
are too often used indiscriminately. 

Drainage iiresents a problem entirely 
distinct in its character and uses from 
sewerage. 

In the settlement of any new terri- 



116 



THE LA^^CASTER FARMER. 



lory, the question of its drainage is of 
the first importance. Sewerage may 
only become a subsequent considera- 
tion. 

The health of the individual, as of the 
community, depends upon the pioper 
drainage of the soil, while the question 
of sewerage awaits the force of circum- 
stances. 

A water-saturated soil cannot be 
dwelt upon with safety ; proper drain- 
age is of vital necessity to its permanent 
occupancy. 

Drainage is that system or method 
by which superabundant water may be 
removed from the soil, which has or 
may become saturated. It may be by 
natural or artificial means, or by a 
combination of both. 

The natural topography may be such 
as to require but little aid from art in 
perfecting the drainage of a section of 
country, while, on the other hand, art 
alone may be able so to drain it as to 
render it healthy. 

Therefore, the first consideration pre- 
sented in the selection of a site for 
human occupancy, involves a study of 
its topography ; and, incidental thereto, 
its sul)Stratum or geological formation, 
in order that whatever system of drain- 
age may be adopted, its eflectiveness 
and economy may harmonize. Natural 
water-courses, assisted by art, often 
afford the best means for ridding satur- 
ated soil of its superabundant water, 
and should never be lost sight of in any 
artificial adaptation. 

A very large proportion of human 
ailments can be traced directly or indi- 
rectly to this influence. Even a water 
saturated atmosphere directly tends to 
increase mortality and sickness among 
the enfeebled, as the mortuary statistics 
of the county during the I'eeent long- 
continued foggy atmosphere abundantly 
testify. But mortuary tables exhibit 
only a small proportion of the influences 
of water-saturation, for we should not 
forget the uncollected and uncoUectable 
statistics diseases due to the same 
cause. The State Committee has well 
said, " drainage is the work of primary 
importance throughout the State." — 
Dr. Moreaii Mor7'is on Defective 
Drainage, the 16anitarian for March. 



DESTRUCTIVE POWDER. 



Corrosive sublimate is disasterous to 
ants. A little of it sprinkled across 
one of their paths in dry weatner has 
a most surprising effect. As soon as 
one of the ants touches the white pow- 
der it commences to run about wildly 
and to attack any other ant it comes 
across. In a couple of hours round 
balls of the ants will be found all bit- 
ing each other ; and numerous indi- 
viduals will be seen biten completely 
in two, while others have lost some of 
their legs or antenna3. News of the 
commotion is carried to the formicar- 
ium, and huge fellows, measuring 
three-quarters of an inch in length, that 
only come out of the nest during a 
migration or an attack on the nest of 
one of the working columns, are seen 
stalking down with a determined air, 
as if the}^ would soon right matters. 
As soon, however as they have touched 
the sublimate all their stateliness leaves 
them ; they rush about ; their legs are 
seized by some of the smaller ants al- 
ready affected by the poison ; and they 
themselves begin to bite, and in a short 
time become the center of fresh balls of 
rabid ants. The sublimate can only be 
used effectively in dry Aveather. 



NUMBER OF PLANTS OR TREES 

ON AN ACRE AT GIVEN 

DISTANCES APART. 





foot 




foot 




foot 




foot 




foot 




foot 


2 


feet 


2 


feet 


2 


feet 


2 


feet 


2 


feet 


3 


feet 


3 


feet 


3 


feet 


3 


feet 


4 


feet 


4 


feet 


4 


feet 


5 


feet 



by 1 foot 43560 

by 2 feet ■.... 21780 

bv 3 feet 14520 

by 4 feet 10890 

bv 5 feet 8712 

by 6 feet 71G0 

by 2 feet 10890 

by 3 feet 72GO 

by 4 feet 5245 

by 5 feet 4356 

by 6 feet 3630 

by 3 feet.. 4840 

by 4 feet 3630 

by 5 feet 2904 

by 6 feet 2420 

by 4 feet 2722 

by 5 feet 2178 

by 6 feet 1815 

by 5 feet 1742 



THE LAJVCASTEE FABMER. 



117 



5 feet by 6 feet 1452 

G feet by 6 feet 1210 

7 feet by 7 feet 880 

8 feet by S feet 680 

9 feet by 9 feet 537 

10 feet by 10 feet 435 

12 feet by 12 feet 302 

15 feet by 15 feet 100 

20 feet by 20 feet 108 

30 feet bv 30 feet 48 

40 feet by 40 feet 27 



now MIXATURE TREES ARE 
PRODUCED IX CHIXA. 



The process is in reality, a very sim- 
ple one, and is based upon one of the 
commonest principles of vegetable 
physioloiry. We all know, that any- 
thing Avhich retards in any way the 
free circulation of the sap also prevents, 
to a certain extent, the formation of 
wood and leaves. This may be done 
by grafting, by confining the roots, 
withholding water, bending the branch- 
es, or in a hundred other ways, whieli 
all proceed upon the same principle. 
This principle is perfectly understood 
by the Chinese, and they make nature 
subservient to this particular whim of 
theirs. We are told, that the first part 
of the process is to select the very 
smallest seeds from the smallest plants, 
which is not at all unlikel3^ But I 
cannot speak to the fact from my own 
observation. I have, however, often 
seen Chinese gardeners selecting suck- 
ers and plants for the purpose Irom the 
other plants which were growing in the 
garden. Stunted varieties are gener- 
ally chosen, particularly if they had the 
side branches opposite or regular ; for 
much depends upon this; a one-sided 
dwarf tree is of no value in the e^'tis of 
the Chinese. The main stem was then, 
in most cases, twisted in zigzag form, 
which ])rocess checked the flow of sap, 
and, at the same time, encouraged the 
production of side branches at those 
parts of the stem where they were most 
desired. When these suckers had 
formed roots in the open ground or kind 
of nursery where they were planted, 
they were looked over and the best 
taken up for potting. The same prin- 
ciples which I have already noticed 



were still kept in view ; the pots used 
being narrow and shallow, so that they 
held but a small quantity of soil com- 
pared with the wants of the plants, and 
no more water being given than what 
was barely sufficient to keep them 
alive. Whilst the branches were form- 
ing they were tied down and twisted 
in various ways; the points of the 
leaders and strong ones were generally 
nipped out, and every means were taken 
to discourage the production of young 
shoots which were possessed of any de- 
gree of vigor. X^ature generally strug- 
gles against such treatment for a while, 
until her powers seem, in a great mea- 
sure, exhausted, when she quietly 
yields to the power of art. The Chi- 
nese gardener, however, must be ever 
on the watch ; for, should the roots of 
his plants get through the pots into the 
ground or happen to be liberally sup- 
plied with moisture, or should the young 
shoots be allowed to grow in their nat- 
ural position for a short time, the vigor 
of the plant which has so long been 
lost will be restored, and the fairest 
specimen of Chinese dwarfing de- 
stroyed. Sometimes, as in the case of 
peach and plum trees, which are often 
dwarfed, the plants are thrown into a 
flowering state ; and then, as they 
flower freely, year after year, they have 
little inclination to make vigorous 
growth. The plants generally used in 
dwarfing are pines, junipers, cypresses, 
bamboos, peach, and plum trees, and a 
species of small-leaved elm. — Fortune^s 
Wanderings in China. 

ASHES AS A CATTLE FEED. 



Mr. David Diulley, of Sidney — one 
of our substantial subscribers — in a re- 
cent conversation, gave his experience 
in treating neat stock affected with a 
habit of eating wood, chewing bones, 
etc. His cattle were one spring aflect- 
ed in this wny ; they became thin in 
flesh, refusing to eat hay, and presented 
a sickly appearance. He had an im- 
pression that their food lacked the con- 
stituents for making bone, but his 
neighbors used bone meal, without no- 
ticing any good results whatever. 
Last spring he put about four bushels 



lis 



THE LANCASTER FABMER. 



of leached a.sh(>s in his barn-jard, and 
threw out to them about a shovel full 
each day. They all ate it with evident 
relish. After turning them out to pas- 
ture he put one peck of dry ashes per 
week on the ground in the pasture. 
They ate it all up, and gnawed otf the 
grass where it had been laying. The 
cattle began to iniprove, gaining flesh 
and looking better than they had for 
several ye;irs. He says that this mor- 
bid appetite was unnoticed years ago, 
from the fact that the land was new 
and "ashy" from the burning of the 
Avoods and land clearings. He has 
another proof of the value of ashes for 
stock from this incident. He had a 
large tub full of leached ashes which 
remained in for some time. It was af- 
terwards used as a watering tub; and 
when the cattle di'ank from it they 
would lick and gnaw the sides and bot- 
tom of the tub, actually biting out 
pieces and eating them. Latterly he 
gave one quart of ashes mixed with the 
same quantity of stilt to twelve head of 
cattle about once a Aveek, and fmds it 
to agree with them wonderfully. — 
Maine Farmer. 



BAD SPRING ROADS. 



When we pass a neig-hboring farm 
and see the gate banging by one hinge, 
the latchless barndoor shorted by a 
rotten fence-post, and implements, once 
valuable, rotting in the open air and 
scattered about just where the last job 
of work was done, we utter a prayer of 
pity for such a fellow-farmer, or else 
pass on thanking God we are not as 
other men. And yet if we put it to 
our consciousness we shall find that in 
many respects we are no better than 
they. — -Here for instance, yes, and 
there, also, is a lane leading down to a 
tolerably well-cared for house and barn 
which in the Spring of the year will be 
a perfect slough, through, which wheels 
will sink to the hub, and an extra horse 
with broken gears, and damaged tem- 
per will tell an unpleasant tale. And 
yet very much of all this might be 
avoided by a little work now, in keep- 
ing the ditches clear "of leaves or in 



opening them enough to let the sur- 
phis rains of winter pass away. 

The enemy of good roads is not so 
much frost as water. The water in the 
soil freezes. If soil were perfectly dry 
frost would not penetrate at all. The 
ditches that are cleaned now, and the 
roads that are rounded so as to let the 
water run into the ditches, always 
prove as good investments in comfort 
as any man can pos.sess. ^v\y is the 
time to think of these things. We don't 
know but that we would rather have 
broken doors or fenses than broken 
down Spring roads. — Germantown 
Telegraph. 



Sugar Beet for Swine. — Jonathan 
Talcott gives a statement in the Boston 
Cultivator of an experiment performed 
on a Suffolk pig, where sugar beets 
were largely employed for fatting. 
The animal was about a year old, and 
the feeding on boiled sugar beets, tops 
and root, began on the 16th of August, 
and was continued three times a day 
until the 1st of October, after which 
ground feed was given, consisting of 
two parts of corn and one of oats, throe 
times a day, until the animal was 
slaughtered ; the meal being mixed 
with cold water. The result was be- 
gun, Aug. 16, when the sugar beet 
feeding was begun, that the weight 
was 360 pounds; Sept. 1, 390 pounds; 
Oct. 1, 450 pounds ; Xov. 1, 520 
pounds. 

Salting Milch Cows.— -In Switzer- 
land the cows are salted early every 
morning, and if fed in the stable the 
salt is given before foddering. By 
salting in this way their appetite is 
improved, they drink with more regu- 
larity, keep in better health, and give 
more milk, than when salted in the 
usual way, as practiced by dairymen in 
America. The Swiss dairymen think 
it very injurious to salt milch cows 
only once or twice a week, as they will 
lick too much salt at one time, and 
drink too much water for the day ; 
they consider that stock in order to do 
well must be fed with regularity every 
day alike, and never give too much of 
anything at one time. 



THE LA Jf CASTER FAKMEB. 



110 



BOTANY, 



PERIODIC BOTANIC THEXOMEXA, 1873. 



A- 



BY W. 11. SPERA, EPHRATA, PA. 



^C("r ri/6ri(7>i— Rod >ri\ple 

Acer doxy ci-'r/vimi— Silver staple 

Axaim ina lrilobf'—V>i\v-]x\ \v 

Ailnnthu.1 pl"nfluloxiix—Tvt'e of Heaven. 

Cera.iiis xero/inns—'R\nc\<^ Cherry 

Ci'ytaneo vrscn — Clicst imt 

Cornvxflnridn—V><^i!.\\ocn\ 

Cory donin viil(/'iri.s—Qi\ i ii eo 

Carv'tnlhn Slu-ll-biirlv hickory 

Cnryn rowpiiiow^— Moclcenuit hickory... 

Cari/a porcinn — IMfrnvir 

Diioxpyrns virqininnn- Pprsiiinrion 

Fmrinns nvKricnnn Wliite .\sh 

GaylusxicUi rcsinosa — lUiekcllx'rry 

Ua'ti'sia /ri/aplera Siiow(lro)i tree 

Jiifihiux nigcr- Black Wiiliuit 

Jii}/!avs ei/(fra— But tern ut 

Kill null— l.auiel 

lAi i'Khndrim ttiHpifrrn Pophir 

M'iriixniqra Black Mulberry 

M' id tiro. <iui-nuiiiic'i—{ ).saKe Orange 

j\'f/xx(i mriUiflorii — (iuni tree 

PriinuK cer'dxiis Sour cherry 

Pirxica vtil(j((rux — Peach 

Pf/ivs co7)imt(nis - Pear 

PflTiix nifiliix Apple 

Prini.x inncrierina — Aw\cc>t 

Priinx domi'xtlcdla Plum 

t^(/t'/•<■l^s■ <■//?<'(- Wliire Oak 

Quffcux (iiicloria Black Oak 

Rolimiii pxciKlocricico - Locust 

/Sdxxii/rax o?T?ci »"/e—Sassafra.s 

Salir dixcolor- \V illow 

Uliiic /idvd—YAm 



FuoxrvES. 



May 



May 


1 


April 
JNIay 


19 
17 
17 


jray 


4 

IS 



May 17 

" H 

" 10 



April 



PLORES. 

April 1.5 
May 1 

10 
June 2i 
Mav 4 
.TulV 1 
May -28 

14 



.June -20 



FRrCTKS. 



JNIav 

April 

May 



June 

ISIay 
.luiie 
May 



May 



LF.AF-FAIX. 



July 

O t. 



Aui,'. 10 

Oct. 8 

1 

4 

Nov. 20 

June '21 

Oct. -2 



Julv 
Au}?. 



Au< 



Sept. 
Oct. 



Sept. 



Nov. 
Oct. 

Nov. 
Oct. 
Sept. 
Oct. 



Sept. 
Oct. 



Nov. 
I ct. 
Sept. 
Oct. 



10 

;;o 

'24 
7 
-'2 
'27 
•27 
'27 
'29 
'27 
'27 

Jo 

1-2 

1 

'20 

10 

10 

Vi 

t> 

7 



The above is a partial list of the fruit 
and forest trees of Lancaster county 
with the periods of their buddinsr, flower- 
ing, niaturingof their fruit, and the fall- 
ing of their leaves. Although it may not 
be perfect, and may differ in different 
seasons, it will be useful to refer to, in, 
and tluring future seasons, and indi- 
cate their comparitive forwardness or 
backwardness. We are sometimes 
very much misled in these phenomena, 
where no record has been kept, and 
imagine a vast difierence in the pres- 
ent from the past, when no very ma- 
terial difference really exists. Asland- 
marks to the intelligent and i)rogressive 
farmer, such records must be of value, 
and it is often surprising that so little 
attenticn is paid to a matter that is 
clearly within the reach of all. — Ed. 

scare'ckows. 



W. TI. White, of Worcester county, 
Mass., sends to the Cou)ilry Gentlewan 
the following plan for keeping crows 
away from the corn-iield: 



" Bait the crows in some portion of 
the field, and when they become a little 
familiar, embrace some opportunity 
when they are not watching, for they 
are watchful as well as cunning, and 
set a steel trap, concealed from open 
view, in the vicinity of the bait, and 
you will be pretty sure to take one in 
it, if you are as cunning as Mr. Crow 
is. Now, Mr. Crow will })robably an- 
nounce his misfortune by loud cries and 
struggles, and as his kind are somewhat 
curious under such circumstances, they 
will congregate in numbers, sailing 
about at safe distances, to see what the 
matter can be; but don't you be so 
anxious ; keep out of sight, out of the 
vicinity of the field ; take no particular 
notice of the commotion till the crows 
have disappeared ; then go to the spot, 
desjiatch the crow, spread out his 
wings, and fasten them and the body 
in ])ositi()n, and thus leave him ; and 
ail his kind will be pretty sure to give 
that field the go by. This is one of 
the most eflectual " scarce scrows" for 
keeping off the birds that I know of. 



120 



TTTE LAJYCASTER FARMER. 



TABLE SHOWING THE COM- 
PARATIVE VALUE OF GOOD 
HAY WITH OTHER AR- 
TICLES AS FOOD FOR 
STOCK. 



100 lb. of best hay equals 275 lb- Corn Fodder, 

450 " Rye Straw, 

" " 320 " Wheat Straw. 

" 165 •' Oat " 

" " ISO " Jiarley " 

" " 150 " Pea Vines 

" " 250 " Buckwheat St. 

•' '• 2 " Potatoes. 

" " 340 " Mangels. 

" " .500 " Turnips, 

" " 3 1" " Carrots. 

" 105 " Wheal Bran, 

'• " 10 1 " Rye Bran. 

" " 60 " Corn. 

■> " 60 " Oats. 

'• " 46 " Wlieat, 

" " ,54 " Rye 

" " 45 •' Peas or Beans. 

" " 64 " Buckwheat. 

Tbe above will be found to serve a 
useful guide to the different qualities 
and nutricious properties of food. It 
has been carefully experimented with, 
and is as correct as can be made. — 
Farmer and Gardener. 



LAWNS. 



The Gardner^s Monthly gives some 
remarks on lawn grasses and lawn 
management, from F. R. Elliott, in 
which he recommends the following 
mixture, to be sown at the rate of five 
bushels per acre, viz., 28 lbs clean 
Kentucky blue grass, 28 lbs. red. top, 
12 lbs. white clover, and 10 lbs. of 
creeping bent grass. He adds that in 
sixty days from seeding in spring he 
has had the lawn mower put on, and in 
thirty days more croquet playing has 
commenced. This was in the neigh- 
l)orhood of Cleveland. In New York, 
Avithout much difference of climate, we 
find that the lawn grass sown early in 
.spring, or by the first of May, at least, 
if on well prepared ground, must be cut 
with the scythe or lawn mower by the 
middle of June, and if the spring is 
warm and moist, even sooner. But if 
the soil is not well enriched at the sur- 
face, it will probably be a month or 
more later. Everybody depends on a 
good preparation of the soil, by a fine 
even top dressing of old manure or 
compost, which will give every seed a 
start and push on the young plants in 
their early stages. It is also of great 



importance that the seed be very slight- 
ly covered — never more than half an 
inch deep — by rolling, brushing, or with 
a fine rake. Under such good manao-e- 
ment the same amount of seed per acre 
will produce as good a growth and as 
compact a velvet, as ten times as much 
seed sown on hard, poor ground, not 
properly covered, or buried too deep. 
We add a single remark on the value 
of Kentuckey Blue grass (known as 
June grass at the east) for lawns. We 
find it to preserve a more perfectly 
green appearance at all seasons of the 
year in oiir climate than any other 
grass we have tried, and in the winter, 
under the partial shade or protection of 
deciduous trees, it is seen nearly as 
green as in spring whenever the ground 
is bare or not covered with snow. — 
Country Gentleman. 

VITALITY OF WEED SEEDS. 



We venture th*^ assertion that the 
efforts usually put forth to destroy the 
chickweed always results in increasing 
the pests, for the SteUaria family, of 
which there are seven or eight varie- 
ties, possess the power of ripening 
their seeds, if need be, before they are 
half matured in size ; so that when the 
plants are chopped up by the hoe and 
left to die on the surface of the soil, 
millions of these seeds wnll ripen suffi- 
ciently to retain the germinating power, 
and that, too, when the seeds are so 
small as to be scarcely visible. The 
S. Media, as botanists name the chick- 
weed that infests our gardens, produces 
seeds as hard as shot. The same, too, 
may be said of the purslane and many 
other weeds. Now, if these weeds be 
merely taken up and carried to the dung 
heap, the seeds will not rot, if in ordi- 
nary compost, but will be brought back 
to the garden where they will grow 
again. To fight weeds effectually, they 
should be chopped or pulled out as soon 
as they ai)pear above ground, and should 
be at once removed not to the dung hill, 
but to some separate limbo in a corner, 
expressly set apart, and there undis- 
turbed let them severely alone year 
after year to rot, seeds and all, on tlxe 
surface of the ground. 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



121 



SEWING GRASS ALOXE. 



A writer in the Rural New Yorker 
says, " Now, I do not believe in any of 
this old time nonsense of sowing- p^rass 
seed or clover with oats, rye or wheat, 
just because soni( body has said it was 
the best way. If a man wants a field 
seeded with timothy, sow that and no- 
thing- else ; and the same with any 
other kind of grass, or even clover, for 
any of them will grow far better alone 
than when crowded, shaded, or the soil 
about the roots robbed of its moisture 
by some coarse, rank-growing grain. 
Of course, on rich, moist soils, a man 
may seed down with grain and thereby 
save one season ; but it is poor policy 
to follow this system on old, nearly 
worn out soils, even if our fathers and 
grandfathers " always did so." Then, 
again, it is folly to mix clover and 
timothy together in the same field, for 
they are never both in proper condition 
for cutting at the same time, and a lit- 
tle musty, over-ripe clover mixed in 
with the hay adds nothing to its value. 
liy keeping both separate each can be 
cut when in the best condition for hay, 
and this rule will hold good with all 
kinds of forage plants. 



ABOUT HORSES. 



Some horses have tender skins, and 
the harness will sometimes gall them 
cruelly, in defiance of all means to pre- 
vent it. But many times the true cause 
is attributed to a bad collar, bad har- 
ness, or a good harness improperly 
fitted to the animal. A yoke of bows 
that do not fit the oxen will often gall 
them, and unfit them for labor, when if 
these things were as they ought to l)e, 
they would work with far more ease, 
and their skin would not be galled. 
When a harness or yoke of bows does 
fit i)r()per]y, and the skin is liable to be 
galled, bathe those parts before they are 
galled with cold water untilthe outside 
skin appears quite soft, then bathe them 
again with a strong decoction of white 
oak bark. Let this be done every day 
and the skin will become much harder 
and tougher than it usually is. 



BOOK AND SPECIAL NOTICE 
DEPAHIMENT. 



NOTICE. 



Special notices inserted in this de- 
partment at 25 cents per line, nonpareil 
measurement. Address orders to 
J. B Develtn, Pulilishf>r & Proprietor. 
No. 43 North Queen St., 

Lancaster, Pa. 

LITERARY RECORD. 

The Ijancaster MoRNiNa Review : A 
now morning daily, nearly as large as the 
Daily Express, ed'ted and published by J. 
J Sprenger, at the usual daily rates, office 
No. 6 East Orange street, Lancaster, Pa., 
This new caterer to the public 'want supplies 
a vacuum which hal long existed, but 
which no one had heretofore attempted to 
fill, and we hope the very favorable impres- 
sion which the new enterprise has made 
thus far may be a sufficient guarantee to the 
publisher and the people that his arduous 
labors are appreciated and will be rewarded 

The Oxford Rkpubucan, a change in 
name, proprietor and editorship, and politi- 
cal stilus, from the Farmers' Club, is a 
spirited folio edit d by otir friend Dr. Stubbs, 
at Oxford, Chester county, Pa., devoted to 
aijriculture, politics and general literature. 
A\"eekly at l$l .50 a year. 

The Japan Mail : A weekly cpiarto of 
.S2 pages, published at Yokohama, Japan. 
.$12.00 a year. A. Wind, 130 Nassau 
street, N. Y., agent. This journal is 
crowded with interesting matter in relation 
to Japan and other parts of the world, in- 
chuling commercial, domestic, social, agri- 
cultural, economical, political and scientific 
affairs. We have the 6th number of the 
r)th volume before us, and we are surprised 
that such a journal can be sustained so soon 
after the opening of Japan to the world. 

PAPERS received. 

'I'lic Beloit Free Press — Germantown 
Tetc(jrapli — Southern Homestead — Os- 
borne Weekly Times. — The number before 
us is 7 of the 2nd volume, and is edited and 



1^2 



THE LAJ\^CASTER FABATER. 



published by our former near neighbor John 
A. Boring, in a partnership connection with 
J. II. Bowers. Only three years ago INIr. 
Boring joined the "Kansas colony," of this 
city, and was one of the original founders of 
Osborne city and county in Kansas ; carry- 
ing with them the characteristics of "young 
Amcrsca," and " bound to shine." The 
" Times " is a folio of the ordinary size, well 
filled with local matter, interesting to the 
colony and to emigrants. $2.00 a year in 
advance. 

Industrial Btdletin — Patenfr/ijht Ga- 
zette — Sanitarian — Monthly Report of 
Dept. Ag., for April and May — Practical 
Farmer — Journal of the Farm —National 
Live Stock Journal —Laws of Life — 
Wood's Household 3Iagazine -and last, not 
least, the Gardener's Monthly, which is be- 
coming a venerable, reliable and constant 
stand-by, and upon whose testimony, in the 
horticultural and floral worlds, we may as 
safely depend as we can upon the best 
thoughts that usually emanate from frail 
humanity — modest but firm — truthful with- 
out imperiousness. 

In our last issue of the Farmer, in our 
notice of the New York Independent, we by 
mistake gave the annual subscription of the 
paper as $J.50. It should have read $3.00. 



PHILADELPHIA PRODUCE MAR- 
KET. 

Philadelphia. May 12. 

There is nothing doing in cloverseed. The 
last sales of timothy were at $2.7,5y per bus. 
The market continues bare of flaxseed, and 
it is wanted at $'2 37^ per bushel. 

The flour market is dull, there being no 
inquiry except from the home consumers, 
and prices are hardly maintained. Only a 
few hundred barrels changed hands, includ- 
v^& superfine at ,$4.87|((fi5.50; extras at .f 6 
(^'6. .50; spring wheat extra family at $7@ 
7. .50; Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indiana do. 
do. at ,97.50@8.J!.5, and fancv brands at 
.$y.37^@ 10.25 Rye flour sclls''at $4.75@5. 
Cornmeal is steady at $4.25 for Pennsylva- 
nia. 

There is not much demand for wheat. 
Sales of 1,000 bushels Pennsylvania amber 
at .$1.74; white at $1.8!!@1.9 ), and No. 2 
spring at $1.62. Rye is held at 90c. @$1. 
Corn is quiet. Sales of 32,000 bushels yel- 
low at 85@86c. Oats are steady at 64@ 
G5c. for white and 63c. for mixed. 



NEW YORK PRODUCE MARKET. 

New York,. May 11. 

Flour — The flour market opened with a 
more general demand and a steadier feeling 
in the low grades and in Minnesota bands; 
these and good No. 2 and sujierfine are more 
active The light arrivals exert a favorable 
influence. At the close the market is more , 
active, hut prices are without improvement. 
vSales. 11,000 barrels. Sour per barrel, .$3.25 
(?<)5.50; No. 2 at $4.'25@4.95; superfine a.t 
$.5.40@5.95; State extra brands .$6.10Cfl} 
6.45; State fancy do., $6.60@7.20; western 
shipping extra, $6.00(rt 6.55 ; do. superlative 
extras, $7.75@ 1^.00. 

(jRAix — The wheat market opened lower 
under more liberal art'ivals. and buyers held 
off, contending for a further abatement. 
The market for wheat closes lower and un- 
settled, the demand chiefly for spring for 
Great Britain, and for winter for the (Conti- 
nent. Local millers are buying sparingly of 
spring chiefly. The sales are 70,000 Inislicls, 
at .$1.55 for No. 1 C-hieairo spring; .$1.48(''7) 
1.50 for No. 2 do. $1.63(a'1.64 for red west- 
ern. 

Barley is heavy and quiet. 

Oats more plenty, and are didl and heavy. 
The sales are 36,000 bushels; new Ohio 
mixed at 64|^@65c. ; white at 65|@66c. 

PHILADELPHIA CaTTLE MARKET. 

Monday, May 11. 

Beef Cattle — There was no demand of 
moment to-day for any description of stock, 
but the tone of the market generally was 
steady, and prices were without quotable 
change. Sales of fair and choice at 6@73C. ; 
extra at 7|c. , and common at 5@5'Jc. Re- 
ceipts, 2,200 head 

Sheep ruled high, but the demand was 
less active. »Sales of wooled at 5J@95C., 
and clipped at 5|((7:8c. 

Lambs were dull at 6Cr^7c. for good, and 
$2.50(rt)3.50 for common. Receipts, 8,000 
head. 

Hogs were rather quiet but the markpt 
was firm. Sales of corn-fed at $8.75(a9. 
Receipts, 6,000 head. 

CHICAGO CATTLE MARKET. 

! Chicago, May 11. 

Cattle very quiet, with a tendency to 
lower prices. Fair light steers. $5(r?5.35; 
choice, $5.4.5(7/6; extra, $6.10@6.25. Re- 
ceipts, 5,000; shipments, 2,200. 

Hogs dull for all but choice grades. Re- 
ceipts, 14,000, with some 10,000 left over 
from last week. Sales of poor to medium at 
.$4.50@5.35; good to choice, $5.4!@5.15; 
few extra at $6; shipments, 8,500. 

Sheep quiet and nominal at $6@8.*0 for 
fair to extra. Receipts, 250. 



DEVOTED TO 

AGRICULTURE, HORTICULTURE, DOMESTIC ECONOMY & MISCELLANY. 

EDITED BY S. S. RATH VON & J. B. DEVELIN. 
" The Farmer is the founder of civilization^" — WEBSTER. 



Vol. VI. 



JUNE, 1874. 



No. 6. 



AGRICULTURAL^ 



THE PROGRESS AND INFLUENCE 
OF RURAL puRsurrs. 



BY MARSHALL P. WILDER, 
rit'sidoii of the Anu-yuan Fomoiogiial Soiicfy. 



ONE of the most gratifying evi- 
dences of progress and refine- 
ment, is the general love and apprecia- 
tion of fruits and flowcri. 1'hese have 
been too oftei> considered as the mere 
superfluities of life ; but the more we 
aie brought into communion with them, 
the more shall we realize those pure and 
refined sensations which inspire the soul 
with love and devotion to Ilim who 
clothes the fields with a radiance to 
which Solomon in all his glory could 
only aspire. 

The cultivation of the garden, the or- 
namental planting of our grounds, and 
tlie general use of flowers, afford strik- 
ing proof of the high state of civiliza- 
tion which marks the progress of the 
present age. Within our own recollec- 
tion the use of flowers at funerals was 
deemed improper, nor was their appear- 
ance in the sanctuary greeted with 
l)!easure. They were thought to be in- 
consistent with the proprieties of di- 
vine worship, as diverting the mind 
and detracting from the solemnity of 
the occasion. God was not seen in 
flowers, in the rose, nor the lily 'of 
the valley. From the lovely forms and 
various hues of flowers, the glories and 



joys of the garden, the royal psalmist 
has derived some of the highest types of 
inspiration. AVe cannot, therefore, too 
higlily or too gratefully appreciate that 
(.livine wisdom and benevolence which 
has surrounded us with these manifesta- 
tions of His perfection and glory, these 
beautiful creations— 

"Mingled and made by love, to one great end." 

Some of the most touching and beau- 
tiful, some of the most sacred and 
sublime, inspirations of Scripture, have 
been drawn from scenes in the garden. 
Nor has the imagination of the poet, 
philosopher or psalmist, ever conceived 
of any spot more chastening, more re- 
fining or more hallowed in its influ- 
ence — 

" Tliougli in heaven the trees 
Of life, ambrosial fruitage bear, and vines 
Yield nectar ; thougli from off the boughs, each 

morn 
We brush mellifluous dews; yet Clod hnth here 
Varied His bounty so with new delights, 
As may compare with heaven." 

In no department of cultivation is 
improvement of taste to be more dis- 
tinctly seen than in the decoration of 
our grounds and the universal love of 
trees and plants. INLiny of your read- 
ers can remember the time when there 
were but few green-houses in our coim- 
try. Now, conservatories and other 
plant structures are to be seen in almost 
all our populous towns and villages; ami 
so much has the taste and demand for 
plants and flowers increased, that many 
are devoted to the special culture of the 
rose, the violet, or some other plant. 



124 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



Nor is this taste confined to the rich or 
middling class. Now, almost every 
dwelling has its grape-vine or fruit-tree, 
its woodbine, scarlet-runner or morn- 
ing-glory. Even window-gardening 
has become a science, and few are so 
poor that their homes may not be lit 
up with the cheering influence of plant 
or flower, and their windows become 
more hallowed by the sweet influences 
of nature's bloom, than by the gaudy 
pageant-pane which perpetuates the 
name of a saint — perhaps a sinner, too. 
Mv heart has often been touched with 
tenderness and sympathy when I have 
seen the poor laborer, after a hard day's 
work, carrying under his arm a rose or 
geranium, to cheer and solace the wife 
and weans at honie. These are the 
outer manifestations of the desires of 
the soul for that fairer and better clime 
where flowers shall never fade — the se- 
cret yearnings for that paradise beyond 
the skies which shall never be lost 
again. 

Flowers are the embodiment of 
beauty ; flowers are like angel spirits 
ministering to the finest sensibilities of 
our nature, often inspiring us with 
thoughts, which, like the unexpressed 
prayer, lie too deep for utterance. God 
speaks by flowers and plants and trees, 
as well as by the lips of his prophets 
and priests. So felt Bacon, who de- 
sired always to have flowers before him 
when exploring the mysteries of that di- 
vine philosophy which has made his 
name immortal. Flowers have a lan- 
guage, and like the starry firmament 
above, proclaim His handiwork and 
glory. God has imprinted a language 
on every leaf that flutters in the breeze, 
on every flower that unfolds its virgin 
bosom to the sun, teaching us the great 
lesson of His wisdom, perfection and 
glory. How beautifully does the Eng- 
lish bard express this sentiment : 
" Your voiceless lips, O flowers, are living 
preachers ; 

Each cup a pulpit, and each leaf a book." 

Who would not listen to their teach- 
ings ! who would not live with them for- 
ever ! How intimately do they enter 
into our joys and afi"ectfons ! With 
what tenderness does Milton describe 
the sorrow of our mother Eve when bid- 



ding farewell to her flowers in Eden : 

" O flowers 
That never will in other climate grow, 
My early visitation and my last 
At even, which I bred up with tender hand 
From the first opening bud, and gave ye names; 
Who now shall rear ye to the sun, and rank 
Your tribes, and water from the ambrosial 
fount ?'' 

The refining and chastening influence 
of woman, which so signally character- 
izes the progress of civilization, is es- 
pecially to be seen in her love for the 
cultivation of fruits and flowers, and the 
adornment of "sweet home." ' It is 
but a few years since woman was per- 
mitted to grace the festive board of our 
agricultural and horticultural exhi- 
bitions. Now, no occasion of this kind 
is deemed complete without her pres- 
ence. Formerly our tables were' sur- 
rounded only with the stalks of human- 
ity; now, they are adorned with the 
flowers of female loveliness, not "born 
to blush unseen." Nor is this all ; she 
is now among our most successful culti- 
vators, training with tenderness and 
care plants as delicate as her own per- 
son. Welcome, woman, then, we say, 
to these festal occasions, to the grounds 
we cultivate, to our go'i-dens and green- 
houses, to all the beaut)es of nature and 
pleasures of aft, and to a parvadise re- 
gained on earth. 

Another strong evidence of the pro- 
gress of refined taste and culture is seen 
in the establishment of our cemeteries,- 
and the improvement of our burying 
grounds. These once neglected and 
gloomy resting-places of the dead, cast- 
ing terror and horror on the minds of 
children and youth, are fast giving way 
to the shady retreats and sylvan scenes 
of the wood and forest. Where, form 
erly, decaying grass, tangled weeds and 
moss-covered tablets were generally to 
be seen, now may be witnessed beauti- 
ful natural scenery and embellished lots, 
which awaken sensations that no lan- 
guage can describe, where the meander- 
ing path leads to the spot in Avhich rests 
the remains of the loved and the lost of 
earth — where the rustling pine mourn- 
fully sighs in the passing breeze, the 
willow weeps in responsive grief, and 
the evergreen cypress, breathing in 
perennial life, is a fit emblem of those 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



125 



celestial fields where the leaf shall never 
wither, the flower never fade and fru- 
ition never end. 

I know of no better temporal acqui- 
sition than a happy, rural home — a 
home where you may sit amid the fruit- 
ing of your trees and the blooming of 
your plants — a home embellished by 
your own taste, and endeared by pleas 
ures shared with the loved ones of your 
family — a happy country home, where 
you may find enjoyment, not in hungry 
greed for gold, not in the conflicts for 
political distinction, not in the strife 
for place, power or renown. For more 
than fifty years I have trod the crowd- 
ed marts of trade and commerce ; I 
have shared in the privileges and per- 
plexities of public service, and I have 
enjoyed the soul-reviving sympathy of 
family and friends, but I have never for- 
gotten my first love for rural life. 
Whenever I could rescue a little time 
from the cares of business — whether at 
rosy morn, golden noon or declining 
day — I have fled to the garden and 
greenhouse, to my favorite trees and 
plants, that I might commune and co- 
operate with nature in her laboratory of 
wonder-working power. This is my 
idea of a happy, rural home ; and this 
is my idea of a happy man — he who is 
contented with fruits and flowers reared 
by his own care, with congenial friends 
and a good conscience toward God and 
his fellow men. And it has ever ap- 
peared to me that contentment and hap- 
piness were easily to be acquired by all 
who really love the cultivation of these 
lovely objects. And let me add, that I 
know of no more grateful, and, I was 
about to say, devotional feelings, than 
those which we enjoy at the close of a 
quiet Sabbath Summer day, when, with 
wife and children, we stroll along the 
bordered flowery walks, or sit in sweet 
converse under the umbrageous trees your 
hands have planted, just as the declining 
sun is fringing the horizon with rosy 
promise of a fairer to-morrow, and 
parting day is hushing universal nature 
to repose. 

Thk Doylestown Farmers' Club 
thinks of starting a butter and cheese 
factory. 



[The following original essay was 
read before the Horticultural and Agri- 
cultural Society of Lancaster County, 
at the May meeting, by Mr. W. H. H. 
Kinzer, of East Earl, and which, by 
some inadvertence, was omitted in our 
May number of the Farmer ; but as it 
is of such an intrinsic quality that 
cannot be impaired by a little keeping, 
we cheerfully publish it now. — P"d.] 

AGRICULTURE.* 



ITS IMPORTANCE AND PROGKESS. 

" Now sober Industry, illustrious power ! 
Hath raised the peaceful cottage, calm abode 
Of innocence and joy ; now, sweating, guides 
The shining plow-share ; tames the stubborn 

soil; 
Leads the long drain along the unfertile marsh > 
Bids the bleak hill with vernal verdure bloom. 
The haunt of flocks ; and clothes the barren 

heath 
With waving harvests and the golden grain." 

— Bruce. 

Of the three leading pursuits of man- 
kind, agriculture stands first in import- 
ance. Since the days of Adam, when 
his sons became tillers of the soil and 
feeders of flocks in the sunny clime of 
Palestine, all history, sacred and pro- 
fane, points to some of its most noted 
characters as men whose knowledge of 
this branch of industry made them pro- 
minent citizens, and whose best ener- 
gies were spent to make it successful. 

Agriculture is the basis of nearly all 
other pursuits, for it furnishes the food 
and much of the clothing for the human 
race, and, without it, our manufactures 
could not flourish, neither could we have 
any commerce. And although each 
pursuit stands like pillars of progress, 
agriculture, the largest pillar and most 
central, is the basis and promoter of 
the others. 

Agriculture has not only been one of 
the earliest employments of mankind, 
but it has also been a means of civiliza- 
tion in all ages of the world. 

The roving tribes of the desert, with 
all their demoralization, are shown in 
broad contrast with the settled popula- 
tion of the adjacent countries, barba- 
rism depends on and encourages a life 

'An Essay read before the Agricultural ami Horticul- 
tural Societv of Lancaster county, by W. H. H. Kinzer, 
of East Earl. 



126 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



of indolence and immorality, while civ- 
lization requires a settled, peaceful, 
ober life of industry and frugality, of 
economy and morality. 

History points with pride to the most 
renowned nations of antiquity. The 
relics of their great achievements still 
remain to show us their advanced civili- 
zation ; and wherever we find morality, 
refinement, and other virtues of civili- 
zation most prominent, there agricul- 
ture is one of the chief employments, 
and it is this that gives permanency to 
nations. Witness ancient Egypt, with 
her twenty thousand cities, her light- 
house of Pharos, her temples, obelisks, 
and statues ! Egypt, the granary of 
Rome — the seat of learning and refine- 
ment for Greece — the home of ancient 
civilization ! Instructor of Moses and 
Euclid! Magnificent in ruins! Yet 
with all her renown, to this glory she 
never could have attained but for the 
fertility of her soil and the science and 
art of its cultivation. Greece and Rome 
could flourish in arms and eloquence, 
drawing their supplies from their well- 
tilled Valley of the Nile, but it was not 
until the agriculture of the Egyptians 
was taught to the Romans, and by them 
introduced into Greece, that flourishing 
cities were founded among tribes once 
fierce and barbarous. And it was only 
after this era — the introduction of agri- 
culture into Greece, (after the. Roman 
conquest, when the spirit of conquest 
was changed to the spirit of progress) — 
that her fame in arts and eloquence 
shone brightest, and the great Romans, 
and all vv'ho aspired to learning, came to 
study in her schools, and drink of her 
fountains of wisdom. 

Thus, in the gradual development of 
all nations, from barbarism to civiliza- 
tion, wherever science and the arts 
took an advance and became lead- 
ing features in their history, there do 
we find agriculture take its conspicuous 
place, and engage the minds of the 
most noble and progressive men of the 
time. It was Cincinnatus who was 
called from the plow to lead the army 
and restore peace and tranquillity to 
Rome. And in our own time, Wash- 
ington, the modern Cincinnatus, who, 
after liberating the country, preferred 



the retirement to agricultural pleasures 
at Mount Vernon to reigning in a capi- 
tal. " The strength of a nation depends 
on its agriculture, and by it its inde- 
pendence is secured," were the words of 
one of our wisest men; and Daniel 
Webster, the farmer of Marsh field, the 
Cicero of our times, has truly said : 
" ^Vhatever else may be undervalued or 
overlooked, let us never forget that the 
cultivation of the earth is the most im- 
portant labor of man. Man may be 
civilized in some degree, without great 
progress in manufactures, and with lit- 
tle commerce with his distant neigh- 
bors, but without the cultivation of the 
earth, he is in all countries a savage ; 
until he stops from the chase and fixes 
himself in some place, and seeks a liv- 
ing from the earth, he is a roaming bar- 
barian. Wlien tillage begins, all other 
arts follow. The farmers, therefore, 
are the founders of human civilization." 

And wherever we find agriculture be- 
coming a leading feature of a nation's 
greatness, there do we also find peace 
and happiness, enlightenment and pro- 
gress. There do we find soul and body 
fully developed, and industry and moral- 
ity mark every step of progression. 

A feeling of freedom of thought and 
action prevails — not as among the rov- 
ing tribes of early history and the war- 
like nations of a barbarous age — but 
hands taught to skilled labor, minds 
filled with enlightenment and hearts beat- 
ing in sympathy and love for all human- 
ity. And, instead of the youth and 
strength of the nation being trained for 
the sacrifices of war, they are taught 
mechanical science and useful arts, to- 
gether with the importance and nobility 
of labor. The treasure that was 
squandered in walled cities and aggres- 
sive wars in past times, must now be 
contributed to develop the agricultural 
and mineral resources of the country, 
and in improving the minds and morals 
of its citizens ; thus laying a broader 
foundation for the peace of nations and 
the universal freedom of mankind. 

Surely the good time prophesied of 
old, has come at last, "and it is our privi- 
lege to live in tlie golden era of civili- 
zation, "For we live in a country of 
small fiirrns and freehold tenements ; 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



127 



in a country in which men cuhivate 
with their own hands their own fee- 
simple acres, drawing not only their 
subsistence, but also their spirit of in- 
dependence and manly freedom from 
the ground they plow. They are at 
once its owners, its cultivators, and its 
defenders." 

The foundation of the American na- 
tion is its agriculture; and our progress is 
no less in this branch than in any other 
industry tWat makes us known and re- 
spected by all Jhe world. It was the 
proud boast of a citizen of the city set 
on seven hills, the once empress of the 
world, to say : "lam a Roman citi- 
zen." But it is a prouder honor to-day, 
after Rome has been covered with the 
dust of barbarism and the ruin of cen- 
turies — it is a prouder boast arid a 
higher honor to be an American citi- 
zen. For the name and fame of her 
heroes, her arts and sciences, and her 
discoveries and inventions, the result of 
her advanced civilization, have illu- 
minated the world, and spread to all 
nations, proclaiming " peace on earth, 
good will toward men." And even now, 
in the once regal city of the Ccesars, 
where their eagle ensign bade defiance to 
all the world centuries ago, in our own 
time a citizen of our county proclaims, 
like Paul of old, the gospel ot a higher 
civilization with a grander eloquence 
than the tongue of Cicero in the ancient 
city. 

We live in propitious times, and every 
step of our march is marked with pro- 
gress. The heroic or warrior age has 
passed away, we hope, forever. We 
h.ive jirogressed far enough in civiliza- 
tion to part with this relic of barbar- 
ism, and in the bright dawning future 
we believe the warrior's wreath shall 
wane, and all the gorgeous and glitter- 
ing paraphernalia of war must yield to 
tlie more ennobling and endurhig arts of 
j)eace. Since the arbitration at Geneva, 
resulting in the treaty of Washington, 
we have the full assurance that the good I 
time is coming when our swords shall | 
be beaten into plow-shares, and our! 
spears into pruning hooks; and while 
nations repose in peace, and progress inj 
manufactures, agriculture and com- 
merce, their representatives, in coun-| 



cil assembled, will deliberately, by a just 
arbitration, amicably settle the difficul- 
ties, misunderstandings and misdeeds 
of nations — making restitution for dam- 
ages incurred, redress for grievances, 
and amends for wounded honor ; thus 
avoiding the horrors of war. 

Rude tribes and barbarous nations 
have nothing of the achievements of 
years to lose; but we can never afford to 
have our fine farms laid waste, our im- 
provements destroyed, our fields left un- 
cultivated, cities burned, and our rapid 
advancement in civilization checked by 
the scourge of humanity. 

Who strike? us thus, strikes all man- 
kind. Surely, we are in a transition 
state from the dark night of barbarism 
to the brilliant noon-day of a dazzling 
civilization ; and the scale of honor be- 
ing thus changed, the wish of an an- 
cient emperor, that his people had but 
one neck, so that he might sever it with 
a single blow of his sword, or the boast 
of Atilla that the grass never grew where 
the hoof of his war-horse trod, will be 
regarded as but sounding brass and tink- 
ling cymbal, emanating from maddening 
fiends from hell sent forth to destroy 
mankind. 

Our aim is not to destroy, but to de- 
velop our nationality and our resources ; 
and in this nation the silent worker in 
the laboratory, the mechanical genius 
in the workshop, or the agriculturist 
who makes two blades of grass grow 
where but one grew before, will have a 
greater glory and a nobler triumph than 
any characters who have written the 
pages of the world's history in human 
blood, and millions yet unborn will 
rise up and call them good. Since we 
have fully based our national develop 
ment on the fundamental principles of 
agriculture, let us ])ause here and mark 
our progress in this noble branch of 
industry. 

Our forefathers sought this land to 
escape tyranny and oppression, and to 
pursue a life of agriculture and its 
attendant blessings. But it was not 
until they became masters of their own 
government that the progress of this 
country was secured. Tiie land must 
first be free before the birth of ideas 
have full sway, for they are the result of 



128 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



both freedom and progress. And now 
mark our advancement during the past 
century, and more particuLirly during 
the last fifty years; for, without progress 
in agriculture, I hold no other of lasting 
importance can be made. Was there 
ever such a marvelous revolution, since 
the revival of learning in the eleventh 
century, in the minds of men ? Did the 
mighty wheels of time in its march ever 
mark such progress in any nation since 
the world began ? Did mechanical in- 
vention, arts and science and discovery, 
ever lend such a helping hand to agri- 
culture, and did the earth ever return a 
richer reward to the laborer ? 

The whole face of the country has 
changed as if by magic. The time was 
when our agricultural products could be 
hauled on wagons to our chief cities; 
and in the minds of many living to-day, 
the building of the great turnpikes west- 
ward from the seaboard cities, and after- 
wards the trains of Conestoga teams and 
stages that filed through our valleys, are 
distinctly remembered. It seemed as 
if our agricultural sphere began at Phil- 
adelphia and ended at Pittsburg. Our 
valleys and hills were, to a great extent, 
primitive forests, with occasional traces 
of progress. The scythe and the sickle 
were implements sufiicicnt to cut the 
grass and grain, and the surplus corn 
was of little value, except as it was 
needed in the manufacture of whisky. 
But, eventually, the industry and perse- 
verance of the settlers of the land of 
Penn has caused this primitive forest to 
bloom as the rose. 

One of our citizens, a native of Lan- 
caster county, a farmer's son — Robert 
Fulton — startled the world by his ap 
plication of steam to the propelling of 
engine machinery, and ere long the 
whistle of the locomotive was heard, 
and the iron band bound our State and 
conveyed the products of our fertile 
valleys to the leading markets. Science 
lent her hand to agriculture and gave it 
a new impetus, and the course of the 
empire took up its march westward. 

But for the i)oor farmer west of the 
Alleghenies, before the buildings of the 
turnpikes, railroads and canals, there 
was no encouragement. The beautiful 
valley of the Scioto, in Ohio, was 



perfect el Dorado of agricultural 
wealth. It was a natural region for the 
cultivation of Indian corn. But there 
were no markets and no roads to get 
their abundant yield away. The corn 
raised, whether in solid grain or liquid, 
(whisky) was not worth more than six 
to ten cents per bushel. It was at this 
juncture in 1805, that George Renick 
turned out the first fifty cattle ever fed 
in the Scioto or Mississippi valleys, to 
drive them on an unknown road to an 
untried market in Baltimore. 

As they passed along, one of his best 
friends remarked, "There goes poor 
George's forlorn hope." And although 
difficulties met every step of his progress 
at first, like a famous general, "he 
came, he saw, he conquered." The 
"forlorn hope" was the pioneer band 
to millions of fat cattle- that have since 
gone to the eastern cities, many to be 
shipped from their ports to the distant 
isles of the ocean. 

This pioneer farmer, about thirty 
years after he had demonstrated to the 
people of the West how to get their 
stock and corn to market, and sustain 
the manufacturing population of cities, 
besides stimulating emigration west- 
ward, also showed upon good evidence 
that he had produced 154^^ bushels of 
corn per acre on the very ground on 
which more than a score of years be- 
fore he had fed his "forlorn hope." 
This same patriarch was the first mover 
in importing pure bred Durham cattle 
into Ohio, from England, and scarce a 
drove of cattle crosses the Susquehanna 
fo-day from east of the Mississippi, but 
shows traces of this man's energy. 

Mechanical science, arts and inven- 
tion, are doing more for the advance- 
ment of the farming interest in this 
country than all other agencies, so far 
as results are attained. When in 1845, 
C. H. McCormick was granted a pat- 
ent for his reaper, a new era began to 
dawn upon our weary farmers. Truly, 
"the harvest was plenteous, but the la- 
borers were few," in more than one 
sense. From time immemorial the sickle 
was the emblem of harvest time; and 
in your sheds among the relics you may 
yet find this ancient implement — old as 
the times of Abraham. The more mod- 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



129 



em grain-cradle was a great advance, 
but when the immortal mindof McCor- 
mick showed to the world the success 
of his American invention, startling all 
Europe with wonder at the World's 
Fair in London, the agricultural world 
to the farmer had made a wide stride 
of progress. Though imperfect in con- 
struction, it had the practical princii)le 
embodied which was sure to be success- 
ful. It remained for the invalid Atkins 
t(^add asclf-raking attachment, and for 
others to perfect the rake and combine 
the reaper and mower ; and now note 
how the genius of America was devel- 
oped, and machine after machine was 
built, and patent after patent issued, 
until the rough model of years ago has 
become almost perfect. 

And now, ye farmers of 1840, where 
are your sickles, and scythes and cradles 
to-day ? Alas ! they hang like Jewish 
harps, upon the willows by the rivers of 
Babylon, and the laborers once skilled 
in their use find themselves, like Othel- 
lo, with "their occupation gone." Yet 
it seems indispensable to our prosperity 
to do without the machinery with which 
American ingenuity has endowed us 
(luring the past thirty or forty years. 

Civilization would not have spread 
over so vast an area as it has, would 
farmers now be required to resort to the 
tedious methods and simple machinery 
of the past. 

The farmer's mind is taxed more now, 
but his muscles less, than years ago, 
and thus he is enabled to keep up with 
the times in practical education and 
wisdom. 

Even the tedious process of threshing 
grain has been wonderfully changed in 
our own recollection — from the tread- 
ing and flail to the thresher, and finally 
culminating in the combined thresher 
and separator, propelled by steam pow- 
er, which perfects the process ; and this 
science applied to agriculture makes the 
coal of our mountains perform the la 
bor of man and beast with great rapid- 
ity, both in preparing our products for 
market and in conveying them to their 
destination. Who would not envy a 
farmer's life, when the elements are 
taught to labor for him, and the brutes 
are trained to do the drudgery ? As an 



agricultural and progressive people, we 
stand unrivaled on earth. Even now a 
colony of 40,000 souls — farmers and 
graziers — are preparing to locate on our 
unsettled lands, coming from the rich- 
est soil of southern Russia, with the ac- 
cumulation of wealth gained by years of 
honest toil, and rich in wisdom and ex- 
perience in their vocations, as well as 
the principles of morality and obedience 
to law. What will be Russia's loss will 
be of immense gain to our country. 
Our history has its heroes in peace as 
well as war, and a grateful people 
will ever hold them in sacred remem- 
brance. The names of AV'ashington, of 
Harrison, of Clay and Webster, are in- 
separably associated with our country's 
history. 

And together with these, tlie names 
ofRenickand Fulton, of Mapes and 
Buel, and a host of other practical men, 
will be associated with the great and the 
good, for the aid and encouragement 
they gave to the farmers of America. 
There is for the farmers a good time at 
hand, undoubtedly. They, are as a 
class, awakening from the long dreary 
sleep of years, to a sense of their cajja- 
bilities, their rigiits, and their proper 
position among men. The advantages 
of a practical education are being ap- 
preciated, and experience and science 
go hand in hand. 

The soil is improved, exhausted lands 
are supplied with the required food, 
better modes of farming are sought out 
and new discoveries are continually be- 
ing made. 

To the young men of the present age 
who have chosen agriculture as their vo- 
cation, there are encouragements ahead, 
such as our fathers never knew. Edu- 
cation is indispensable; and this, linked 
wi-th the wisdom of experience, heralds 
the dawn of a brighter day upon the 
human mind. The time is coming 
when the farmer's lot will be 

"An elegant sufficiency, content, 
Retirement, rural quiet, friendship, books, 
Ease and alternate labor, useful life, 
Progressive virtue and approving Heaven." 

All this tendency of knowledge to the 
useful, this turning of the genius of in- 
vention and discovery to advance the 
interests of the agriculturist, tends to 



130 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



elevate his calling and make it the most 
noble vocation of mankind. 

As our advantages become great, so do 
our responsibilities; and it becomes us 
to encourage protection to our interests, 
and to diffuse knowledge amongst us. 
The Grange movement has protected 
the farmers of the west from the en- 
croachment of monopolies, and liber- 
ated them from excessive freights and 
tariffs. 

The time is fast approaching, and in 
some States is here now, when the 
farmer's interests will be represented in 
our halls of legislation by men coming 
up directly from our own ranks, and 
trained by the wisdom of experience 
and practical knowledge to represent 
their constituents, as well as other 
branches of industry. 

Though the voice of a Stevens no 
longer holds the Congressional halls in 
reverence, yet the people of our own 
fair county has caused his mantle to fall 
on one who has the firmness to assert 
that " what is morally wrong can never 
be politically right." 

Young men, to the front ! Agricul- 
turists know your strength, and the 
victory is yours ! Stand by your colors 
of progress, industry, and economy, and 
let it be known in 1876, when the great 
Centennial Exhibition takes place, that 
the garden county of the State of I'enn- 
s}lvania still holds its prestige, and that 
nowhere in this land is there to be found 
a parallel to our county for reverence 
for the great dead that repose under her 
fertile soil — for loyalty to the flag — for 
well-tilled and improved farms, and 
honest, industrious and moral people. 
L.et us ever remember that — 
Where'er the farmer dwelleth, 'ncath ihalch or 

Icnlly dome, 
There jieace ami joy and beauty will ever find a 

home. 
Then let us crown with honor the hardy sons of 

toil; 
May heaven bless with plenty the tillers of the soil_ 



>, 



ENTOMOLOGICAL. 



^ 



COLORADO POTATO BEETLE. 



We regret to say that this potato pest 
has, during the last month, been 
developed in greatly increased numbers. 



in various localities in this county, and 
if the utmost vigilance is not exercised, 
it may be our sad duty to record its per- 
manent domiciliation among us. We 
have received the beetles and the eggs 
from Lancaster city, Millersville, Mari- 
etta and vicinity, Rapho township, and 
other localities, and we hear of its pres- 
ence in places from which we have not 
received specimens. 

At Marietta people are beginning to 
inquire for, and apply, Paris Green, a 
poison hostile to this insect, but, as a 
general thing, it seems to be regarded 
with a sort of indifference by those who 
ought to be the most interested. In a 
recent conversation with Mr. William 
Roeting, of Elizabethtown, he informed 
us that a neighbor of his had kept h's 
"potato-patch" perfectly clean last 
year, by permitting a flock of geese to 
visit it daily, and they became so fond of 
the " bugs" that it was difficult to keep 
chem out of the enclosure. 

Since writing the foregoing, Mr. J. 
G. Peters called upon us, and reported 
the potato beetle and its larvcc in vast 
numbers at Petersville, on the Cones- 
toga, south of Lancaster city, and he 
came to town to procure "Paris-Green." 
Mr. Peter S. Reist reported that this 
insect had been within two miles of his 
residence already last year — north of 
Lancaster. The rapid spread of this 
insect, and its simultaneous appearance 
in localities remote from each other, is 
almost unaccountable. 

PARIS GREEN. 

This substance is a deadly poison and 
cannot be used pure without injury to 
the plants, and the liability of injury to 
the one who uses it. Therefore, whether 
used as a powder or a liquid solution, 
or decoction, it must be diluted ; to 
one part of the poison there should be 
added twenty parts of the dilutant. The 
most effective, and also the most eco- 
nomical use of it is as a powder, when 
twenty parts of wheat or rye flour, and 
one part of the " Green" must be 
thoroughly mixed and applied at least 
once a day. In the morning, or after 
a shower, when the leaves of the plants 
are damp with dew or rain, is the best 
time to apply it. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



131 



^^ HOW TO USE IT. 

Have made a tin box in the form of a 
common pepper box, but large enough 
to liold about a quart of the poison 
flour. Have a socket affixed to one side 
of it, and into this insert a handle about 
four feet in length. It will then be in 
the form of a common "baby's rattle," 
greatly enlarged. Hold this over the 
plants with the perforated end of the 
box downward, and strike on the han- 
dle with a small mallet or billet of 
wood. This will discharge upon the 
beetles, the larv^ and the plants, as 
much as is necessary to kill them. Care 
should be taken by the operator that he 
does not inhale any of the powder him- 
self; for, although in this dulute state 
it might not prove fatal to man, yet it 
is by no means " healthy." The ope- 
rator should always be to the windward 
of the box when using it. Any man 
who has the " Colorado potato beetle" 
on his premises and neglects to destroy 
them, is responsible for their increase 
and spread throughout the county, and 
in that degree is socially and economic- 
ally, if not morally, culpable. R. 

TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



I. E. K. — The beautiful moth which 
you sent is the Eudryas grata, which, 
in English, means the "beautiful wood- 
nymph." Its larvce attains to about an 
inch and a quarter in length, banded 
with blue and orange, and feeds on the 
grape and other analogous vines, eating 
the entire leaf The moth appears from 
the ist of June to the 15th of July. The 
larva goes into the ground in August 
and September, forms a cavity, but no 
cocoon, and the f>!ipa remains there 
until the advent of the following sum- 
mer. 

R. S., Talbot cotmty, Md.—i:\\^ in- 
sects on your wheat are Aphis ave7ia, 
the same that infested the oats so in- 
juriously in Pennsylvania and Mary- 
land, about ten years ago. When this 
insect is already on the grain, there is 
no artificial remedy for it but burning 
the crop ; if left alone, however, as 
soon as the grain ripens and affords no 
more liquid nourishment, the insects 



will leave of their own accord, and if 

they find no other suitable food, they 
will perish. 



THE PEACH APHIS. 



Much ado has been made this season 
about certain species of black "plant- 
lice," which have infested the peach, 
the plum and the cherry; just as if this 
insect had never appeared in this coun- 
ty, and elsewhere, before the present 
year ; whereas, we have noticed these, 
or allied species, on fruit trees, from our 
very boyhood. We have, however, 
never seen or heard of them being so 
numerous and destructive as they appear 
to have been in the State of Delaware, 
according to newspaper reports, where 
a single nurseryman lost 80,000 budded 
peach scions, that had been set out and 
were growing finely, by the exhausting 
attacks of these insects, which appeared 
in countless millions upon them. It is 
hardly necessary to give a description 
of these insects,' for, although there are 
many species of them, they all have a 
general resemblance to each other^ and 
almost every person knows what a 
plant-louse is. Air-slaked lime-dust, 
powdered "white-helebore," finely pul- 
verized tobacco, whale-oil soap, tobacco 
decoction, properly applied, will de- 
stroy aphids, for they are rather tender 
in their organization. 



POKE ROOT. AS AN INSECTICIDE. 



Dr. F. C. Benner, of Frederick 
county, Md., writes to the Department 
of Agriculture at Washington, D. "C, 
that several years ago he collected some 
poke root (^Phytolacca decandrd) for 
medicinal purposes, and placed it in 
various places about the house, to dry. 
After several days he observed that there 
were many cockroaches lying dead, and 
upon examination, found they had been 
partaking freely of the poke-root. Some 
of the root was placed near their haunts, 
and the result was, that it rid the house 
of those insects. Since then he has 
communicated the remedy to others, 
who have tested it with satisfactory re- 
sults." We give the above from the 



132 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



Monthly Report of the Department of 
Agriculture for what it is worth, recom- 
mending it to our readers as worthy of 
a fair trial at least. Should it prove 
successful, it cannot be too widely ad- 
vertised as a cheap, effective and easily 
accessible remedy, in which every pru- 
dent housewife has a deep interest ; for, 
notwithstanding the many remedies 
which have been tried for the extinc- 
tion of the cockroach, it is still a "fixed 
institution" in the country, and there- 
fore so simple a remedy as poke-root 
would be very acceptable. 



kt iancasto farmm 



LANCASTER, JUNE, 1874. 



H. B, R. — Your two large green bee- 
tles, with dark blue thorax, and margined 
with coppery red, are specimens of Calo- 
soma scrutator. They are types of the car- 
niverous insects, and ought by all means 
to be protected, as they feed exclusively 
on other noxious species, both in their 
larva and adult states. The French 
gardeners sometimes colonize them as 
antidotes to destroyers of vegetation. 



S. S. RATHVON, Editor. 
J. B. DEVELIN, Ass't Editor and Publisher. 

Published monthly under the auspiceB of the Agei- 

CULTURAL, AND HOKTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

^ 1 .00 per Year in Advance. $1.25 if not 
paid in Advance. 

One extra copy to persons sending a club of ten sub- 
scribers, and a copy of our beautiful Steel Engraving 
to every subscriber. 

All communications, to insure insertion, must be iu 
the hands of the editors before the first of each 
mouth. All advertisements, subscriptions and remit- 
tances to the address of the publisher. 

J. B. DEVELIN, Lancaster, Pa. 
No. 43 North Queen-st. 



^ 



GAPES IN CHICKENS. 



IMPORTANT. 



I 



From the Sixth Annual Report on the 
noxious and beneficial insects of the 
State of Missouri, published in 1S74, 
we learn that amongst the new discov- 
eries in the habits of the " Colorado 
Potato Beetle," during the year 1873, 
chiefly is this — that in the absence of 
the potato plant it can readily adapt it- 
self to other plants, even to those that 
do not belong to to the Solanace^. 
• Mr. Henry Oilman, of Detroit, Michi- 
gan, in an article published in the 7th 
volume of the American Naturalist, 
adds the following list, for some of 
which it manifests almost as mach of a 
fondness as for the potato — namely, the 
common Thistle {Cirsiu7)i lanceolatuni); 
Pigweed, ( A?naranthus retroplexus) ; 
Smartweed, ( Fo/igonum hydropiper) ; 
Nightshade, {Solanunt nigruvi) ; Maple- 
leaved Goose-foot, {Chenopodeiivi hybri- 
dntfi); Thoroughwort, {Eupatorium per- 
foiiatuni); Lamb's quarter, (C. albuni) ; 
and Black Henbane, {Hyosciajfius niger), 
the first and last named of which it de- 
voured as voraciously as it does the po- 
tato. Also the common red currant and 
tomato of the garden. 



n a recent conversation with an ex- 
perienced chicken grower, he in- 
formed us that he had been very suc- 
cessful in conquering that precarious 
disease in his young fowls, by the appli- 
cation of air-slaked lime. As soon as a 
manifestation of gapes in his fowls ap- 
pears, he confines his chickens in a box, 
one at a time, sufficiently large to con- 
tain the bird, and places a coarse piece 
of cotton or linen cloth over the top. 
Upon this he places the pulverized lime 
and taps the screen sufficiently to cause 
the lime to fall through. This lime dust 
the fowl inhales and causes it to sneeze, 
and in a short time the cause of the 
gapes is thrown out in the form of a 
slimy mass or masses of worms, which 
had accumulated in the windwipe and 
smaller air vessels. This remedy he 
considers superior to any he has ever 
tried, and he seldom fails to effect a 
perfect cure. 

He has abjured all those mechanical 
means by which it is attempted to dis- 
lodge the Efifozoans with instruments 
made of whalebone, hog's bristles, or 
fine wire, alleging that people are quite 
as certain to push the gape worms farther 
down the throat of the fowls, as to draw 
them out. Ed. 



THE CROPS, &c. 



At the present writing (June 8th) 
everything seems to indicate a good 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



183 



grass, wheat and fruit crop the present 
year. It is yet too early to form an 
opinion of the corn and potatoes, but 
these also, in the last few warm days we 
have had, show a very favorable begin- 
ning. 

On a recent visit to Columbia and 
Marietta, we found everything in the 
vegetable kingdom looking thrifty, the 
fruit well set, and shrubbery profusely 
blooming. At Columbia we met our 
modest friend, Mr. D. L. Resh, who has 
a fine plant nursery and greenhouses on 
the corner Fourth and Chestnut streets; 
where, with his usual urbanity, he is 
ready to attend to the wants of his 
friends and customers in the plant or 
floral line. At Marietta we sojourned 
for the night at my brother Windolph's, 
who divides his time between horticul- 
ture, floriculture and chicken-culture. 
The latter he confines to the large white 
Brahma varieties, of which he has two or 
tiiree families, quite different in their 
dispositions — docile, wild and savage. 
His greenhouse is liberally patronized. 



We thankfully acknowledge the re- 
ceipt of a carefully executed list of the 
Lancaster county post-offiees and their 
several localities, from our genial and 
accomodating friend Marshall, of the 
city post-office. In looking over this 
list of a single county, we are impressed 
with the immensity of the postal depart- 
ment of the country, when compared 
with revolutionary times, or even with 
half a century ago. No wonder people 
grumble that things often go wrong, 
where the duties of a Bureau are so vast 
and complicated, and so many liabili- 
ties to make mistakes. 



MEETING OF THE LANCASTER 

COUNTY AGRICULTURAL AND 

HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



This Society met at the Orphans' 
Court Room on Monday afternoon at 
two o'clock — Mr. Johnson Miller in the 
chair. The minutes of previous meet- 
ing were read, and on motion approved. 
Members present — M. B. Eshleman, S. 
P. Eby, Jacob B. Garber, A. B. Hos- 
teller, Mr. Kendig, Mr. Eshleman, M. 



N. Brubaker, John B. Erb, John Miller, 
John H. Moore, D. L. Resh, E. S. 
Hoover, Dr. P. W. Hiestand, Peter S. 
Reist, D. G. Swartz, M. H. Moore, 
Dr. Elam Hertz, Mr. Frey, and Jonas 
Buckwalter. 

Mr. Jacob B. Garber had nothing 
new to report regarding the wheat crop ; 
the prospects for fruit are very good. 

Mr. A. B. Hostetter reported the 
prospects for grass very good ; peaches, 
apples, and other fruit promised well. 
He remarked that the caterpillar was 
doing some damage to fruit, causing it 
to drop from the trees. 

Mr. Eshleman reported that peaches 
in his section will be scarce, and thinks 
the late rains helped oats and corn very 
much. 

Mr. Erb reported grain looking well, 
some of which is considerably lodged. 
TheTruit crop does not look as promis- 
ing as some time ago. Oats looks well ; 
potatoes and corn look well ; raspber- 
ries and strawberries promise well, but 
fruit is three weeks later than usual. 

Mr. M. D. Kendig read the follow- 
ing paper : Having frequently noticed 
accounts in agricultural papers of the 
amount of butter produced by a cow in 
a certain time, I was led to make the 
experiment for myself — not, however, 
for the purpose of testing her full capa- 
city by excessive stimulus, but what she 
will produce under ordinary treatment, 
such as she generally receives on farms 
in our county, not exclusively set apart 
for dairying. As some cows are great 
milkers for awhile, then slack off and 
become dry a good portion of the time, 
I thought best to continue the experi- 
ment for one year, to get a fair average. 
Trial commenced April ist, 1873. Four 
cows were fed as much hay and fodder 
as they would eat, besides eight quarts 
of corn-meal and eight quarts of wheat- 
bran, mixed, per day, in two feeds, 
during the winter, or twice fed on dry 
food. In the summer they had an allow- 
ance of eight quarts of meal per day, in 
two feeds — morning and evening — with 
plenty of grass brought to them in the 
stable until after harvest, when they 
were turned out to pasture during the 
night, keeping them closely housed in 
day-time, to avoid being pastered by 



134 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



flies. Yield, for four cows, 736 pounds, 
making 184 pounds per cow for one 
year. The cream and milk used in the 
family are not included. The butter 
was sold in the Columbia market at an 
average of twenty-eightcents per pound, 
making the total value of produce per 
cow for one year, ^51.52. 

Mr. J. H. Moore reported grain pro- 
mising. 

Mr. D. L. Resh compared the crops 
of Lancaster county with other sections, 
and said this county is far ahead. 

Mr. Johnson Miller, of Warwick, read 
the following report : The wheat crop 
in our township looks promising — ^just 
coming into head. Some fields were a 
little slimly set last fall, but with the 
favorable weather this spring, will make 
an average crop, while some that were 
sown early (contrary to the result of 
early sowing in former years) looks very 
well, and some may be too rank. I no- 
tice in coming from Litiz to Lancaster 
that some fields already lodge, and, of 
course, such will be failures ; but on the 
whole, it may now be set down as a 
good crop, if not injured by storm or 
hail. Corn is now fairly out, and is 
growing finely ; with, good cultivation 
will now push on very fast. My advice 
would be, don't stop the cultivator if 
the ground is in order, from now on to 
hay-making ; now is the time to make 
your corn crop. Oats are also now 
fairly started, growing nicely since the 
late refreshing showers. Grass is very 
thickly set, and with favorable weather 
from now on to hay-making, it wil make 
the largest crop harvested for years. 
Potatoes are growing nicely, and those 
planted a few weeks ago are as far ad- 
vanced as those planted before the mid- 
dle of April. Fruit trees were never so 
full of blossoms, but upon examination 
and from the reports of other persons, 
we find that nearly all the peaches drop 
off, and only about half the apples re- 
main. However, a full crop will be had 
yet. Cherries we will have in abun- 
dance, and also small fruits. This is 
about the substance of my report made 
to the Department at Washington, this 
morning. 

Mr. Erb wished to know some way of 



preventing the rose-bug from destroy- 
ing the grape blossoms. 

Mr. Resh recommended whale-oil 
soap to destroy rose-bugs. 

Mr. E. S. Hoover read a very inter- 
esting essay. His subject was, " Suc- 
cessful and Progressive Farming," and 
we will publish the essay in full in our 
next issue. 

Mr. S. P. .Eby spoke very highly of 
the essay. 

On motion, a vote of thanks was ten- 
dered to the essayist for his able effort. 

A lively discussion ensued regarding 
cultivating ground, Messrs. E. S. Hoover 
and M. N. Brubaker believing that 
ground well pulverized on the top and 
compact below, retains moisture longest 
in dry seasons, thereby causing a better 
yield. Dr. P. W. Hiestand and J. B. 
Erb thought the deeper the soil was pul- 
verized the better the crops. 

Dr. Hiestand thought farmers should 
cart out their manure as soon as made, 
thereby saving a large amount of waste. 

Mr. Peter S. Reist remarked that any 
one thinking that we are not making 
progress in farming, should travel 
through New York State, and before he 
will see good lands and good crops he 
will be in Lancaster county. 

Dr. P. W. Hiestand exhibited a 
specimen of Colorado potato bug. 

E. S. Hoover reported a new kind of 
poultry disease, and wished some infor- 
mation regarding it. 

Dr. E. Hertz reported having seen 
the same disease among his turkeys, 
and gave the mode of treatment. 

Mr. Frey was, on motion, appointed 
essayist for next meeting. 

On motion, society adjourned. 



For the Lancaster Farmer. 

WESTERN AGRICULTURE AND 
HORTICULTURE. 



I will give you a few notes on West- 
ern Agriculture and Horticulture. Agri- 
culture ought to be progressive, like 
everything else ; but it is somewhat 
doubtful whether a Lancaster county 
man can be much instructed in his 
western or southern travels, because in 
many of the Western States there is 
very little progress in farming, and in 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



m 



the Southern States they are not im- 
proving themselves in the way they 
should. The very first impediment to 
progression all over the west, is want of 
preserving manure, 'it is said that fer- 
tilizers are useless; that the land is 
rich enough as it is. That is a great 
mistake. It is to be ascribed to 
the saving of manure that Lan- 
caster continues to be a wheat and 
corn raising county, as well as hay 
and tobacco. In the Western States 
they burn the straw and pay no atten- 
tion whatever to manure. It is owing 
to this principle that they often cease to 
grow good wheat crops. They do 
well enough as long as they cul- 
tivate or put wheat in virgin soil ; 
but they are continually taking 
from the soil, without returning any 
substance to stimulate and improve 
it, as we do in Pennsylvania. It is said 
that land in the vicinity of Chicago 
needs no manure ; and a farmer twenty 
miles from Chicago has 200 acres of 
land, which was cropped for some time, 
and is seemingly still rich ; but he 
made arrangements with the great stock 
yard company to relieve them of their 
accumulating manure at the cattle pens, 
and transporting it to his prairie fields, 
which increased the crop of prairie hay 
two and three-fold, and is now making a 
fortune in exchanging hay for manure. 
So it would be with other crops by ob- 
serving these facts. I noticed whole 
fields of flax in cultivation in Mills 
county, southwestern Iowa, where some 
Pennsylvanians are located. Two 
brothers named Hake, from Bethlehem, 
and a Mr. Woodring, also formerly 
from Bethlehem, came on the train, 
who informed me that they were raising 
flax for the seed, and raise 12 bush- 
els to the acre, getting $1.75 per 
bushel. They have still thousands of 
bushels of corn, selling at 45 and 50 
cents. I saw cribs 10 feet broad, 12 
feet high, and from 50 to roo feet long. I 
went from Council Bluffs 400 miles down 
the Missouri river by way of Hamburg 
and St. Joseph to Kansas City, where I 
recrossed and went down again on the 
east side to about 75 miles below Lex- 
ington, from whence we went to 
Mexico, Louisiana, on the Mississippi, 



and from Bloomington to Chicago. I 
saw whole fields of hemp on the Mis- 
souri bottom lands. The chief product 
is corn. They commence to plant im- 
mediately after the ist of April and 
plant until the ist of June. You can 
see from 40 to 50 fine fields on one side 
of the railroad 12 inches high, while on 
the other side it is not yet up, or is just 
coming up. They cultivate winter 
wheat throughout the whole valley, all 
smooth chaffed, called May wheat. It 
stood thick on the ground, but was 
very short, yet they had rather dry 
weather. Straw burning is also prac- 
ticed in this valley. If they would adopt 
the Lancaster county mode, I have no 
doubt they could raise a heavy crop of 
wheat. From the Mississippi to Bloom- 
ington, Illinois, they raise both summer 
and winter wheat. Neither is a suc- 
cess. They pay no attention to ma- 
nure. The Osage fence is a perfect suc- 
cess. They have miles and miles of the 
Osage orange fence. Tliey were just in 
their green foliage, appearing in their 
most beautiful form — in square lines, 
crossing and recrossing. The valley 
of the Missouri river bottom lands is 
from 6 to 8 miles broad, and from 50 to 
150 feet lower than the adjacent coun- 
try. The abrupt, rising ground consists 
of sand bluffs, and some of solid lime- 
stone ; and southern locations are par- 
ticularly well adapted to all kinds of 
fruit raising. I think it is the one 
place in the United States that is second 
only to California in the raising of 
all kinds of fruit, except oranges. You 
can see peach-trees 30 years old, with 
their green, healthy foliage loaded with 
peaches. The apricot and all kinds of 
prunes, and* in fact, all stone fruit, 
come to perfection. Grapes grow lux- 
uriously and are very delicious. The 
early Richmond grows as luxuriously as 
our chestnut sprouts. Well, in fact, all 
fruit trees grow twice as fast as in Lan- 
caster county. Farming in the west 
pays better than in Lancaster county, 
because land sells from $10 to $100 an 
acre. Wheat sells at from ^r to $1.25 
a bushel, and corn at 40 to 60 cents a 
bushel. Cattle sell at from 4}^ to5i< 
cents per pound, when fat, and hogs 
from 3^ to 4 cents per pound, live , 



136 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



weight. So' they realize more out of 
their investments than those in the east 
do. They are just now opening trade 
from Kansas and Missouri, to Galveston, 
delivering their grain within 600 miles 
to a port that trades directly with 
Europe, and receiving goods in return, 
thus making the Gulf States more valu- 
able than the Central or Middle States. 
Levi S. Reist. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



MODES OF KILLING ANIMALS. 



DR. Slade, Professor of Veterinary 
Science at Bussey Institute, Har- 
vard College, recently read a paper be- 
fore the Massachusetts Board of Agri- 
culture on the subject, from which we 
extract what follows : Dr. Slade spoke 
on the subject of killing domestic ani- 
mals, both for food and to relieve them 
of the burden of life in case of old age 
or disease. Animals for food are killed 
in several different ways — by striking a 
blow upon "the head that stuns the ani- 
mal, followed by immediate bleeding, 
by driving a sharp needle or thin knife 
through the neck, severing the spinal 
cord, called pithing, by cutting the 
throat as practised by the Jews. Many 
experiments have been made to deter- 
mine the most humane method of tak- 
ing life, and to learn what is death 
when it occurs. 

Severing the head from the body with 
a knife, as by the guillotine, does not 
cause instant death. The body has two 
motions, those which are voluntary, and 
those which are involuntary. Bodily 
motions are not sure indications of pain. 
There may be pain withoiU motion, and 
motion without pain. To constitute 
pain, the brain must be, in connection 
with the body, injured. Piercing the 
nervous center in the neck, just back of 
the head, is supposed to cause instant 
death, but the spot to be aimed at is 
small and liable to be missed except by 
experts. Probably the best method of 
killing it is to strike a stunning blow on 
the head, and then bleed immediately, 
by cutting the arteries and veins con- 
necting the heart with the head. The 
brain in animals is smaller than most 



people suppose, and is situated higher 
up. It is a common mistake to strike 
too low down on the face, causing severe 
pain without killing. It is best to blind- 
fold animals before attempting to strike. 
To find the spot on the head of a horse, 
draw a line across the head through the 
pits above the eyes. A blow, or better, 
a pistol ball, in the center of this line, 
will kill instantly. It is advisable to dig 
the grave for a horse with one end on 
an inclined plane that he may be led in. 
Then, when shot, he will fall to the 
bottom, thus saving much labor in mov- 
ing and placing in position. 

The doctor did not recommend the 
general use of chloroform for killing 
large, strong animals. He believes the 
sensation of suffocation is often more 
cruel than killing by a blow. Cattle 
should also be blindfolded, and the 
blow should fall about one and a half 
inches below the horns, in the centre of 
the head. The tendency is to strike 
too low on the ox as well as the horse. 
The same may be said of the hog. 
This animal should be struck three or 
four inches above the eyes. The line on 
sheep and calves is about one and a 
half inches above the eyes. It is gen- 
erally believed that swine should not be 
stunned before bleeding. The lecturer 
said he thought this a mistaken idea, 
as they would bleed equally as well as 
if bled without first stunning. One of 
the most sickening sounds ever heard on 
the farm is that from the hog during the 
last struggles, and there is no good 
reason why the present custom should 
be continued. 

There is perhaps no better method of 
disposing of kittens than by drowning. 
Dogs may be instantly killed by shoot- 
ing above the ears, at the side of the 
head. 

When dressing poultry, do not cut 
off their heads and throw them down to 
kick and flutter on the ground. It 
does not have a good moral influence 
on the young people of the household. 
Better strike a hard blow on the head, 
and bleed the same as other animals. 
Fishes for food should be killed, and 
not left to die. The food is much 
more wholesome, and keeps longer. 
There is no reason why fish should be 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



1S7 



excepted from the general rule that ani- 
mal food should be bled. It is also very 
inhuman to let fish die by slow degrees, 
out of its natural element. 



BACK-BONE. 



Have the courage to face a difficulty, 
lost it kick you harder than you bar- 
gained for. Difficulties, like thieves, 
ol'ion disappear at a glance. You should 
liave the courage to leave a convivial 
party at the proper hour for doing so, 
however great the sacrifice ; and to stay 
away from one upon the ' slightest 
grounds for objection, however great 
the temptation to go. Have the cour- 
age to do without that which you do 
not need, however much you may ad- 
mire it. Have courage to speak your 
mind when it is necessary to do so, and 
hold your tongue when it is better you 
should be silent. Have the courage to 
speak to a poor friend in a seedy coat, 
even in the street, and when a rich one 
is nigh. The effect is less than many 
people take it to be, and the act is worthy 
of a king. Have the courage to admit 
that you have been in the wrong, and 
you will remove the fact in the minds of 
others, putting a desirable impression in 
llie place of an unfavorable one. Have 
tlie courage to adhere to the first reso- 
lution when you cannot change it for a 
better, and to abandon it at the eleventh 
hour. Have the courage to cut the 
most agreeable acquaintance you pos- 
sess, when he convinces you that he 
lacks principles. "A friend should 
boar with a friend's infirmities" — but 
not his vices. 



NITROGEN IN THE SOIL. 



The conditions necessary for nitrifi- 
cation of arable earth are well known — 
namely, slow combustion of nitroge- 
nous matter, presence of a carbonate, 
and a certain degree of heat and mois- 
ture — but the exact relations which ex- 
ist between these conditions and the 
conversion of the nitrogen of organic 
substances into nitric acid or nitrates, 
are still unknown. 

Mr. H. Schloesing has made a report 
upon some experiments in relation to 



these points. Two series of experiments 

have shown that the combustion of or- 
ganic matter and nitrification are still 
active, even when the earth is saturated 
with water, if any oxygen at all is pres- 
ent. But if all oxygen has disappeared, 
the soil becomes a reducing agent, and 
the reverse takes place ; the nitric acid 
is reduced to ammonia, or the lower ox- 
ides |of nitrogen, or, in extreme cases, 
nitrogen is set free, very little ammonia 
being produced. ^Experiment has proven 
that earth kept in an atmosphere desti- 
tute of oxygen, will give off more nitro- 
gen than that contained in the nitrates, 
part of the ammonia being set free. 

The above experim.entsshow how im- 
portant it is to keep the soil well stirred 
if we expect vigorous vegetation. In 
case the soil becomes solid and all cir- 
culation is stopped, the oxygen will be 
soon consumed, and it then commences 
to lose nitrogen. Most persons regard 
the stirring of the earth as merely an 
incidental occurrence in the operation 
of disposing of the weeds ; or if they 
go any further than that, it is merely 
that the roots may not have such hard 
work to get through the soil, and that 
the rain may penetrate more easily. 

The experiments also serve to explain 
in part, the great benefit which is often 
derived from allowing a field to remain 
fallow during a portion of the year, care 
being taken to keep it stirred and ex- 
posed to the air. — Boston Journal of 
Chemistiy. 



ORIGIN OF THE DOLLAR MARK. 

A writer in the current number of 
the Atlantic Monthly has a curious pa- 
per on the origin of the dollar symbol 
(1). In brief, his theory is, that the 
two parallel upright marks may be 
traced back to the pillars of Hercules, 
and the S-like figure to a scroll entwined 
around them. According to tradition, 
when the Tyrian colony landed on the 
Atlantic coast of Spain, and founded the 
ancient city of Gades, now Cadiz, Mel- 
carthus, the leader of the expedition, 
set up two stone pillars as a memorial, 
over which was built a temple of Her- 
cules. As the temple increased in 
wealth the stone pillars were replaced 



138 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



by others, made of an alloy of gold and 

silver, and these two pillars became in 
time the emblem of the city, as a horse's 
head became that of Carthage centuries 
later. When Charles V.became Emper- 
or of Germany, he adopted a new coat 
of arms, in which the pillars of Gades 
or Cadiz occupied a prominent position 
in the device. Hence, when a new 
coin, the colonnato, was struck at the 
Imperial Mint, it bore the new device, 
two pillars, with a scroll entwined 
around them. This coin became a 
standard of value in tlie Mediterranean, 
and the pillars and scroll became its ac- 
cepted symbol in writing. The two 
horizontal bars which cross the symbol 
of the English pound sterling are also 
thought to have a similar origin. 
»♦- ■ 

Buckwheat bran when fed to cows 
will produce a large quantity of milk, 
but the milk will be as thin as water and 
of a bluish color. Meal of peas, wheat 
and (torn will make the richest milk and 
of a yellow color. Meal of peas and 
wheat bran will make excellent feed. 



REDUCING BONES FOR GAR- 
DENS. 



It is not often that bones can be col- 
lected on the farm in sufficient quantity 
for iield crops, but every man who has 
a garden can make a little excellent ma- 
nure by saving those within his reach. 
It is useless to recommend converting 
them into home-made super-phosphate 
by tising stilphuric acid ; the difficulty 
and trouble of procuring the acid away 
from cities, and the care and experience 
required to use it, are sufficient objec- 
tions. There are, however, two modes 
of reducing the bones, which every 
cardener may easily adopt. One is to 
place them in thin layers in a ferment- 
ing heap of manure, which, if they are 
previously broken, will soften them 
enough to cause crumbling after the 
lapse of weeks, when the heap is worked 
over. Even a common hot-bed will do, 
if the bones are first broken into frag- 
ments. The other mode is to boil them, 
as follows : Mix them in a large kettle 
with wood ashes ; and to make the ashes 
caustic, add about a peck of fresh lime 



to each barrel of bones. Saturate and 
cover the ashes w^ell with water, and 
then apply heat, say for twenty-four 
hours, or during the day for two suc- 
cessive days. All the bones by this time, 
except the very hardest parts, will be so 
reduced as to be easily pulverized, be- 
ing in a pasty condition, suitable for 
placing in layers in making the com- 
post heap. Another day's boiling will 
reduce the remainder of the hard bones. 



AN EXHIBIT OF POULTRY 
PROFITS. 



Mr. Wm. S. Pyle, residing near our 
borough, gives us an exhibit of his 
poultry profits as follows : '* I have 40 
pullets, which were hatched last April 
and May. During the period of 30 days, 
froni Jan. ist, 1874, to Jan. 31st, '74, 
they laid 620 eggs, or 51^ dozen. I 
sold 45 dozen at 30 cents per dozen, 
which aggregated ^13.50. I used for 
cooking purposes 19 eggs, and 52 I have 
now setting under four pullets. Count 
them all at 30 cents per dozen, and the 
income is $15.28. The amount of feed 
consumed by the same fowls during the 
same period was i}'2 bushels of corn at 
65 cents, I bushel of screenings at 60 
cents, j4 bushel of corn meal, and ^ 
bushel of middlings mixed at 75 cents, 
8 lbs. of lard cracklings at 16 cents, ^2 
bushel of ground bone at 12 cents, 
amounting in all to $2.91, which shows 
a clear profit of $12.67. One of the 
ptiUets put to "set" lias a brood now 4 
days old, and the other three will hatch 
within three weeks, leaving now only 
36 of the 40 in laying order. Please re- 
member these pullets are only 8 and 9 
months old, and this is a winter month, 
and yet they have averaged me 40 cents 
clear profit per day since November i. 
When summer comes they will do bet- 
ter, because of their being able to get 
grass and insects, and will require less 
grain. — IVes^ Chester Local News. 

ORIGIN OF DOUBLE GERA- 
NIUMS. 

Jean Sisley, a correspondent of The 
Garden, gives the history of the origin 
of double pelargoniums, which was fur- 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



m 



nished him by M. Henri Lecoq, of Cler- 
mont-Ferrand, France, The first dou- 
ble geranium is growing in M. Lecoq's 
garden, being as far as known an acci- 
dental seedling. Seeds from it, however, 
were sown by a horticulturist of that 
place, and several young double plants 
were produced, one of which was sold 
to M. Van Houtte, of Ghent. In 1863, 
M, luiiile Chate, of Paris, went to Cler- 
mont-Ferrand, and, liking the young 
double pelargoniums, purchased two. 
In June, 1S64, he sent some (lowers of 
one to M. Victor Lemoine, at Nancy, 
who immediately used the pollen of 
these flowers to fertilize Beaute de Su- 
resnes, a pink zonale. From this cross 
was obtained Gloire de Nancy. In 1867, 
by the same process, he obtained IMa- 
dame Lemoine, the first double cherry- 
pink zonale, and Wilhelm Pfitzer, dou- 
ble scarlet ; Marie Lemoine, one of the 
best double bloomers ; Le Vesuve, dou- 
ble red, and Victor Lemoine. Many 
others, sold in England under different 
names, were raised of seed of Victor 
Lemoine. In 1872, Mr. Sisley obtained 
the first white double Aline Sisley, by 
cross-breeding a white single with a 
double red seedling. Several choice 
double geraniums have been grown at 
different places in France, but the ori- 
gin of our best double flowers is given 
above by Mr. Sisley. 



NEW SYSTEM OF FRUIT CUL- 
TURE. 



The Hoorbrenk System of Fruit Cul- 
ture is the name given to a new method 
of training vines so that the yield of 
grapes is greatly increased. This pro- 
cess is described as the simple training 
of the branches of vines, fruit-trees, 
etc., so that their extremities shall rest 
at a lower level than the point where 
they branch from the main trunk. It 
is said to be an essential condition to 
the success of this method that the 
branch, though inclined, shall be 
straight. If it be curved, the buds at 
the top of the arch are mainly devel- 
oped. A recent writer in Zes Mondcs, 
in reviewing this interesting discovery, 
advances tlie opinion that "increased 
vigor of the branch thus treated was 



caused by its being made to assume the 
condition of a syphon, the longer end 
downward, thus producing a greater 
flow of sap." It is announced that this 
new process, the discovery of an ignor- 
ant peasant, has been introduced with 
great profit into many parts of France. 
A method so simple of trial certainly 
deserves attention, and as it relates not 
to vines alone, but also to fruit trees, 
American nurserymen would do well to 
put it to practical test during the coming 
season. Duchesne-Thoureau, who has 
made a special study of this new metlv- 
od, advises that at least one-half the 
buds upon the inclined branches should 
be removed, which will secure a more 
active growth in those that remain, and 
a consequent increase in the quality 
and quantity of the fruit. 



DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 



A WASH consisting of one or two 
drachms of hydrochloric acid, in about 
four ounces of water, has been recom- 
mended as a sure cure in cases of 
chapped hands. 

In making a mustard plaster, use no 
water whatever, but mix the mustard 
with the white of an tgg, and the result 
will be a plaster that will draw perfectly, 
but will not produce a blister even upon 
the skin of an infant, no matter how 
long it is allowed to remain upon the 
part. 

Apples always keep better when pro- 
tected from currents of air, which 
change the temperature often. A uni- 
form temperature is best. Hence they 
do better in barrels headed up than ex- 
posed on shelves or in tight boxes. 

Many entertain the notion that furs 
need to be protected against the moths 
during the hot weather only. This is a 
great mistake. The most effectual 
means to remove the brood, is to beat 
furs also during the winter season. ]^s- 
pecially apply the brush to the folds 
and seams, for the wee moth seeks 
places of safety for its offspring. 

Egg Sauck. — Make a drawn butter, 
chop two hard-boiled eggs quite fine, 



140 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



the white and yelk separately, and stir it 
it into the sauce before serving. This 
is used for boiled fish or vegetables. 

Lemon Sauce. — Make a drawn or 
melted butter sauce, cut a lemon into 
very thin slices, take out the seeds and 
stir the slices into the sauce, give it one 
boil, then serve over boiled fish, fowl 
or meat. 

'V Beef Liver. — Cut the liver in thin 
slices, dip the slice in wheat flour or 
rolled crackers, and fry in hot lard or 
beef dripping ; season with pepper and 
salt. It must be thoroughly cooked and 
a fine brown. 



CODFLSH DRESSING. 



Soak and wash enough codfish for a 
meal ; pick it up into small bits, wash 
and squeeze these pieces till they are 
nearly freshened ; put them on the 
stove in a spider filled with cold water, 
bring the water to aboil, pour the water 
off; if the fish seems fresh enough, add 
milk or cream to cover the fish well; put 
in plenty of butter, some salt and pep- 
per. When the fish is nearly done, pre- 
pare a little thin wheat flour paste 
(either with water or milk and flour), 
and add this paste slowly to the cooking 
fish, stirring it well all the time. 

This is one of the most delicious of 
dressings or gravies for eating on pota- 
toes or bread. Try some, just according 
to this receipt. 

CODFISH TOAST. 

But the most delicious way lo serve 
this dressing, is in the form of codfish 
toast. 

Toast several slices of stale bread ; 
moisten them with hot water; now pour 
the codfish dressing over the toast, and 
serve hot. J. H, G. 



This apparently artificial diet will be 
seen to be natural if we remember that 
wild birds of the gallinaceous species 
get access to very many high-spiced 
berries and buds ; articles that give 
the "game flavor" to their flesh. 

The ordinary food of the domestic 
fowl is not, indeed, entirely without 
some such addition, since there is more 
or less of an aromatic principle in wheat, 
Indian corn, and all other grains. 
Nevertheless, it is not sufficient in quan- 
tity to supply the place of the stronger 
spices, a taste of which is part of the 
fowl's inherited constitution. A mod- 
erate quantity of cayenne, etc., added 
to the ground grain is always product- 
ive of health and thrift in poultry. — T//c 
Poultry World. 



WHY CLOVER IMPROVES THE 
SOIL. 



CONDIMENTS IN BOULTRY 
DIET. 



Cayenne pepper, mustard or ginger, 
can with great benefit be added to the 
food of fowls, to increase their vigor, 
and to stimulate egg production. 



Prof. Tockler thus explains the action 
of clover increasing the fertility of the 
soil : 

''All who are perfectly acquainted 
with the subject must have seen that the 
best crops of wheat are produced by 
being preceded by crops of clover grown 
for seed. I have come to the conclu- 
sion that the very best preparation, the 
best manure, is a good crop of clover. 
A vast amount of mineral manure is 
brought within reach of the corn crop, 
which otherwise would remain in a lock- 
up condition in all the soil. The clover 
plants take nitrogen from the atmos- 
phere, and manufacture it into their 
own substance, which, on decomposi- 
tion of the clover, roots and leaves, pro- 
duces abundance of ammonia. In real- 
ity the growing of clover is equivalent, 
to a great extent, to manuring with 
Peruvian jruano." 



OUR STOCK OF PINE AND ITS 
VAI>UE. 



The general demand for pine lumber 
in all sections of the country, and the 
rapidity with which it is consumed, has 
caused no little interest to centre in all 
questions relating to the supply yet in 
reserve. Some one who has taken an 



TEE LANCASTER FARMER. 



141 



interest in the question, has collected 

statistics i:pon this point, covering the 
entire pine forests of the United States, 
with the following results : 

5j-,ine 1,500,000,000 

Nsw York. 900,000.000 

Pennsylvania 7,000,000,000 

Michigan 50,000,000,000 

Minnesota 18,000,000,000 

Wisconsin 16,000,000,000 

West Virginia 7,ooo,0(X),ooo 

Virginia (yellow pine) 150,000,000 

South Carolina " 90,000,000 

North Carolina 1,600,000,000 

Florida (yellow pine) 1,700,000,000 

Georgia (yellow pine) 1,500,000,000 

Total 105,440,000,000 

The Dominion forests, say 70,000,000,000 

Total east of the Rocky mountains 173,000,000,000 

West of the nioiuitains, say 70,000,000,000 

Total North America 248,000,000,000 

The statistician regards this timber as 
worth $2 per i,ooo feet as it stands, 
and says: "Add §ioper i, coo worth of 
labor to it, and we have the pretty lit 
tie figure of $2,981,180,000. 



KITCHEN SLOPS. 



I cannot see the use of a slop sink or 
cesspool on a farm — I have never seen 
one, or else I might perhaps compre- 
hend its use. Let me state to your read- 
ers what we do with our kitchen slops. 
A tub made of an oil-barrel is placed 
in a warm place into which all there- 
fuse of the kitchen (bones excepted, 
which are burned and broken for poul- 
try,) is cast — skim milk, buttermilk, 
soapsuds, dishwater, &c. All this is 
very greedily devoured by the pigs, and 
may in this way be used to good ad- 
vantage, as well as profit. Hogs must 
have water; they want salt, they want 
animal and alkaline matter. All these 
are contained in the refuse, and in this 
way are fed to your hogs, while other- 
wise they would be lost, and not only 
lost, but cause an annoyance. 

L. F. C. 



I HAVE known persons on market-day 
to go out and kill twelve or fifteen fowls, 
and to bring them into a room where 
there would be half a dozen women and 
boys pulling a i^w feathers at a time, 
between thumb and forefinger to pre- 
vent tearing them. Now, for the bene- 
fit of such, I give our plan : Hang the 



fowl by the feet by a small cord ; then 
with a small knife give one cut across 
the upper jaw, opposite the corners of 
the mouth ; after the blood has stopped 
running a stream, place the point of the 
knife in the groove in the upper part of 
the mouth, run the blade up into the 
back part of the head, which will cause 
a quivering and twitching of the mus- 
cles. Now is your time, for every 
feather yields as if by magic, and there 
is no danger of tearing the most tender 
chick. Before he attempts to flap, you 
can have him as bare as the day he came 
out of the e^g. — -Joicrnal of Horticulture. 



VENTILATION OF ICE-HOUSES. 



I. M. Graham, Pinewood, Tenn., 
sends a sketch of his ice-house, which 
does not keep ice very well. The air 
is warmer in the house" in August than 
outside. Should there be ventilation ? 
If so, where and how much ? The 
principle involved in this question is, 
that where there is evaporation the tem- 
perature of the surface at which the 
evaporation occurs is reduced. Also, 
there can be no continued evaporation 
unless the air is in motion. Therefore, 
when a current of air is admitted into 
the upper part of an ice-house the 
moisture is carried off, renewed-evapor- 
ation occurs, and the temperature is 
lowered. So that if rain and sunshine 
are excluded and the covering is abun- 
dant, the ventilation may be as free as 
possible, but only at the top. 



WHITE HAIRS ON HORSES. 



A correspondent of the Massachusetts 
Ploughman, recommends the following 
remedy for white hairs on horses, which 
appear on spots galled by the saddle or 
harness: " Take a piece of lard large 
enough to give the place a thorough 
greasing ; rub the same with the hand 
until it becomes hot, repeating the ope- 
ration three or four times, and the white 
hairs will soon come out and hairs of a 
natural color take their place. I have 
tried this on several horses, and I 
never knew it to fail. I think the best 
time to do this is in the winter, before 
the new coat starts." 



142 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



The manufacture of cheese has be- 
come in the last few years one of the 
important American interests. It now 
wholly supplies the home demand for 
this popular appetizer, and also provides 
the material for a large and lucrative 
export trade. Fourteen years ago, the 
first shipment of American cheese to 
England took place, but the article was 
so worthless that it was thrown into the 
docks at Liverpool. Since January ist, 
the exports of cheese have amounted to 
1,166,211 boxes, against 893,154 boxes 
as compared with the corresponding 
time in 1S72. — Detroit Tribune. 



SIGNIFICANCE OF THE FINGERS. 



Each finger, and the mount at the 
base of it, is named from a planet. In 
the normal hand the second finger is 
the longest, the third the next longest, 
the first nearly as long as the third, and 
much longer than the fourth or little 
finger. Jupiter is the first finger. If 
it be long and not ill-shapen, and if 
the mount at the base be well developed, 
it indicates a noble and lofty character, 
and a religious-minded person. If dis- 
proportionately long, it will mean dif- 
ferent things according to the type of 
hand in which it may be found, or ac- 
cording to the type of that particular 
finger ; in the first type, an over-long 
first finger would denote an inclination 
to the fantastic or the exaggerated in 
religious matters ; or it might, perhaps, 
mean religious madness ; or, if other 
signs in the hand favored this view, it 
could be taken to denote pride. Pride 
is a form of worship — the culture of 
self. In the second type of hand, the 
excessive development of Jupiter might 
mean ambition, or, if it were in a hand 
that was eminently unselfish, it would 
stand for a something puritanical in 
manners and morals — a too great sever- 
ity. In the third type, a very long first 
finger would probably signify vanity. 
The second finger is Saturn. If too 
prominent, it announces melancholy, or 
misanthrophy, or downright cruelty, 
according to the type of hand ; but if 
the finger be within due proportion, 
this sadness may take the form of pity 



for others, or it may mean merely a be- 
coming gravity. 

The third finger is Apollo, and be- 
longs to the art. In a "pointed" hand 
Apollo will give poetry and music com- 
position ; in a "square" hand, paint- 
ing, sculpture (here art leaves the do- 
main of the purely contemplative ; it 
becomes partly active from the combi- 
nation of manual skill with what is only 
imaginative) and in a "spade-shaped" 
hand Apollo will give histrionic power, 
an aptitude for acting, or a love of the- 
atrical amusements. On the stage, art 
is joined in the closest manner to mo- 
tion. The fourth finger is Mercury. If 
well proportioned it promises a scien- 
tific turn of mind, resourcefulness and 
diplomacy — tact. The thumb is Venus. 
Chirognomony and palmistry agree in 
almost all particulars about the thumb. 
In both systems it is treated as the most 
important part of the hand. The up- 
per joint, that ^wth the nail, stands for 
the will ; the second division, the rea- 
soning faculties ; the base, the animal 
instincts. — St. PauVs Mamzine. 



VALUABLE HUNTING GROUNDS. 



The clubs of sportsmen in this coun- 
try who are purchasing lakes, streams 
and lands, for the purpose of preserving 
fish and game, may, perhaps, derive en- 
couragement in regard to the prospec- 
tive worth of their investments from 
some recent sales of sporting property 
in Great Britain. An estate in the Eng- 
lish county of Norfolk, called " Down- 
ham," which is famous for partridge 
and pheasant shooting, was sold last 
year for $405,000. And, although the 
land is so poor that it scarcely realizes 
$5000 a year from agriculture, a gentle- 
man at once offered to "lease the shoot- 
ing" at $10,000 a year; and a few 
months ago the Earl of Derby offered 
the present owner $500,000 for the pro- 
perty. A barren Scotch island, only 
valuable for the shooting it affords, has 
lately been sold by Lord Dunmore for 

$600,000. 

-•♦. 

Sweet baked apples and milk is a 
good diet for consumptive and dyspep- 
tic patients. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



143 



AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS. 



The statistician of the Department of 
Agriculture has completed an investi- 
gation concerning the prices of farm 
l^roducts and the relative numbers and 
prices of farm animals. The greatest 
reduction is in corn, and the decline is 
the heaviest in the great corn growing 
States. One of the lowest western aver- 
ages is that of Illinois, which is only 
twenty-one bushels upon an area of 
more than seven million acres. The 
average yield of wheat is greater in most 
of the States than in 1872. The potato 
yield is especially low in Illinois, Mis- 
souri, Kansas and Nebraska. The 
average prices follow close by the 
changes in the rate of yield, rising 
almost exactly in proportion to local 
scarcity, and falling with increased pro- 
duction. 



THINNING OUT ORNAMENTALS. 



Trees in ornamental grounds are often 
planted too thick when young, with the 
intention of thinning. This must be 
done in time, or they will crowd and 
spoil each other. Winter is a good time 
to do it. If not large, the trees may 
sometimes be moved to other places, 
l)rovided a ball or cake of earth large 
enough to hold them stiffly against the 
wind is taken with the roots. 



HOW TO MAKE AN ARTIFICIAL 
SWARM. 



Blossoms are now yielding honey 
abundantly, and swarms may be ex- 
pected at any time. Much risk of los- 
ing swarms, and trouble of watching, 
may be saved by making swarms artifi- 
cially. About the simplest way to do 
this, is when a hive becomes sufficiently 
l)opulous to spare a swarm, to drive 
most of the bees out into a driving box 
or empty hive, first smoking them 
tlioroughly and allowing them to fill 
themselves with honey; then place the 
hive into which you intend the swarm 
to go, on the stand of the old hive, lay 
a door or a wide board in front of it, 
and upon this a folded sheet. Now 



shake the bees from the driving box, a 
few at a time, on to the sheet two or 
three feet from the hive, and spread 
them out toward the entrance with a 
feather, so that in entering the hive 
they will have to crawl some distance 
over the sheet, thus giving an op- 
portunity of seeing the queen. As soon 
as she is found, place her at the entrance 
of the hive and allow all the bees to en- 
ter but a quart or two, according to the 
size of the old stock ; return these, be- 
ing mostly young bees, and they will stay 
where they are put, to the old hive con- 
taining the combs. Place it upon a new 
stand, and work is done. The bees in 
the old hive will raise a queen from the 
eggs in the combs, and work will go on 
as though they had swarmed naturally. 
With moveable comb hives, the frames 
may be taken out one at a time, and the 
bees shaken off on the sheet. The 
swarm, of course, must be made at a 
time when flowers are yiehiing honey, 
so that the bees will have something 
with which to fill the empty hive. A 
good time this year will be in from one 
to three weeks from this time. The old 
stock will have a young queen eight or 
ten days sooner, if a scald queen's 
cell is given them at the time of making 
the swarm. If the queen is not found 
the first time, the bees may be shaken 
on the sheet again until she is found, at 
all events she must be found and placed 
in the new hive. A little practice will 
enable any one to distinguish her readily 
by her longer abdomen and bright 
brown back. If you do not find her on 
looking over the bees the first time, and 
have not time to look them over again, 
you can generally tell after an hour or 
two by the movement of the swarm 
whether she is with them or not. If 
most of them remain quietly in the hive 
she most likely is with them, otherwise 
they will be running and flying about 
seemingly very much excited. If queen 
cells are started in the old hive in two 
or three days, we may be certain the 
queen Ixas been transferred. Surplus 
boxes should be put on immediately, 
and removed and replaced by others as 
soon as fjlled. I find a general opinion 
prevails that the honey boxes should not 
be taken off till fall. They may, how- 



144 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



ever, be removed at any time, for the 
bees always provide enough honey for 
winter in the main part of the hive. If 
empty boxes are exchanged for full ones 
as soon as they are filled, a much larger 
amount of surplus honey will be secured 
during the honey season than if the full 
ones were allowed to remain on the 
hive. — Oxford Repuhlicaiu 

W. P. B. 

Liberty Square, Laneaster eounty, June 9th. 



Mrs. Griffin's Pumpkin Pie. — Three 
lablespoonsfull pumpkins, stewed and 
strained ; 3 do sugar ; 3 crackers rolled 
fine. Fill the bowl with milk and flour 
to taste. This is sufficient for one pie. 
I use a round tin. liake with an under 
crust only. 



BOTANY. 



THOUGHTS ON VEGETATION. 



BY J. STAUFFF.R. 

\/'EGETATION, a general term of 
plants, may answer for a text. 
To begin with Botany, a word derived 
from the Greek, signifies herb, or grass. 
As a science, it embraces all the phe- 
nomena of vegetable life in their widest 
extent. A close student, full forty 
years, provided with books of the vari- 
ous schools, embracing the different sys- 
tems, extensive correspondence with 
men like Prof. Gray, Torrey, Durang, 
and others ; munerous excursions, 
scouring hill and meadow, collecting, 
pressing, analyzing, and drawing plants 
— and what of it ? Am I botanist ? No. 
I am ashamed to own it. Were any one 
actually to overhaul my labors and see 
the amount of work I did, they would 
be astonished, and, perhaps, the aston- 
ishment would be increased when they 
would find how little I know after all. 
True, there are certain groups that are 
classified by their general resemblance, 
such as the Cruciferera, the common 
radish or mustard family, embracing 
1,600 species. The Labiatce, or mint 
family, 2000 species, etc. De Candolle, 



in his ProdrojJias, includes 219 orders. 
Lindley extended these to 303 orders, 
each having numerous genera. These 
again divided into innumerable species 
and varieties, differing in different 
climates, form a catalogue of over 
50,000 described plants. Now, how 
many of those do we really have any 
knowledge of? Mr. Watson, with re- 
spect to this question, " by what means 
all these varieties of families and species 
have obtained possession of their pres- 
ent localities," he asks, " And why is 
it the banks of the Orinoco are fringed 
with trees and herbs, whose counterparts 
we should in vain seek on the margin 
of the Rhine ; that out of 7,000 species 
of flowering plants found wild in Eu- 
rope, not a hundred have been seen in 
Australia; that the Alps of Switzerland, 
and the mountains of Nepaul, produced, 
perhaps, not a greater number common 
to both; and. in short, that every coun- 
try of considerable extent has certain 
species to distinguish it from others." 
This occurred to my mind, but as Mr. 
Watson gave it expression years ago, he 
is entitled to priority. While there are 
millions of seeds annually ripened and 
scattered by the agency of winds, cur- 
rents of water, birds, etc. ; but in what- 
ever way transported, they require a con- 
genial soil and climate to establish them. 
Man, however, has not only collected, 
cultivated, and brought together great 
varieties from all climes, but by forcing, 
tampering, hybridizing greatly multi- 
plied varieties, so that we become be- 
wildered in looking over the specific 
names, and it defies all science to desig- 
nate these varieties of apples, pears, 
peaches, etc., in fruit. So with roses, 
verbenas, pelargonams, and various 
flowers, we find in the catalogues long 
lists of names — who can remember 
them? Hence, a botanist may be able 
to tell a crucifer from a labiate, and yet 
may not be able to tell what particular 
one of the 2,000 kinds known and de- 
scribed it may be. This is what admo- 
nishes me to be modest in claiming to 
be a botanist. I certainly may know a 
cornstalk from a hempstalk, but what 
particular kind of corn, except so far as 
grouping is concerned, is not so clear. 
Here my reader may think he knows 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



145 



flint from sugar, corn and every variety, 
for which he has a special name. But, 
tloes he know that from the original 
Maize, or Indian corn ? The celebrated 
Metzger, in his work, " Die Getreidear- 
ten," published in 1841, as well as 
Bonafons, paid particular attention 
to this subject. These make twelve 
races, with numerous sub-varieties. 
Of the latter, some are tolerably 
constant ; others, quite inconstant. 
The different races vary in height from 
15 to 18 feet to only 16 to 18 inches, as in 
a dwarf variety described. The whole 
ear is variable in shape, being long and 
narrow or short and thick, or branched. 
The Feeds are arranged in the ear in 
from six to even twenty rows, or are 
placed irregularly. The seeds are, as 
we all know, white, pale yellow, orange, 
red, violet, or elegantly streaked with 
black — or the colors mixed. Metzger 
experimented with a tall kind (Teaaltis- 
sima, which he calls " Breit-korniger 
Mays," in German), from Virginia. 
During the first year the plants were 12 
feet high, and few seeds were perfected; 
the lower seeds in the ear kept true to 
their proper form, but the upper seeds 
became slightly changed. In the sec- 
ond generation the plants were from 
nine to ten feet in height, and ripened 
their seed better ; the depression on 
the outside of the seed had almost dis- 
appeared, and the original beautiful 
white color had become duskier. Some 
of the seeds had even become yellow, 
and in their now rounded form they 
approached common European maize. 
In the third generation nearly all the 
resemblance to the original and very 
distinct American parent-form was lost. 
In the sixth generation this maize per 
fcctly resembled an European variety, 
described as the second sub-variety of 
the fifth race. So with another Ameri- 
can race — the "White-tooth corn" — in 
which the tooth nearly disappeared, 
even in the second generation. A third 
race — the "Chicken corn" — did not 
undergo so great a change, but the seeds 
became le.ss polished and ])elluci(l. It 
is inferred from this, that climate and 
soil have an influence, apart from hy- 
bridizing, to effect a change, even dif- 
ferent localities. We have long-spun 



yarns, going into minute microscopical 
and chemical experiments as to vegeta- 
ble life, and names are multiplied ; and 
after all, when we have sifted the whole 
matter, we find a great deal of chaff, 
and but few grains of true knowledge. 

In looking over my drawings of rare 
occurrences or curiosities, I find quite 
a number ot sports figured. One bears 
date September i, 1858, presented by 
Dr. Hcrbst, found with others by him 
in a corn patch in the city of Lancas- 
ter. This was a fiiU-sized staminale 
top, with a full-sized ear of corn, with- 
out husk, in its midst (it was of the 
variety sugar-corn). One figured Aug. 
7th, 1S55, has the top or tassel mixed 
with partial ear-like developments and 
and scattered grains ; but, as such are 
common, the fact will be hardly ques- 
tioned — but do we understand it ? I 
have another figure of an ear of corn, 
when in its milky state, producing a 
green sprout from an upper grain in an 
interrupted row. This sprout was near- 
ly two inches long, and sending out 
roots over the lower grains. Another, 
in which each grain has a bract-like ap- 
pendage collected around a rachis, 
forming a spike somewhat like a certain 
kind of grass, with the bare grains full, 
plump and round, each in its separate 
scale or pointed bract. When we re- 
flect that the ear of corn, with its silken 
threads, is the pistillate or female spike, 
and the top or tassel the staminate 
spikes, it is remarkable that the two 
kinds of flowers should mix. There are 
theories advanced to account for it ; 
but theorists differ in their views, and 
the truth is, the more we investigate, the 
wider and deeper the mysteries of na- 
ture become apparent, and we learn 
just how little we actually do know, ami 
after all the boasted discoveries and ex- 
planations to a great degree, "we 
go it blind." It is humiliating, but 
not the less true. Nevertheless, perse- 
vere, aid nature, give to plants their 
proper food and attention. Experience 
is the best school — and, I think, it was 
Franklin who said, "A fool will learn 
in no other." I say, a wise man will 
profit by it, so I shall not attempt to 
theorize, and stop till I have something 
else to sav. 



146 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



BOOK AND SPECIAL NOTICES. 



NOTICE. 



Special notices inserted in this de- 
partment at 25 cents per line, nonpareil 
measurement. Address orders to 
J. 13. DEVELIN, 
Publisher and Proprietor, 
No. 43 North Queen St., Lane, Pa, 



LITERARY NOTICES. 

The American Earners' Advocate, 
devoted to tlie interests represented in 
the " National Agricultural Congress, " 
and to the business interests of the farmer and 
planter. The publication ofiice of this excel- 
lent journal has been removed from Jackson, 
Tenn., and has finally been located at- Indian- 
apolis, Ind. It claims, without special osten- 
tation, to be the "farmer's best friend" — and we 
doubt not it is— and outside of its excellent crop 
statistics and other maUer generally useful to 
the farmers of the nation, it is averse to the 
organic principles of the "Grange" movements. 
It reflects precisely what we intimated a year 
ago, namely, that from the unsophisticated nature 
of the great mass of the farming public, their 
industrious and thrifty habits, and their disincli- 
nation to fritter away much time in weekly 
meetings and official functions, a class of men 
might come into power who had no real sympa- 
thy with the farmer, but merely used the grange 
as a means to get into office, handle the 
" finances,^' and wield the organization as a 
weapon to subserve political advancement. The 
journal also is averse to the secrecy of the order, 
on the ground that if it is a good thing it should 
be proclaimed from the house-top ; but, the most 
objectionable feature, in our view,is the extremely 
ultra views against " middle men," which are 
fostered by the Grange ; as if every man who 
has anything to sell, from the vender of peanuts 
on the street corner, to the builder of a thresh- 
ing machine, or a steamboat, is not, to all intents 
and purposes, a middle man. When will the 
world get sufticient wisdom to draw a proper 
line between the use and the aiuse of a thing? 
Among the most spicy articles in the May num- 
ber of the Advoca/e, are those which ventilate this 
feature of the Grange movement. Not that, 
under certain oppressive circumstances, some- 



a large and widespread system in a secret organic 
form, and it will be just as sure of abuse as the 
liquor business is ; for, no man will consent to 
become an agent unless it " pays," and so soon 
as \\. pays he will depend upon it, as a business, 
and become a ??iiddie man. 

" Views and Description' of Burlington 
AND Missouri River Railroad Lands, with 
important information concerning where and 
how to select and purchase farms in Iowa and 
Nebraska, on ten years credit." This is abeau- 
fully printed royal octavo work, and sub- 
stantially bound in cloth, with nineteen hand- 
somely executed full page landscape views, and 
one map ; and no land dealer or emigrant should 
be without a copy of it, if they wish to proceed 
intelligently in the choice of lands, either to sell 
or to improve. The work is so full of geograph- 
ical, topographical, and statistical knowledge 
in relation to the face of the country, its water 
courses, the productiveness of the soil, its hills 
and valleys, its accessibility to steamboat and 
railroad transportation, and more important still, 
the favorable conditions upon which these lands 
may be obtained, that an intelligent mind might 
be unable to make as judicious a selection from 
the book alone, as hundreds do who visit a 
locality before they purchase. 

Wood's Household Magazine, for May, 
has an abundance of excellent reading. There 
is the real go-ahead snap to this periodical 
which entitles it to much credit, and we cannot 
name one that will afford an equal amount of 
entertainment and instruction for so little 
money. The number before us contains among 
other articles a paper entitled " Poor Jack," by 
F. W. Holland, in the interest of seamen ; 
"The Child in the Church," by Mary Hartwell ; 
"Kin and Kad," by H. V. Osborne; "Dumb 
Days," by Caroline B. LeRow, and some good 
poetry. There are several illustrated articles, 
the New York Fashions, Architectural De- 
signs, etc., etc. The illustration on Decoration 
Day is just the thing. Price of Magazine, one 
dollar per year. Address Wood's Household 
Magazine, Newburgh, N. Y. 

United States Trade Directory, 1874-5. 
— In order to advise Publishers, Booksellers, 
Stationers and News Dealers throughout the 
United St.ites respecting the facilities our Pub- 
lishers and Manufacturers have for supplying 



thirigofthesort may not be necessary to protect Books, Stationery and Fancy Goods, Mr. 
the farmer against extortion ; but, let it become | HOWARD Challen, of Philadelphia, will pub- 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



147 



lish a Directory, in which the resources of all 

leading Publishers and Manufacturing Station- 
ers will be fully described, and every branch of 
business connected with the Trade arranged, 
classified, and their specialty mentioned. Such 
a work will be of great value to the trade in 
making up and filling orders. 

It will also contain a Directory of similar 
branches of business in all the leading cities 
in the United States. 

Wk liave on our talile a copy of the "Phila. 
delphia Trade Directory," published bylloWARU 
(.'HAl.LKN, No. 521 Minor street, Philadelphia, 
and if it, in point of generally useful advertis- 
ing matter and excellency of typographical exe 
cution, is an earnest of what may be looked for 
in the United States Directory for 1874-5, it 
will be well worth the patronage of the public, 
and especially the mercantile and manufactur- 
ing classes. 

Io\v,\ Stock Journal, "and Brain and Mus- 
cle," published by the "Stock Journal Com- 
pany," at Des Moines, Iowa, at $1.00 a year, 
and edited by Charles G. Hayes. This little 
journal is exactly the size of the Lancaster 
Fanner, and is filled with interesting and prac- 
tical matter on all that relates to stock raising in 
its different departments, from a chicken up to 
a horse. The editor says : 

" The Stock jfournal is not in competition 
with any publication in the State. It is the only 
exclusive stock journal in the State, and as 
such seeks the cooperation of the entire press 
and public. It is specially designed to make 
this journal what it ought to be, a protection to 
the purchaser and breeder of stock of all kinds." 

And, judging from the contents of the June 
number, now before us, it ought to meet with 
the encouragement we think it deserves. We 
believe in the practical combination of "brain 
antl muscle" in stimulating human progress in 
any specialty. 

The May number of the Patent-Right Ga- 
zette commences Vol. 7 of that excellent jour- 
nal, which is enlarged and improved, if it had 
not previously attained a state of perfection in 
typographical art that could not be easily im- 
proved. Everything about this journal — paper, 
type, engravings and composition — is of su- 
perior quality, and the reader will find much 
in its columns beyond the mere details of the 
patent agencies and the descriptions of imple- 



ments and machinery, that is entertaining and 

instructive. Published by the "United States 
Patent Right Association," No. 94 Chambers 
street. New York, at $1.50 a year. Address 
P. O. Box 4544. 



PHILADELPHIA PRODUCE MARKET 



Monday, June 15, 1874. 

Fl.OUR. — The market is exceedingly flat, and 
prices generally are weak. The demand is 
principally for choice bakers' brands, which are 
steady in prices, but common and medium 
grades are neglected and nominal. Sales of 
superfine at $4. 25(/(. 5. 25; extras at $^.<-p(lc(i; 
Iowa and Wisconsin extra family at $6(((i 6.37 j-2 ; 
200 barrels Minnesota do., fair, at $6.75 ; 100 
barrels do. do., good, at $7 ; 100 barrels do. 
do., choice, at $7.50; 200 bbls. very fancy, at 
$8; 100 barrels Pennsylvania do. do., at $"] \ 
100 barrels do. do., choice, at$7.50, and 100 
barrels St. Louis do. do. at $8.62 }4. 

Rye flour is steady, and 100 barrels sohl at 
^475- 

Corn meal is held at $4.25 for Pennsylvania, 
and ^4.40 for Brandywine. 

Grain. — In the wheat market there is very 
little movement. Sales of 1,600 bush, choice 
western red at $1.47 ; 400 bush, choice Indi- 
ana amber at $1.^2^-^ ; 800 bush, common In- 
diana white at $l.45,^and 800 bush, fair do. do. 
at $1.50. Prices of spring are irregular. Rye 
may be quoted at 95c. Corn is in fair request, 
and prices are I cent higher. Sales of 2,800 
bush, yellow at 8l082c.; 5,000 bush, western 
high mixed at 80c. , free on board, and 6,000 
do. do., in the cars, at 8o@8lc. Oats are in 
steady request, with sales of 8,000 bush, western 
white at 61 (7f 63c., and 1,400 liush. do. mixed 
at 60c. 

Feed is dull. Two cars of bran sold at $20 
per ton. 

Seeds. — Prices of cloverseed are entirely 
nominal ; timothy is in fair demand at $2A)o(ii\ 
$3 ; flaxseed is quoted at ^2.10. 

Bark is lower; 100 hogsheads No. i quer- 
citron sold at ^35 per ton. 

NEW YORK PRODUCE MARKET. 

MOND.W, June 15, 1S74. 
Fl.OUR AND Meal. — A moderately active 
business has been reported in shipping grades 
(jf State and Western flour at about steady rates 
for desirable lines. Trade and family extras 
have been comparatively r[uiet and rather weak 
as to prices. Superfine and No. 2 also inactive 
within the previous range. The sales siiue our 
last have been 13,400 barrels, of all grades, in- 
cluding poor to choice No. 2, at )53.85M4.50; 
inferior to choice superfine State and Western 



148 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



at J^4.6o@5.25, chiefly at |4.75@S ; inferior to 
very good extra State, $5.7S@'6.35, chiefly at 
^5.go@6.25 ; very good to very fancy do., and 
City Mills extras, at ^6.25@7.35 ; poor to very 
good shipping extra Western at l5.50(rt),6.35, 
chiefly at $5.90@6.25 ; poor to choice shipping 
brands round-hoop, Ohio, $5.85(rt)6.35 ; poor 
to very good Minnesota extra, for shipping, at 
$5.85^6.65 "%( bbl., and trade and family ex- 
tras at proportionate rales. 

Southern flour has been comparatively dull, 
with the advantage as to price in favor of buyer. 
Sales have been reported since our last of 930 
bbls., in lots, at i5.85@7.45 for very poor to 
choice shipping, and $7.45(0)10.75 for ordinary 
to choice family extra "^ bbl. Canada flour 
dull and nominal. Rye flour has been in fair 
request at from 54-8o(rt\6 for fine to very choice 
siperfine. Sales of 325 bbls., chiefly at 5.50 
@5.85. Corn meal has been in moderate de- 
mand within the range of $4@,4.45 for very in- 
ferior to choice yellow Western, $4.25(0^4.40 
for Jersey, and 54.70(^,4.75 for Brandywine ; 
the reported sales since our last have been 570 
l)bls., chiefly Brandywine and Western yellow^ 

Grain. — Spring wheat has been quoted about 
2C. a bushel lower under liberal arrivals and the 
decidedly stronger range of ocean freights, es- 
pecially by the Liverphol steam lines. At the 
reduced prices the demand has been more ac- 
tive for export, but limited for milling purposes. 
Winter wheat has been quiet and depressed. 
Sales have been reported since our last of 
253,000 bushels at $1.46(^1.49 for fair to very 
choice No. i spring, chiefly at $i.47(?^r.47^'/^ 
for boat loads of striclFy prime Milwaukee and 
Minnesota; $I. 44(0)1.45, mainly at $1.44, for 
No. 2 Milwaukee spring; $1.40^^(7^1.41^ for 
No. 2 Northwest spring ; $i.39@i.4i, chiefly 
at $1.40(0) 1. 40^4, for No. 2 Chicago do. ; $1.37 
(0^,1.47 for ungraded spring; $1.47 for white 
spring; $l.52(<^i.53 for red Western ; $1.55(7^ 
1.57 for amber Western; and $1.60. in part for 
white do. Corn has been offered more freely, 
and has been quoted 2(S,3c, cheaper, leading to 
a brisk trade in good part for export, closing 
heavily ; sales have been reported of 287,000 
bushels, (more to arrive) at 82((|86c. for in- 
ferior to very choice mixed Western, closing at 
about 83(^^,33 ^^c. for good to prime boat loads ; 
83>^@86J2C. for yellow Western. Rye quiet, 
quoted at $1.04(7^1.08. Barley dull and nomi- 
nal. Of barley malt, 5,000 bushels P'renchwere 
sold at $2.30, time ; market dull. Oats have 
beei\ quoted ic. a bushel higher, on restricted 
offerings and a fair demand ; sales of 44,000 
bushels at 64(7^650. for mixed Western ; 63c. 
for do., in store; 68((?>.7ic. for white do. Feed 
in moderate request, within the range of $2i(@ 
30 ^ ton. 

Hay and Straw — A moderate inquiry pre- 
vails for bale hay, with shipping stock quoted 
at f I (§1,1. 10, and the range of retailing qualities 
at from $1. 20(^,1.65 %? 100 Itjs. Straw has 
been selling slowly, with oat quoted at 90c. (^$1. 
Wheat at 50(^6oc., and rye at 5o(^,75c. %? 
100 lbs. 



PHILADELPHIA CATTLE MARKET. 



M0ND.A.Y, June 15th, 1874 — P. M. 

Beef Cattle. — There was a fair demand for 
the better descriptions of Beef Cattle this morn- 
ing, and these, being in rather light supply, com- 
manded full prices ; but the medium and low 
grades were not sought after to any extent, and 
the offerings being liberal, prices favored the 
buying interest fully }{c 1^< tb; sales of fair and 
choice at 6(a),'jf^c, and common at S@iS/'2'^- 
Receipts, 2600 head. 

Sheep declined and were difficult to move ; 
sales of fair and prime at S@(>%c, and common 
at $2.50(a!)3.5O. Receipts, 8000 head. 

Hogs attracted very little attention, and the 
tone of the market was very unsatisfactory to 
holders ; sales of corn-fed at $8,25(0)8.50 fi loo 
R)s net. Receipts, 4000 head. 



NEW YORK CATTLE MARKET. 



Monday, June 15th, 1874. 
There was a small but fair trade in horned 
Cattle on Saturday last at Weehawken Yards. 
Prices ranged from 9c.(f^i2j/(c. 1^, lb., weights 
from ^)4 cwt. to 8;'^ cwt. All of the herds on 
hand were not cleared off, 13 1 head being re- 
moved to One Hundredth Street Yards, and 
were sold there on Sunday, when trade in 
Beeves was brisk; prices ranges from 9C.@I3C. 
"tj^ ib., weights from 5 cwt. to gYz cwt. On 
Monday, at Harsimus Cove, trade in Beeves 
was slow; price ranged from 8|4fc.@i3c., 
weights from 4j.^ cwt. to 8 cwt. Spanish Cattle 
have been allowed from 55 to 56 lbs. to the 
cwt., net, and Native Steers from 55 to 59 lbs. 
to the cwt. The herds, as above quoted, ranged 
from poor quality Texan Steers to coarse but fat 
Native Steers, with some choice top lots. Milch 
Cows, on very light run, sold from $40(^^75 ""^ 
head, Saturday's and Monday's included. Good 
quality Cows are scarce and in fair demand. 
Veals sold from Sc.@,^i{.c. '{f* lb. ; calves from 
4c.(7^6j4c. %? lb. Sheep sold in large lots from 
$c.(c6, 6^c. ; Lambs also in large lots from 
6}4c(a}gJ/^c. '^} IT-)., trade being rather slow. 
Live hogs were not quoted, there being no com- 
mission hogs on sale. City Dressed opened 
®n a fair condition of trade at 7^^c. "^ lb. 



CHICAGO CATTLE MARKET. 



Chicago, June 15, 1874. 

Cattle. — Receipts, 6,500 head ; market firm 
and fairly active for the best grades; fair to 
choice shipping steers sold at $5(7^6.15 ; extra, 
$6.20(72(6.30; through Texans, $3(^3.50; fair 
corn-fed, $4.50; shipments, 1,400 head. 

Hogs. — Receipts, 14,000 head ; market fair- 
ly active and steady; sold at $4.90(0)5.50 for 
poor to medium ; .$5.60(7^6 for good to really 
choice, closing rather quiet ; shipments, 8,500 
head. 

Sheep. — Receipts, 1,000 head; market quiet 
and unchanged; choice to extra shorn sold at 
fS.62>^@6,so. 



DEVOTED TO 

AGRICULTURE. HORTICULTURE, DOMESTIC ECONOMY & MISCELLANY. 

EDITED BY S. S. RATHVON & J. B. DEVELIN. 
" The Farmer is the founder of civilization**' — WEBSTER. 



Vol. VI. 



JULY, 1874. 



No. 7 



AGRICULTURAL.. 



AN old friend residing at Elk Grove, 
California, under date of June 29, 
1874, says: "I see in the papers that 
you are going to have a good crop this 
year in Old Pennsylvania, but I think 
there will be as much wheat wasted in 
this State, the present year, as you will 
raise in yours. We are going to have 
any amount of fruit of all kinds this sea- 
son. As there is little else to write 
about but crops, I send you a slip, cut 
out of the San Francisco Daily Morn- 
ing Call, as the author "writes it up 
better than I can." We give this slip 
to our readers the present month, as 
one of the "outlooks" of the agricul- 
tural situation, which may be pleasant 
and profitable reading : 

THE WHEAT CROP. 



THE ANTICIPATED YIELD OF THE SEASON. 



ABOUT SIXTEEN MILLIONS OF CENTALS 
FOR EXPORT. 



CALIFORNIA P.ECOMING THE GRANARY OF 
NATIONS. 



THE PROBLEM OF CONVEYING THIS VAST 
CROP TO MARKET. 

" And all the world flocked to Egypt 
to buy bread." Such was said of the 
land of Egypt in the dawn of history; 
such might be now said of the United 
States, and in particular of what prom- 
ises to be the granary of it, the State of 



California ; and it is not at all hazard- 
ous to predict, that in a few years it will 
be by far the greatest wheat-growing 
State of the Union. The approaching 
harvest will be of a magnitude sufficient 
to attract the eyes of all the world hither, 
even though it should fall short of the 
amount anticipated by some. And as 
operations in gathering the crop have 
already commenced in some of the 
southern counties, it is an opportune 
moment to give a short review of the 
prospective yield, as obtained from the 
most reliable sources. For such a re- 
view, or rather to the data therein given, 
millions of persons in both hemispheres 
are this moment anxiously looking. 

The population of the British islands 
requires a supply of one hundred and 
twenty million centals yearly, of which 
from forty to fifty millions of centals must 
be drawn from the surplus of other na- 
tions. This being to a certain extent a 
fixed quantity, it is manifest that any 
increase in the amount obtained from 
one source of supply must cause a corre- 
sponding decrease in that obtained from 
another, and force them to seek new 
and untried markets. But this alterna- 
tive is not entirely agreeable to the par- 
ties concerned, for people like to follow 
old and beaten paths rather than go to 
the trouble of making new ones, how- 
ever superior the latter may prove to be. 
California must, therefore, drive her 
competitors from the English market as 
she increases her annual wheat product, 
use it at home in manufactures, or seek 
a market for it elsewhere. And during 



150 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



the coming harvest year the problem 
will present itself for solution before 
her. For the lowest 

ESTIMATE OF THE CROP 

that can be made places, it at such a 
figure as will leave nearly or quite double 
the quantity for export that was avail- 
able during the unusually productive 
years of 1872-73. Last year the area 
sown with wheat was, in round numbers, 
1,700,000 acres, the actual figures being 
1,696,622. The average yield was be- 
tween 13 and 14 bushels per acre, and 
this in the face of long, dry weather, 
which in many places only left half a 
crop, and in some hardly any crop at 
all. This year, while the area sown has 
been materially increased, the yield in 
some instances will be more than dou- 
bled. In all, about 300,000 acres have 
been added to the area sown with wheat 
last year, of which about 40,000 are in 
San Joaquin, 34,000 in Stanislaus, and 
the remainder distributed in various 
locations throughout the State. The 
entire area under crop this year is 2,000,- 
000 acres, or thereabouts. The average 
of the crop of 1872-73 would give the 
amount produced on this as 30,000,000 
bushels, or eighteen million millions of 
centals ; but an average of 20 bushels 
per acre, which, in favorable seasons, is 
not considered excessive, would give 
40,000,000 bushels, or 24,000,000 cen- 
tals. The first estimate would leave, 
after deducting for local consumption, 
for distilling purposes, and for seed, 13,- 
000,000 centals; the second would leave 
19,000,000. However, comparing the 
various estimates, and estimating upon 
the reports received from the principal 
wheat-growing counties, we have no 
hesitation in placing the aggregate crop 
at 35,000,000 bushels, or 21,000,000 
centals. The great wheat-growing coun- 
ties of the State are, with the exception 
of Colusa and Sutter, all in its southern 
half. In fact, those in this section have 
by far the greater average, and five of 
them produce nearly two-thirds of all 
the wheat raised in California. Taking 
them one by one, we first find San 
Joaquin, with 230,000 acres under crop, 
one-fourth more than last year. Good 
judges have estimated the yield here at 
from thirty to thirty-five bushels per 



acre ; but putting it down to twenty- 
five, we have 5,750,000 bushels as the 
yield of the one county. Then comes 
Stanislaus, the banner county, 400,000 
acres of wheat, which will produce eight 
million bushels. Colusa will, it is vari- 
ously estimated, produce from one-half 
to double the yield of last year, so that 
we may expect a yield of at least four 
million bushels. These three counties 
of themselves will raise nearly half the 
entire wheat crop of the State. Santa 
Clara had never such a prospect before; 
with an acreage of one hundred and 
eighty thousand acres, she will reap a 
harvest of 3,600,000 bushels. Two and 
a half million bushels will be produced 
by Merced, and three millions by Mon- 
terey. Sutter will produce a million 
and a half bushels. Here we have a total 
of 28,350,000 bushels from seven coun- 
ties. Alameda, Butte, Napa, Sonoma, 
Yolo, and Tehama, which take a sec- 
ondary rank, have together some 300,- 
000 acres under wheat this year. Put- 
ting the yield in these counties down 
as low as fifteen bushels per acre, this 
would give us four and a half millions of 
bushels, which would make, with the 
yield of the principal counties before 
named, 32,850,000 bushels, leaving only 
2,150,000 bushels for the other counties, 
even with the largely increased acreage 
of this year. What that increase is, may 
be appreciated when it is known that 
San Mateo added a fourth to its acreage, 
that Tulare has doubled hers, that Santa 
Barbara added a third, and other coun- 
ties in still greater proportion. It is 
therefore tolerably safe, upon the data 
obtained by us, to estimate the total 
crop at twenty-one million centals ; and 
the consumption in the State being five 
millions, there will be left for export, 

SIXTEEN MILLION CENTALS, 

or nearly double that of the greatest 
harvest year ever hitherto known in 
California, that of i872-'73. This vast 
quantity, nearly double that exported 
by Russia last year, and much larger 
than that exported by the remainder of 
the United States, will require an im- 
mense tonnage to carry it away. It 
will also tax to the utmost the carrying 
capacity, on land and water, of steam- 
boats, barges and railroads to convey it 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



151 



to tide-water at Oakland, Vallejo and 
San Francisco. For the soutliern coun- 
ties of Los Angeles, San Bernardino 
and San Diego, we presume that San 
Diego will become the shipping port. 
The carrying capacity of a railroad car 
being two hundred centals, it would 
take one hundred and five thousand 
cars, or a little over five hundred and 
seventy-five cars a day, every day for 
six months, to convey it all to the ship- 
ping points. But, of course, every craft 
ow the bay and on the Sacramento and 
San Joaquin rivers will be pressed into 
service, and the greater portion will, as 
usual, reach San Francisco by water- 
carriage. All this will make matters 
lively on the bay and its tributary 
waters, on the San Francisco city front, 
and Vallejo, Sacramento and Stockton, 
for the nine months following the be- 
ginning of July. The supplying of the 
wants of the thousands engaged in the 
interior carrying trade will revive busi- 
ness to an extent hitherto scarcely 
known. At least four million dollars 
will be expended on the bay and river 
carrying trade, and probably much 
more, as the unprecedented increase in 
the quantity to be transported will, 
doubtless, cause a greater or less in- 
<-rease of rates. The warehouses of the 
State, too, will be crammed to reple- 
tion, notwithstanding the increase in 
the number last year, including those 
erected by private individuals and by 
the cooperative associations of Gran- 
gers. The warehouse accommodation 
of the State needs, in fact, at the pres- 
ent time to be doubled, and this is one 
of the most important matters that both 
growers and buyers should attend to. 
Without sufficient warehouse accommo- 
ilation it is impossible for the farmers 
in many localities to await a favorable 
turn in the San Francisco market, or 
for the larger buyers to hold on for a 
rise in the market at Liverpool. 

The next important matter that at- 
tracts the attention of all concerned, is 
the amount of 

TONNAGE NEEDED, 

and how and at what rates it can be ob- 
tained. And notwithstanding alMhat 
has been talked and written abouf the 
matter, but little has been done, or from 



the nature of the case can be done, by 

the representatives of the farmers to 
obtain it cheaply. Owing to want of 
irrigation, and to the uncertainty of the 
Spring rain-fall needed to counteract the 
effect of the northers, it is not till within 
a few weeks of the time when the grain 
should ripen, that the extent of the crop 
can ever be predicted with certainty. 
On the one hand a dry Spring, with a 
succession of northers, will nearly de- 
stroy the entire crop of the State ; while 
on the other, too much rain will damage 
it almost as badly on the low lands. A 
great crop may be expected ; it may fail 
within the last two months to be real- 
ized, and a bay full of foreign ships, and 
tonnage at the lowest rates is the result ; 
or, again, the most unfavorable outlook 
may, with timely rains, be followed by 
a large crop, and vessels being scarce, 
tonnage will run up to exorbitant prices. 
Nothing but a system of irrigation and 
ship-building on the Pacific coast will 
tend to equalize freights in this direc- 
tion. This equalization is necessary not 
only in the interests of the wheat grow- 
er, but of the whole State — for the 
freight money, in an immense majority 
of instances, goes into the pockets of 
those who know little and care less 
about California, except as a land from 
which they manage to draw a golden 
tribute. And the State is just so much 
the poorer. With sixteen millions of 
centals of wheat for export, it is almost 
certain that tonnage will be high — not 
high, perhaps, when compared with the 
rates prevailing in 1872-73 ; but high 
when contrasted with what it ought to 
be. 

THE FLEET 

that will be necessary to carry away the 
immense surplusage of this year's wheat 
crop, will itself be immense. Taking 
the data furnished by the experience of 
the last couple of years, our average 
cargo is about 25,000 centals. This 
would render necessary six hundred ves- 
sels, manned by nearly twenty thousand 
sailors. The necessary repairs to these 
would be sufficient to keep at South San 
Francisco a couple of hundred ship- 
joiners, etc., whose trade of itself ought 
to sustain a very considerable addition 
to the population of the city. As to the 



152 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



state in which the crop will be exported, 
we may expect a very considerable quan- 
tity, perhaps larger than any preceding 
year, to be sent off as flour. 

It is next" to impossible to predicate 
the course of prices, but it is evident 
that they are not destined to fall much 
below their present standard. The wheat 
crop of England was rather small last 
year, with a diminished continental sup- 
ply ; that is, it was so toward the begin- 
ning of last harvest year. It will be- 
come scarce again in a couple of months, 
and prices stiffening up will for a con- 
siderable time remain firm. In fine, 
with a wheat crop fairly estimated at 
over twenty million centals, and worth, 
at present prices, about forty million 
dollars, the prospects for all classes that 
go to make up the population of the 
State are exceedingly bright. 



SUCCESSFUL AND PROGRESSIVE 
FARMING. 



AN ESSAY READ BEFORE THE LANCASTER 
COUNTY AGRICULTURAL AND HORTI- 
CULTURAL SOCIETY, ON MONDAY, JUNE 
I, 1S74, BY E. S, HOOVER, OF MAN- 
HEIM TOWNSHIP. 

In the different pursuits of life we 
find here and there only a few who 
meet with abundant success in their 
calling, and equally true is this in the 
occupation of farming. Let us look for 
a moment at the causes of this. First 
and foremost of all, is often a want of 
sufficient knowledge of the calling to 
pursue it successfully. The tilling of 
the soil is looked upon by too many as 
merely mechanical. Any one having a 
good share of muscle to do the manual 
labor of a farm, is considered fit, in a 
general sense, to make a good farmer ; 
forgetting that in farming, as well as in 
any other calling, labor, to be success- 
ful, must be directed by that nobler 
part of man — mind. Hence we infer 
that no work can be successfully carried 
out without system. The farmer should 
have his plans well matured for days and 
weeks — nay, months— before he enters 
upon his duties. He will then be bet- 
ter prepared to meet any emergency 
that may arise. Self-interest alone 



should prompt the farmer to all this, if 
nothing else; for labor wisely directed 
is more certain of success in this than 
in any other calling. 

Another great cause of failure with 
the farmer, is a lack of application to 
his calling. Without application man 
rarely succeeds in any calling. While 
the farmer should be at the head of his 
farming operations, devising means and 
pushing things along, he is too often 
loitering about, trifling with unprofita- 
ble things, at the same time losing ten- 
fold at home. Two short words in the 
farmer's vocabulary make a vast differ- 
ence — come and go. The prudent, 
shrewd, and nearly always successful 
farmer, uses the former word, and the 
unsuccessful the latter. 

One of the first requisites of success- 
ful farming, is to keep up the fertility of 
the soil. At the present high price of 
land, the farmer, to have a paying in- 
vestment, exhausts the fertility of the 
soil much faster by heavy cropping than 
in former years, and hence more fertil- 
izers should be applied. The farmer 
should, therefore, make it his chief aim 
to keep his farm from becoming im- 
poverished. This can be done in vari- 
ous ways — by green soiling, liming, 
bone dust — but best and most effectual 
of all, is good barn-yard manure. Farm- 
ers should aim each succeeding year to 
increase their manure piles. More than 
two thousand years ago Cato's exhorta- 
tion was: " Study to have a large dung- 
hill." This is more than half the bat- 
tle in farming. Show me the man that 
provides a plentiful supply of this for 
his soil, and I will, in turn, show you a 
good farm, that will bring its owner a 
handsome return. Don't sell your farm 
by the bushel. Many, in the eager pur- 
suit of wealth, sell nearly all the grain, 
hay and straw off the farm, leaving little 
to return to the soil ; and the conse- 
quence is, that the once fertile farm be- 
comes more and more exhausted each 
succeeding year, depreciating in value 
and barely supporting its owner. Do 
justice to your farm, and it will do jus- 
tice to you. The best farm will do 
little for him who but half does his 
duty. 

The tilling of the soil is quite as im- 



I 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



158 



portant as the application of fertilizers. 
Deep and uniform plowing and thorough 
cultivation are among the first requisites 
of a good crop. In the' selection of 
seeds great care should be taken. The 
farmer should make it a rule to select 
none but the best of seeds, and use only 
such machinery as may be relied upon. 
In experimenting with different kinds of 
seeds, he should do it only on a small 
scale at first, to test their merits. The 
cultivation of the hoed crops is often 
too much neglected after planting. 
Keeping them clean of weeds, and the 
soil loose, may add from ten to twenty 
per cent, to the acre. The root crop 
should not be overlooked by the farmer, 
as it too often is. One of the best sub- 
stitutes for green food for cattle, is the 
root crop. This can be cultivated with- 
out much extra labor, along with other 
crops, such as turnips, sugar beets, 
pumpkins, &c. These can be stored 
away for winter use. They have a ten- 
dency to keep up a better supply of 
milk, and add much to the health of 
the animal. 

Another important consideration for 
the farmer, is to sow plenty of grass seed, 
so that he may have plenty of pasture 
and hay. If he is short in this, he will 
be short in almost all other things. The 
farmer's motto in this respect should be, 
spare not the grass seed. 

Another and last (but not least,) duty 
I shall mention under the head of suc- 
cessful farming, is the cultivation of 
fruits of various kinds. \Vithout this 
no farm can be called complete, how- 
ever much other things may be of the 
first order. Nothing adds so much to 
make home a place of comfort and re- 
l)ose as to have plenty of the different 
kinds of fruit. This is within reach of 
all. If we will but do a little on our 
part, nature will do the other. Besides 
comfort, it adds much to the value of a 
place; so that in a pecuniary view, each 
owner of a farm should do his part in 
this respect. A little time spent each 
year in this branch of husbandry will 
always keep up the supply and amply 
repay him for his trouble, if trouble we 
may call it. (We should call it a pleas- 
ure.) 

Having aimed to point out a few plain 



facts in regard to successful farming, we 
shall next proceed to the other part of 
our subject, that of 

PROGRESSIVE FARMING. 

To the reflecting farmer, interested in 
his calling, it is pleasant to compare 
the modes of farming of the present and 
the past. AVe find that in ancient times 
agriculture was conducted with very lit- 
tle skill. For example, we find that the 
crooked stick now used as a plow on the 
plains of the Tigris, and in Egypt and 
Syria, is just like that used three thou- 
sand years ago on the same soil ; and 
yet we find that the people of Egypt 
and those ancient places, honored the 
calling of tilling the soil above any 
other. A Carthagenian General showed 
his devotion to farming by giving his 
countrymen twenty-eight volumes upon 
agriculture. The early Greeks were 
famous for their love of agriculture. 
The ancients had some knowledge of 
the arts and sciences, as well as the 
practice of agriculture. They had sys- 
tem and rotation of crops ] also, for the 
breeding and rearing of animals. The 
Greeks improved on the Egyptian plow, 
adding thereto a mould-board, share and 
coulter. The Romans derived this plow 
from the Greeks, but we find no essen- 
tial improvement after this for about 
fourteen or fifteen centuries. What 
knowledge the Romans possessed was 
spread over Europe, but little or no ad- 
dition was made to it until about the 
middle of the seventeenth century, when 
men's minds were aroused to this subject. 
Different treatises were written on agri- 
culture; new grains, grasses and fruits 
were introduced and experiments made. 
Thus, we see, a new era dawned upon 
the people. Mechanical inventions be- 
came general. Soils were improved by 
draining.and irrigating, and the making, 
preserving and use of manure. This and 
the like are now much better understood 
than in ancient times. The use of labor 
saving machinery is one of the most 
striking instances of modern improve- 
ment. The sickle has given way to the 
modern reaping machine ; the grain 
flail to the grain separator ; the slow ox- 
plow on the prairie to the famous Fawkes 
steam plow ; the slow Conestoga team 
of old to the iron horse that traverses 



154 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



our country from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific, doing in a short space of time 
what it would have taken months and 
years to accomplish under the old order 
of things — thus lightening the drudgery 
of a farmer's life, and giving him more 
time for making improvements for his 
calling, both in agricultural and intel- 
lectual pursuits. For the farmer should 
not only be informed in his own calling, 
but be acquainted with current events. 
His aim should be to make the best use 
of his energies among his fellow-men. 

In our progressive age it is import- 
ant that man informs himself in the va- 
rious departments of his calling. Tlie 
intellectual part of man needs attention 
quite as much as his broad acres ; and 
in an age like the one in which we live 
there is ample provision made for all 
who wish to avail themselves of the op- 
portunity. Works treating on his call- 
ing can be had on all sides. Farmers' 
clubs. Agricultural meetings, the advan- 
tages of the press, are all open to him ; 
and, indeed, he who is insensible to all 
these, must be wanting in some of the 
.characteristics of human nature. 

In our domestic animals we have 
made a decided improvement during 
the last quarter of a century. The pro- 
gressive farmer is not satisfied with the 
rough, scrubby breed of cattle of for- 
mer years, and it must now be thorough 
bred short-horned Durhavi, noted for 
their plump, sleek and glossy appear- 
ance, and for fine beeves there are noue 
superior. The Alderney, with her fine 
milking qualities, now graces the barn- 
yards of most of our leading farmers, 
and will ere long be the animal gener- 
ally used for this purpose; and in the 
breeding of swine we have made a de- 
cided improvement on our former stock, 
putting off our inferior breeds and re- 
placing them with the noted Chester- 
whites — a pleasure and a pride of all 
fine pork raisers. But most important 
and best of all creatures given to man, 
the noble horse comes in for his full 
share. Of all animals given for the ser- 
vice or man, perhaps none has been so 
much abused and so ungratefully treated 
as the horse. Through a more humane 
and charitable spirit among our better 
class of men, the wants of this much ne- 



glected and misused servant of man 
is more carefully guarded, and we have 
in our age of progress, as we should 
have, a society for preventing cruelty to 
animals ; and God speed the day when . 
this noble work will be spread over our 1 
broad land, and give the noble horse 
that protection which he so richly de- 
serves. 

In our homes we are a progressive 
people. We live better, and have more 
general knowledge of the affairs of the 
world than our forefathers had. AVe 
live in better houses ; have better im- 
proved farms, and more productive (or 
at least should have), more social ad- 
vantages ; and, in short, we have made 
great progress in agriculture in all its 
branches during the last half century. 
How came all this to pass? Surely, by 
the actions of the people engaged in 
these pursuits, and a free system of edu- 
cation, so that the intellectual part of 
man was not wholly neglected ; for just 
as a nation grows in intellect and moral 
worth, will the arts and sciences be ad- 
vanced. 

To no class of men is the future 
more promising than to the agricultur- 
ist. -But let us see that with all our 
improvements in our calling, we make 
progress also in the great business and 
aim of life ; that is, not merely add 
field to field, pull down and build 
greater, but improve our minds, our 
hearts and our lives, and strive to bene- 
fit the community in which we live. 



BROVIDING GRASS SEED. 



Every farmer uses more or less seeds 
ofthe different grasses and forage plants. 
Most of these seeds are purchased from 
dealers or growers, few farmers being so 
situated as to grow all the grass seeds 
needed for stocking down pastures and 
meadows in the Spring. The season is 
coming on when these seeds must be 
sown, if ever. It is time to look around 
and find where these can be procured to 
the best advantage, or at the cheapest 
rate. Both these requirements are, or 
must be, kept in view ; it will not do to 
buy seeds with either object in view 
alone. Seeds bought at the best advan- 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



155 



tage are always cheap. They may cost 
a little more money at the outset, yet 
may be the cheapest. As an instance, 
the experience of a man in Western New 
York may be adduced. Wishing to sow 
a little Alsike clover seed, he consulted 
the catalogues and advertisements of 
all the regular and transient dealers. 
Prices ranged from seventy-five cents to 
one dollar and twenty-five cents per 
pound. The difference — fifty cents per 
pound was considerable ; so he con- 
cluded to send to the parties offering 
the seed at the lowest prices. The seed 
grew well, but the next year several 
stools of the white or ox-eye daisy 
blossomed out finely. They were dug 
out of course, but new ones have ap- 
peared every year since, from seed 
which had hitherto remained dormant 
in the ground. That seed was not cheap 
at any price. The same person wished 
to sow more than last season. He was 
at the trouble and expense of taking a 
journey of sixty miles in order to per- 
sonally examine, at a^lage seed store, 
the samples of Alsike seed. The seed 
purchased was previously examined with 
a magnifying glass and no ox-eye daisy 
seed could be detected. The Alsike 
seed cost more than advertised prices, 
but the purchaser will probably find it 
cheap. 

It is wise to sow the best seed and to 
sow plenty of it. It is wise also only 
to buy of seedsmen who have an estab- 
lished reputation for accuracy, careful- 
ness and responsibility. The reputa- 
tion of such is worth more than the 
profits on a whole season's sales, and of 
course their goods can be relied upon. 
They also have a direct interest in sell- 
ing only the best seed, since usually the 
results of such sales are a "standing 
local advertisement" in every section 
where sown. 

It is necessary to sow i)lenty of seed. 
Ten cents saved in seed result usually 
in a dollar lost in the harvest. Just 
how much would be enough the cir- 
cumstances of each particular locality 
can alone determine. This much is 
certain — no one has ever reported that 
he has sowed too much. All errors have 
been invariably made the other way, as 
.far as known. If the "penny-wise 



but pound foolish" course — that of 
sowing as itw pounds of seed as possi- 
ble — is followed, the hay crop will be 
quickly gathered, and in Winter will 
soon be gone. Just as much seed must 
be sown as will stock every square inch 
of the ground with at least one growing 
plant. This will take more seeds in 
number than just the number of square 
inches of surface in the field. Four or 
more times this amount should be pro- 
vided, for much is inevitably lost. The 
seed should be scattered lavishly enough 
to secure a good'stand, if it takes a full 
half bushel of seed to each acre to be 
seeded down. — Country Gefitleman. 



n ENTOMOLOGICAL. 



As the "Colorado Potato-Beetle," 
in all probability, will be a local 
insect-pest in this country for years to 
come ; and, with whose pernicious and 
destructive character but few of our far- 
mers have yet an experimental know- 
ledge, we] here introduce papers on the 
subject which have a practical bearing 
in relation to those collateral questions 
which invariably are connected with 
things that are /ie7e/. These papers may 
be more useful as a reference in the fu- 
ture than they have been in the past, 
simply because the worst form of di pos- 
sible evil cannot be fully comprehended 
until it is actually present. The few of 
our farmers, thus far, whose crops have 
been infested with this beetle, have been 
able to save them by hand-picking and 
the application of the ordinary artificial 
remedies ; but a time may come when 
a more determined war against them 
will have to be waged, than any that 
has yet been made. If such a time does 
not come, it will be all the better for 
the cultivators and consumers of the 
potato, and illustrate the value of the 
facts contained in these papers, besides 
affording consolation and protection on 
a subject which is so liable to misrepre- 
sentation. It may be necessary to re- 
mark here, in relation to Paris-green, 
about which so much has been said as a 
remedy, that its efficacy will depend 
upon it.'' quality, and that its mixture . 
with other ingredients will be in accor- 
dance with that quality. A writer from 



156 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



Illinois, in the Daily Express of July 
7 th, states ihsAfour parts of flour to one 
of green is used in his district, and that 
several tons of it have been sold in a 
single season. Others state that from 
ten to fifteen parts of flour are used. 
These disagreements are doubtless based 
upon the quality of the poison. When 
we mention twenty parts of the dilutent, 
we merely state the experience of others, 
which is no doubt the effect of the best 
quality of the Paris-green. This is one 
of those questions which time and expe- 
rience will test, and must be deter- 
mined by the potato-grower's own prac- 
tical observations. When he once knows 
7vhat will destroy the insects, and how 
to apply it, he will soon learn also the 
right quantity and quality which ought 
to be used. 



Written for the Inquirer. 

THE COLORADO POTATO 
BEETLE. 



{DorypJiora decemlineata.') 



BY S. S. RATHVON. 



This enemy of one of our most essen 
tial crops, having to all appearance now 
fixed itself in Lancaster county, allow us 
to offer some speculations as to how it 
got here, so far in advance of its usual 
yearly progress through the Western 
States. In 1871 we heard of its being 
within twenty miles of the western 
boundary line of Pennsylvania ; and as 
its previous progress had been from sixty 
to seventy miles a year, we , might natu- 
rally have looked for its "advance 
guards" in this county, about the year 
1875 or 1876. But it was here already in 
1872, and as its first appearance was in 
the vicinity of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, there is reason to conjecture that 
it had been brought here somehow on 
the rolling stock of that road. In 1870 
a few of these beetles had been discov- 
ered in a potato patch in the town of 
Worcester, Mass., according to Dr. 
Packard, who gave it as his opinion 
that they had been conveyed thither on 
the railroad, as the enclosure in which 
they were discovered was in proximity 
to the road. But through Yankee in- 



genuity and vigilance they were exter- 
minated. 

Now the last brood of the season of 
this insect, either in its pupa or mature 
state, hybernates during the winter sea- 
son — that is, becomes torpid — either un- 
der the ground, under heaps of field rub- 
bish, or in " cracks and crevices," or 
other convenient hiding places. In the 
autum of 1 87 1 they were noticed, near 
the eastern boundary of Ohio, deserting 
a potato field because no more potato 
plants were in their green or succulent 
state, and winter was approaching. 
They were so numerous in crossing over 
the rails of the road, that the driving 
wheels of the engines would sometimes 
make a whole revolution without mak- 
ing any forward progress, in consequenee 
of the crushed bodies of the insects 
lubricating the tracks. We may there- 
fore reasonably conclude, that some of 
them took refuge in the rolling stock 
standing on the road, or in exposed 
freight, subsequently loaded on the cars 
- -for even the -streets, sidewalks and 
yards of some of the towns, were full of 
them — and thus were conveyed to other 
remote localities. It is difficult to com- 
prehend how they could so soon have 
crossed the Allegheny mountains, and 
have reached Eastern Pennsylvania, on 
any other theory. 

It is true that the matured beetles are 
provided with ample wings, and al- 
though their flight is sluggish, they may 
still possess the power of flying a great 
distance in calm weather. Butterflies 
have an apparently weak and awkward 
flight, and yet they have been known to 
alight on the rigging of vessels ninety 
or a hundred miles out at sea, in fair 
weather. Insects of various kinds have 
frequently been known to cross the 
British channel, a distance of thirty or 
forty miles from the continent of Eu- 
rope to England, and vice versa. Still 
this does not preclude the possibility of 
their being also transported by artificial 
means, and it was evidently by such 
means that they were first brought into 
Lancaster county. 

Although potato growers are begin- 
ning to acquire a realizing sense of their 
destructive habits, and to learn some- 
thing of their individual identification,' 



7HE LANCASTER FARMER. 



157 



yet there is a vast amount of the most 

profound ignorance still abroad in refer- 
ence to their history, their transform- 
ation, and their modes of re[)roduction 
and perpetuation ; some alleging that 
the "white butterfly" deposits the eggs 
from which tlie disgusting grubs are 
hatched ; others that the grubs are the 
parents of certain plant-lice which in- 
fest the potato vines; and others again 
that when the female is done laying her 
eggs she creeps into the ground, and 
comes forth again reinvigorated ; many 
of them vigorously warring against the 
grubs, but paying no attention to the 
mature beetles — the authors of the pes- 
tilential hordes. 

Although the lives of virgin or gravid 
female insects may be prolonged to an 
indefiinte period, yet when they have 
oviposited, they usually soon die there- 
after from exhaustion. As the female 
"Colorado beetle" deposits from one 
thousand to twelve hundred eggs within 
a period of about forty days, there is 
reason to believe that she soon thereafter 
shares the common fate. This is also 
the case with the males after their sper- 
matazoic energies are exhausted. There- 
fore those which survive the hybernating 
period and make their appearance in 
early spring, are either gravid or virgin 
females, and unexhausted males. We 
have seen the sexes in coin in the early 
part of June the present year, and there- 
fore concluded that they had hyber- 
nated in the pupa state ; the earlier 
eggs must be from females impregnated 
last year. 

Under these circumstances then, it be- 
comes the bounden duty of ^i/Zthe potato 
growers in a district infested by the Col- 
orado potato beetle to exercise a vigilant 
watch for these insects early in the 
spring, even before their potato plants 
have broken through the surface of the 
ground, and by careful and thorough 
handpicking, or otherwise, to gather and 
destroy all the adult beetles as soon as 
they make their appearance; for in so 
doing they destroy from ten to twelve 
hundred insects in embryo. Although 
the beetles themselves also feed upon the 
potato plants, yet their injuries are only 
as one to a thousand, when compared 
with the injury inflicted by the hirva. 



But their labors in this direction, 
should not cease here, for some of the 
insects may have evaded their utmost 
watchfulness. They should, therefore, 
thoroughly examine all their potato 
plants and, if eggs are present, they 
will be found in clusters from twenty to 
fifty on the under sides of the leaves. 

These eggs are sufficiently conspicuous 
to be detected by the naked eye, and are 
a bright orange color when first depos- 
ited, but as incubation supervenes, they 
change in color to different shades of 
brown. These eggs should be carefully 
collected and destroyed, either by burn- 
ing or scalding. The employment of 
the children of the household could be 
beneficially and economically improvised 
for this purpose, but in the absence of 
such children, it would be far better to 
hire children at reasonable wages, than 
to leave the work undone. One day's 
vigilant labor in early spring would be 
worth more than ten days at a later pe- 
riod, when the eggs are hatched, and 
the larva have begun their devastating 
work. 

REMEDIES. 

If, however, through negligence or 
otherwise, the insects have become so 
numerous that handpicking would be 
impracticable and hopeless, and anti- 
dotes or mechanical means become ne- 
cessary in order to save the crop what- 
ever is done should be done intelligently, 
systematically and i)erseveringly. Too 
many remedies are carelessly and hastily 
applied, and then if no good from them 
becomes immediately apparent, they are 
unqualifiedly condemned. People ex- 
pect the result of artificial remedies to 
be something analogous to *a patient 
taking a dose of medicine. He shuts 
his eyes and swallows the pill, and then 
folds his hands and waits for its opera- 
tion, without any other effort on his 
part. You might as well attempt to kill 
a bird by dropping a little salt upon one 
of the feathers of its tail, as to expect to 
kill potato beetles by such an indolent 
application of remedies. The tobacco 
grower goes to work more skillfully and 
perseveringly than that, and surely the 
potato crop of the country is of more 
consequence to the poorer masses of the 
people than the tobacco. 



158 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



Remedies may be divided into three 

classes, namely : Manual, artificial and 
natural. To the first of these belong 
hand-picking and the various contri- 
vances which have been invented or de 
vised for knocking the insects off the 
vines into receiving vessels, by the 
hands, a broom or wisp, a bat, a revolv- 
ing fan-wheel passed between the rows, 
or by a sort of scoop with a divergent 
mouth. The simplest of these is a shal- 
low pan held in the left hand under the 
infested vine, and then with the right 
hand sweeping or stripping them off 
into the pan, and destroying them by 
fire or hot water. As these insects are 
not gifted with any very great powers of 
locomotion and prehension, they very 
readily fall into such a trap, if it is care- 
fully and skillfully manipulated. Of 
course, in the use of these remedies, 
many of the insects may fall upon the 
ground near the base of the plant, and 
therefore these should receive careful 
attention, or they will soon return again 
to the places from where they had been 
temporarily dislodged. The adults also, 
when they fall, will be apt to practice 
deception for awhile, and pretend to be 
dead — trust them not. 

The artificial remedies are many, 
good, bad and indifferent ; but even the 
best of them may be worthless, if not 
skillfully ond perseveringly applied. 
Wood-ashes, strewn on the plants when 
they are wet with dew or rain, is claimed 
as a remedy, on the ground that an al- 
kalinous substance results from a com- 
bination of ashes and water, that is dis- 
tiisteful or destructive to the insects; 
air-slaked lime, on account of its acid- 
iferous qualities ; gas lime, as a repel- 
lant or expellant, through its asphaltic 
odor ; pulverized tobacco, on account of 
its narcotic qualities, and for the same 
leason tobacco decoctions are applied ; a 
solution of whale oil soap, which is a 
general remedy for the destruction of 
insects, is also classed among the arti- 
ficial means to extinguish the Colorado 
potato beetle ; white hellebore, on ac- 
count of its poisonous qualities, has been 
applied, and in some instances with per- 
ceptible effect ; but, so far, the best 
remedy yet discovered is Paris green, 
applied as a powder or held in suspen- 



sion in water. Those who have tried 
both plans, give the preference to the 
dry powder application as the simplest, 
most economical, and also most effec- 
tive, when carefully administered. 

As a liquid, a tablespoonful of Paris 
green is put into a common pail of water, 
thoroughly stirred up and sprinkled on 
the infested plants with a common water- 
ing can, or a sprinkler made for that 
special purpose. In the same manner, 
a potato grower recommends one pound 
of concentrated lye dissolved in a barrel 
of water, sprinkled on the plants at any 
hour of the day ; but an intelligent far- 
mer residing near this city, reports that 
he has tried it without any visible good 
effect. Although all the foregoing rem- 
edies may destroy some of the insects 
when skillfully and perseveringly used, 
yet many of them have proved failures. 
This may not be so much on account 
of the substance used, as upon its intrin- 
sic quality — its necessary strength to kill 
the insects or drive them away, and yet 
not to injure the plants, or not being so 
employed as to come in immediate con- 
tact with the evil. 

One pound of dry Paris green, how- 
ever, thoroughly mixed with twenty 
pounds of wheat, rye, oats or buckwheat 
flour, has, upon general trial, been 
adopted as the best artificial remedy, 
and to which no danger attaches if the 
ordinary care be taken, as in the use of 
any other poison. It must also be re- 
membered, that the dilution of Paris 
green must be in proportion to its qual- 
ity, if the desired benefits are to be ex- 
pected from its use. 

Now that the demand for this sub- 
stance is so great in the western States, 
"a shoddy" or adulterated article has 
found its way on the market, and far- 
mers have been cheated and their crops 
destroyed through the application of a 
weak, ineffectual remedy, and the rem- 
edy itself decried as a failure. Honor- 
able druggists ought to compound and 
mix the remedy themselves, and keep 
for sale nothing but a good article. If 
we do not greatly misconstrue the 
"signs of the times," the demand for 
Paris green will be a brisk one in the 
future, and none but a practical drug- 
gist would so well understand the mix- 



I 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



159 



ing of it, fbr on this depends greatly its 
beneficial effects; moreover, the man 
who sells the best article, would cer- 
tainly receive the largest patronage. 

A tin or wooden cylindrical box, ca- 
pable of holding about one quart of the 
remedy, having a wire-gauze or perfor- 
ated bottom, and covered wilh a lid on 
top and bottom, to avoid waste, is a 
good implement to scatter the powder 
on tlie plants. This box should have a 
handle at the side, three or four feet 
long. If this box is held over the plant, 
after the lid on the perforated end is re- 
moved, and a gentle or brisk blow is 
struck on the handle with a small mal- 
let, enough of the powder will be dis- 
charged to kill all the insects it comes 
in contact with. 

Care should be taken not to inhale 
any of the mixture; but a very small 
quantity in this diluted form v/ould not 
be very hurtful. The operator should 
always keep to windward of the dis- 
charge, but, if possible, the remedy 
should not be used when it is very 
windy, as much of it would be wasted, 
and would probably not reach the en- 
emy. The best time to use any pow- 
dered preparation is early in the morn- 
ing, when the dew is on the plants, or 
immediately after a rain. In the ab- 
sence of dew or rain, and it became im- 
portant to save the crop, the plants 
could be wetted artificially. 

But there are natural remedies, and 
where ignorance does not prevent the 
free exercise of these, the labors of the 
farmers and their families might be 
much lessened. Some of these natural 
remedies are, however, only temporary; 
but others, to a limited extent, are con- 
stant. It is not known that birds, as a 
general thing, manifest any partiality 
for these insects, and this is also the 
case with poultry in general. But we 
have been informed that guinea fowls 
are particularly fond of them, and pro- 
bably would continue to feed upon them 
until they had a surfeit of them. Tur- 
keys, both the adults and the young, but 
especially the latter, are said to be fond 
of them. 

Ducks have been instructed to feed on 
them, and in some instances chickens 
also ; and last, perhaps not least, comes 



a report, that a farmer in the vicinity of 
Elizabethtown, saved his potatoes last 
year from infestations, by permitting a 
flock of tame geese to enter his enclosure 
daily, and that these birds became so 
fond of the insects that they every^morn- 
ing returned to the feast with renewed 
zest. History says that on one occasion 
a flock of geese saved ancient Rome from 
impending ruin,andif they can now save 
the potato crop, they will be entitled to 
a higher niche in the Temple of Fame, 
or in historic record, a larger page. It 
may be well to say here, however, it 
would not be wise to permit fowls of any 
kind to enter an enclosure where Paris 
green or any other poison has been 
used. 

In papers recently published in the 
Morning Review, the Daily Intelligencer 
and the Daily Express, of this city, we 
illustrated the possible increase of this 
insect, where no manual, artificial or 
natural remedies intervened to check its 
progress, and where all other circum- 
stances were equally favorable ; and the 
fact that it does not so increase, is largely 
to be attributed to the existence of many 
natural enemies to which it is constantly 
falling a prey, and without which our 
highest estimates might be realized. 

The first of these enemies is a two- 
winged fly {Lydella doryphora) a quar- 
ter of an inch in length, and half an 
inch across the expanded wings, of a 
black and silvery gray color, the larva 
of which burrows into the larva of the 
potato beetle, and makes it an unwill- 
ing but certain victim. Anrl then we 
have at least four species of "Lady- 
birds," the larva of which feed upon 
the eggs of the potato beetle. Almost 
everybody knows what a Lady-bird is, 
but not every one knows its lizard- 
shaped larva, various colored with pink 
and black, and orange spots ; for we 
have seen those who were crushing the 
Colorado larva, including these useful 
little friends in their list of proscrip- 
tions. The "spine soldier bug" {Anna 
spinosa) also feeds extensively upon 
these potato pests, and not only on 
these alone, but also on other noxious 
insects. Belonging to the same order 
are three other true bugs which feed 
on the potato beetle, sucking out their 



160 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



substance and leaving little more than 
the empty shell or skin, namely: the 
"Bordered soldier bug," not common 
in this locality, but farther south. The 
" M; n/ banded Robber" i^Harpector 
cinctus), the "Rapacious soldier bug" 
{Reduvius raplatorius), with whose /<?//- 
etratitig habits we were made acquainted 
many years ago, and a few others, have 
been known to attack and destroy the 
larva of the potato beetle in other local- 
ities, and we may count upon their aid 
here. 

Several species of "ground beetle," 
of the predaceous families, have been 
found feeding on the larvae of the po- 
tato beetle, among which are the "fiery 
ground beetle" {Calosorna calidiim), a 
larger black insect, with many coppery 
spots on the wing covers, and at least 
three other common and well- known 
species; and, lastly, it is on record that 
the common gray "blister beetle," 
which itself feeds upon the potato tops, 
as a change from its vegetable diet, 
manifests a redeeming trait by making 
jneai of the Colorado beetle. 

If recent observations have demon- 
strated that potato beetles will also feed 
on tomatoes, egg-plants, thistles, night- 
shade, lambs-quarter, horse-nettle, hen- 
1 ane, jimpson weed, raspberry, currant, 
ground-cherry and several other plants, 
when the potato is not accessible, it is 
some consolation to know that time is 
also bringing to light more of its natu- 
ral enemies. 

But let not the farmers depend upon 
their friends, but cooperate with them; 
and we have written this paper solely 
with a view in some measure to acquaint 
them with the length and breadth of the 
" situation." 



A FOE TO THE POTATO BUG. 



The following correspondence will 
explain itself : 

New Freedom, York Co., Pa., ] 
* June 24th, 1S74, I 

Prof. S. S. Rathvon, Lancasfer, Fa. : 

Dear Sir : Enclosed find (in a quill) 
a bug. While working in my potato 
patch to-day, I found him regaling him- 
self by sucking the juices of Colorado 
potato beetle grubs. He is, therefore, 



the insect for the times — what is his 
name and habits? 

Reply through the Inielligcncer. 
Very respectfully yours, 

T. M. COULSON. 

In replying to the above, we are 
happy to find such an unqualified con- 
firmation of our statement in an article 
on the "Colorado Potato Beetle," pub- 
lished in the Lancaster ///./////rr of June 
27th, coming from such an intelligent 
source. 

In speaking of remedies in the article 
alluded to, we stated that there were 
natural remedies, and that among these 
were certain species of predaceous in- 
sects, which preyed both upon the eggs 
and larva of the potato beetle ; anil 
conspicuously among them is the spe- 
cies sent by our correspondent " in a 
quill." This is the Anna spinosa, of 
Entomologists, but commonly called the 
" Spined Soldier Bug," and belongs to 
the Order Hemiptera, which comprises 
the true bugs. It is a suctorial insect, 
and feeds entirely upon the juicy sub- 
stances of other insects, but does not 
confine itself exclusively to the soft larva 
of potato beetles, but will also attack the 
larva of any other insect to which it can 
gain access. This insect is about three 
quarters of an inch in length from the 
front of its head to the end of its closed 
wings, and about one quarter of an inch 
broad across the base of its wings. It 
has a large, acutely triangular piece 
iScutellum) on the back, the acute angle 
pointing towards the hind end of the 
body. At the two outer angles of the 
base of the thorax, or chest, are two 
short, blunt spines, from which the in- 
sect derives its specific name. The color 
above is a dusky, clay yellow, and a 
brighter or greenish yellow beneath. 
The intensity of the colors vary, how- 
ever, according to age or sex. Two- 
thirds of the wing-covers are hard, 
opaque or leathery, and the terminal 
third, membranaceous. The antenna; 
are filiform and four jointed, and the 
feet are clay yellow. 

As to how this insect passes its imma- 
ture period, I am not well informed, and 
can only reason inferentially. I have 
known it for thirty years, and have ob- 
served and collected it under various cir- 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



161 



cumstances, but never detected its feed- 
ing on plant food, but often attacking 
other insects. On one occasion a fe- 
male deposited about twenty eggs on a 
leaf, which I kept nntil the young were 
hatched. After keeping them a few 
days without discovering that they par- 
took of vegetable food, I left them dis- 
perse, feeling assured that they were the 
friends of vegetation in all the stages of 
their development. 

As they, however, belong to a family 
(Pentatomada) that is nearly allied to 
the family (Coreid/k) which includes 
tlie common "Squash Bug" {corctis tris- 
//s), they may easily be confounded with 
some of their plant-feeding allies ; and 
this circumstance seems to forcibly de- 
monstrate the necessity of a practical 
entomological education among those 
who propose to make Agriculture, Hor 
ticulture, floriculture, Arboriculture or 
Sylviculture, a secular specialty — -involv- 
ing at least a knowledge of the habits 
of those insects which are the enemies 
or the friends of vegetation, or other 
productions in which the human family 
lias a domestic interest. American 
travelers are sometimes astonished at 
finding such correct zoological and bo- 
tanical knowledge among the seem- 
ingly ignorant peasantry, in some dis- 
tricts on the continent of Europe; and 
when they learn whence it comes, it is 
found that the elemental principles of it 
have been taught in their schools. This 
may not be so necessary in sparsely pop- 
ulated America as it is in densely pop- 
ulated Europe, but a thought or look in 
that direction now is fraught with much 
more interest than they were twenty or 
thirty years ago, and before the close of 
the present century we may have liber- 
ally endowed Colleges of Natural His- 
tory, non-progressive or retrogressive 
*' fogyism" to the contrary notwith- 
stanfling. 

But to return to our insect again, we 
would endorse our correspondent's con- 
clusions, that this is one of " the insects 
for the times," and should be fostered 
by an intelligent discrimination. He 
will probably also find the laiTcc of the 
common "Lady-birds" feeding upon 
the eggs of the potato beetles, and upon 
the Aphids which infest that plant. 



These are flattish, spindle-shaped, black- 
ish, or ash-colored little creatures, with 
six feet, and reddish or orange-colored 
spots on the back — the body tapering 
posteriorly to a blunt point. 

It is impossible even to estimate how 
many of the noxious insects annually 
fall victims to the rapacity of the innox- 
ious and parasitic species ; and when we 
find a redundancy of the former, we 
may infer that the equilibrium has some- 
how been destroyed through the inter- 
ventions of human progress and im- 
provement, aided by the absence of 
that discrimination to which we have 
alluded. Two years ago several s])eci- 
mens of the larvic of the " White Cab- 
bage-Butterfly" were sent tb us from a 
locality in the western part of Lancas- 
ter county, and two-thirds of these were 
infested by parasites, which prevented 
them from developing the mature in- 
sects. We have, therefore, reasons to 
believe that these parasites will ulti- 
mately diminish, if not entirely extin- 
guish, the cabbage pest. 

In like manner the multiplication of 
the Colorado x^otato beetle may be di- 
minished ultimately; l)ut we would ad- 
vise human cooperation, rather than 
relaxation of all efforts to destroy them; 
simply because these insects arc endow- 
ed with greater powers of reproduction 
than any of their enemies are. In con- 
clusion, permit us to say, that as we 
have found Arma. Sfinosa late in fall 
and early in spring, we therefore con- 
clude that it hybernates during the 
winter. 



[Comiuuuicjted. 

'PARIS GREEN" AND "POTATO 
BEETLES." 



Ed. Morning Review: In your issue 
of June 26, the following paragraph — 
which speaks for itself — appeared in one 
of your local columns, and since then 
has been "going the roimds" of the' city 
and county papers, and perhaps also has 
been copied by many papers beyond our 
borders — at which no one need be sur- 
prised — because, if true, it certainly 
would be an interesting item of news, 
and news — sensational news- -is what 



162 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



the people of the present day ** gobble 
up" with the greatest relish : 

'■^Poison and Potato Bugs — Dangef- 
oiis. — Among the other plans published 
to kill potato bugs, is the sprinkling of 
the stalks with Paris green. But this is 
rather dangerous, it seems, as it may 
also impregnate the potatoes with the 
poison. The Reading Tunes recently 
stated the following case : 

"Mr. Jeremiah Rank, wife, two daugh- 
ters and son, residing at No. 634 Pine 
street, were poisoned on Sunday by eat- 
ing new potatoes ; at least they are un- 
able to attribute it to any other cause. 
The supposition is, that the potatoes 
were impregnated with Paris green, 
which had been sprinkled on the stalks 
to destroy the potato bugs. The symp- 
toms of the poisoning were vomiting, 
attendant with violent pains in the 
stomach. A physician was summoned, 
and under his care and treatment all the 
members of the family are recovering." 

As your journal was the first in this 
county, to my knowledge, in which this 
paragraph appeared, it seems meet that 
It should also be the first to publish the 
following authenticated refutations, and 
1 have gone to the trouble of obtaining 
reliable information, and have written 
this not with a view of throwing the 
people off their guard, by implying that 
Paris Green is not a poison — for I have 
too often staled that it is, and the 
stronger qualities a rank mineral poison 
— but to prove that it is not, did not, and" 
I verily believe cannot, poison in the 
manner stated, in this paragraph ; but, 
like all other poisons, it should be cau- 
tiously handled. 

Believing that this story rested on a 
foundation similar to the stories so 
freely circulated a few years ago in re- 
gard to the fatal stinging of the "Sev- 
enteen year Locust" — not one of which 
I was able to trace to a definite and re- 
liable source — I immediately instituted 
the necessary inquiry, and my object in 
doing so, was not the establishment or 
support of a false theory, but in order 
to get at the tnith, especially as I had 
recommended Paris green as the bezt 
remedy, if not the only remedy to de- 
stroy the "Colorado potato beetle." 
But in doing so, I did not imply that 



this poison was 7ny remedy, for, practi- 
cally, it was as new to me as it was to 
any other individual in the county, but 
I gave it as the most reliable remedy of 
the people of the western States, who 
had been infested with, and had been 
fighting against, the potato beetle for 
ten years or more. And it is the 
best ariificial remedy that has yet been 
discovered, and never fails where a good 
article is properly applied. But Paris 
green is of different qualities, and sells 
for from 25 to 55 cents per pound; and, 
theretbre, it must be evident that the 
25-cent article will not bear the dilu- 
tion, and do its work effectually, that 
the 55-cent article will. It might be 
safe to say, that none should be used 
that costs less than 45 cents per pound. 

But to the proof. On the 29th ult. I 
enclosed the above paragraph in a letter 
to Mr. Herman Strecher, an intelligent 
entomological friend of the city of Read- 
ing, requesting him to make inquiry in 
the premises, and give me a statement 
of the facts, no matter in what degree 
they militated for or against Paris green. 
Mr. S. is intimately acquainted with the 
physician who attended the case, and, 
under date of July i, 1S74, this is what 
he says on the subject : 

" I saw the doctor who attended the 
Rank family, and he says they were all 
seized with vomiting and excessive di- 
arrhoea at the same time, and had a 
rather rough time of it for a day or two. 
He questioned them closely, and they 
said the only thing they had eaten to 
any extent, were new potatoes, in which 
they had indulged largely (the first of 
the season), and which they supposed 
was the cause of their illness. After 
Mr. Rank's recovery, at the suggestion 
of the doctor, he saw the countryman 
from whom he had bought the potatoes, 
and in conversation with him, while 
making some purchases, he purposely 
got on the potato subject, asking if the 
bugs were bad in his fields, and if he 
used anything to destroy them, when he 
said he used nothing whatever, that the 
bugs were not there to any great extent. 

My correspondent then continues : 
" So the facts in the above amount to 
this : a family stuff themselves to reple- 
tion with new potatoes, and as a matter 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



163 



of course get sick — ^just as they would 
had they eaten too many cucumbers, 
green apples, or anything else green — 
then they think they are poisoned, and 
of course comes the bug-bear Paris green 
as the "scape-goat." These poison 
stories are exactly analogous to those 
that were afloat regarding the cicada 
some years since." Mr. S. then goes 
on to give a graphic relation of the 
many prominent humbugs of the times, 
and that "the world is a fool and wants 
to be humbugged," and further states 
that "plants do not, like animals, take 
to unnatural food ; they merely absorb 
what is useful and necessary to their 
growth." "Some plants bearing pink 
flowers — Hydrangeas for instance — can 
have the pink changed to white in a 
short time, by putting pieces of iron 
around the roots, yet an analysis of the. 
parts of the plants thus subjected, would 
show no traces of iron." 

It doubtless might be said in reply to 
all this, that the farmer who sold the 
potatoes to Mr. Rank, feeling a respon- 
sibility resting upon him that he by no 
means desired to assume, or to save the 
character of his potatoes from utter con- 
demnation in the market, might now 
deny he had used Paris green, from sel- 
fish motives alone ; but this is too un- 
charitable a conclusion to come to ; for 
I cannot believe that any farmer, in 
either Berks or Lancaster counties would 
l)ersist in such a denial, or continue to 
offer his produce for sale when he knew 
its poisonous effects upon its consumers. 
But to set that matter at rest Mr. S. 
concludes : " The doctor who attended 
the Rank family is an old acquaintance 
of mine. He does not suppose that the 
sickness was caused by the use of Paris 
green ; although he thinks the potatoes 
may have had something to do with it 
(perhaps a too free and injudicious use 
of them), but the countryman without 
knowing any of the circumstances, in an 
apparently casual way said, he was not 
troubled much with the bugs, and had 
used nothing whatever on his plants as 
a preventive or a cure." 

In conclusion, I may add, that there 
are cathartic and emetic properties in 
solanaceous tubers and tVuits themselves, 
which may be evolved through improper 



culinary preparations, sufficient to pro- 
duce vomiting and diarrhcea in any one; 
especially in sudden changes of diet, or 
in certain conditions of the human sys- 
tem. I myself have had diarrhoea 
caused by eating fried tg^ plants and 
tomatoes that have been kept in a metal 
can. Some years ago "cathartic tomato 
pills" were kept for sale in many of the 
drug stores throughout the country, 
which is sufficient evidence that this 
property is there at least. Paris green 
is a mineral substance insoluble in 
water, and not easily assimilated by 
plants in sufficient quantity to make 
them poisonous without destroying their 
own vitality. Deadly nightshade, which 
belongs to the potato family, is a well 
known poison. 

Paris green is known in chemistry as 
" Scheele's green," and is a compound 
of arsenic and copper, and is only an 
inferior article oi acetate of copper, which 
is popularly known as "verdigris." 
From this it may be seen that, although 
it should be handled with care, yet if 
so handled, it neither poisons the han- 
dler nor the plant or fruit, as a neces- 
sary consequence. A neighbor of mine, 
who used an inferior article without de- 
stroying all the beetles on his potatoes, 
attempted to " finish up" afterwards by 
crushing them with his fingers ; but, 
disturbing the powder and inhaling it, 
by bringing his face too near the plants, 
made him very sick for a day or two. 
It would, therefore, be better not to em- 
ploy this remedy at all, except in very 
extreme cases, and then only the best 
article, depending on that alone as a 
finality, if people cannot learn to han- 
dle and apply it with the same care that 
they use to avoid the barbs, in skinning 
a catfish, or the thorns, in i)icking black- 
berries. I had a very striking illustra- 
tion the present season, of the superi- 
ority of persevering "hand-picking," in 
a limited enclosure, over an injudicious 
use of inferior Paris green. In the for- 
mer case the proprietor set his children 
to work, early in the season, and they 
collected all the beetles and their eggs, 
daily, and destroyed them ; while in the 
latter case, the potatoes were neglected 
until they were swarming with larvae, 
and then only resorted to spurious Paris 



164 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



green. The consequence was. that the 
former saved his crop, whilst the latter 
lost his, and poisoned himself — not by 
eating the potatoes, but by inhaling the 
remedy. Of course, in a very large 
field, hand-picking alone might be im- 
practicable, and therefore an artificial 
remedy the only safe resort. R. 



HORTICULTURAL. 



THE STRAWBERRY. 

V-) {^Fragraria Fesca.) 



THE botanic name of tlys fruit has 
reference to its fragrance ; but 
there is nothing in its appearance, its 
color, its texture, and its quality, that is 



proper name is Stray-\i^\xy, from its 
habit of trailing along the ground. 
Others allege that the name is derived 
from the custom of laying straw under 
the plants when the fruit begins to 
ripen and swell. Our readers may make 
their own choice, for both seem suffi- 
ciently "far-fetched." The Germans 
call them "earth-berries" in ///£■/> lan- 
guage, which is about as expressive a, 
"earth-cherries," and "earth-apples" in 
our language, when we consider that 
the earth is the common mother of the 
whole vegetable kingdom. But no mat- 
ter now about the name, for they 
"smell as sweet" under their present 
name as they would under any other ; 
and, somehow, we have had little more 
than a smell of them the present season, 
notwithstanding they were sold in some 




suggestive of sira^v, as its common 
name — and infinitely less in its taste or 
smell. It is said, that among English 
gardeners — from whence the term 
" strawberry" originally came — they 
have two theories in regard to the origin 
of this name, both supported by distin- 
guished authorities. The party led by 
Sir Joseph Banks, contend that the 



places as low as three or four cents per 
quart or box. 

The strawberry is very widely dif- 
fused, being found in most parts of the 
world, especially in Europe and Amer- 
ica ; and it is thought by many, that 
notwithstanding the great number of 
/;;//; vz'i'^/ varieties which cultivation has 
produced, none of them excel in the 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



165 



fine aroma possessed by this fruit in its 
wild state. The fruit was cultivated and 
known as an article of consumption, as 
early as the time of Henry VL, prior to 
the year 1483; and, perhaps, no "small 
fruit" is now more extensively culti- 
vated, or in greater variety, than the 
strawberry. And yet it never has been, 
and perhaps never ivill be, cheap, in the 
county of Lancaster, or probably else- 
where. It is true, that occasionally, 
when there is a sudden ripening of 
much fruit at the same time, that the 
markets may become temporarily over- 
stocked, and the prices brought ruin- 
ously low, but this does not often occur, 
and therefore strawberries, as a general 
thing, are always comparatively high in 
price to the consumers — especially the 
finer varieties. On one occasion we 
heard an intelligent and successful straw- 
berry cultivator declare that he could 
raise, on a given quantity of ground, 
" bushel for bushel," as many straw- 
berries as any other man could pota- 
toes, and those who knew him best, 
were of the opinion that he could make 
good his word. The only choice he 
asked the privilege of making, was the 
selection of the variety, which was 
"Wilson's Albany seedling." If the 
one-half of this result could be realized, 
one would suppose that strawberries 
ought to be more abundant and cheaper 
than we have ever yet seen them in 
Lancaster county. They should never 
be too low in price, for if " the laborer 
is worthy of his hire" in any depart 
ment of industry, he certainly is in the 
cultivation of such a delicious fruit as 
strawberries. There, however, never 
will be a rational and equitable schedule 
of prices in the various industries of the 
country, until men are influenced by 
higher motives than profit — personal, 
peeuniary profit — only. The love of 
doing things that are useful to others as 
well as ourselves, ought to make up the 
chief delights in the pursuits of life. Of 
course, there should hQ profits, but these 
should be subordinate to use — the good 
of the neighbor. 

John "W. Caseldine, of Henry county, 
Ky., is the owner of a cow that dropped 
three calves, all of which are living. 



\\t lanca;$t^r Manner* 



LANCASTER, JULY, 1874. 



S. S. RATHVON, Editor. 
J. B. DEVELIN, Ass'i Editor and Publisher. 

Published monthly under the auspices of the AoRi- 

CULTURAL AND HORTICULTURAL SOCIETT. 

$1.00 per Year in Advance. $1.25 if not 
paid in Advance. 

One extra copy to persons sending a club of ten sub- 
scribers, and a copy of our beautiful Steel Engraving 
to every subscriber. 

All communications, to insure insertion, must lie in 
the hands of the editors before the. first of each 
mouth. All advertisements, fiubscri]itions and remit- 
tances to the address of tlie publisher, 

J. B. DEVELIN, Lancaster, Pa. 
No. 43 North Queen-st. 



n 



THE CROPS. 



IN a country so vast and diversified 
as ours, it would be indulging in un- 
warranted anticipations to expect a uni- 
versally good cxo\) of anything; yet the 
general indications, so far, promise well 
the present season. We cannot tell, 
however, what effect upon the final re- 
sult a long wet spell may have in the 
gathering of the early crops ; nor yet 
how a long dry spell may affect the 
late crops. In Lancaster county the hay 
crop has been harvested Tat this writing 
July 10) and is regarded as a good av- 
erage. Our farmers are now engaged in 
harvesting their grain (interrupted some- 
what by heavy showers of rain and hail 
in some places) which also promises to be 
an average. The violent hailstorms have, 
however, been very damaging to the 
corn, tobacco and fruit, and wherever 
they have occurred, have unsparingly 
demolished the glass in green-houses and 
conservatories, uprooted trees, cut down 
plants and inundated gardens and fields. 
From the various local reports made, 
however, at the July meeting of the 
Horticultural Society, it appears that 
these damaging effects were only local, 
the greater number of the members re- 
porting "all right." From various lo- 
calities in Lancaster and Chester coun- 
ties, a small straw-colored caterpillar, 
about an inch in length, -is reported as 
destroying the cars of the grain and the 
timothy, but we think that this is only 
temporary, and will be arrested by the 



166 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



process of harvesting. We have some 
of these caterpillars now under our su- 
pervision, and as soon as their histories 
and transformations are fully devoloped 
we will publish an account of them. 
AVe may say this much, however, that 
sliould they possess the power of rapid 
and numerous increase, they may prove 
a most formidable enemy to the grain 
and grass crops in the future. Those we 
have under our observation, fed equally 
on the seeds of the wheat both in its 
green and its ripe states, but upon that 
which was very ripe, with some diffi- 
culty. Perhaps, after all, these adverse 
contingencies may be of some use to us, 
if they are not the very things we need 
to curb our rising vanity at the prospect 
of an overabundance of our agricultural 
" productions. It never seems to enter 
our minds that an excessive universal 
crop of everything might be as finan- 
cially disastrous as a total failure. Too 
much of a thing, if not as bad as none, 
may still be as bad as too little. These 
inequalities in the productions of a vast 
country, stimulate demand, supply and 
transportation ; and thus equalize trade, 
and afford fair prices. Political inde- 
pendence is no doubt a patriotic idea, 
worth striving for and maintaining, but 
selfish, personal independence is not a 
happy condition for a people professing 
to be free and equal. " Se^d time and 
harvest" will doubtless be accorded to 
us as a people, so long as we deserve it, 
and therefore a right use of what we have, 
seems to be the object we should mainly 
endeavor to pursue. Our present pros- 
pects, on the whole, seem favorable, and 
therefore we should endeavor to improve 
tlie present hour, and exercise a rational 
faith in the future — that future in which 
are hidden so many things both "new 
and old." 



A SINGULAR COINCIDENCE. 

We have devoted many years of time, 
of labor, and of study, as well as material 
means, in the acquisition of the little 
knowledge we possess in a few special- 
ties, and we have never hidden our light 

under a bushel, or a bed, when we had I fore their answer not only involves time 
it in our power to diffuse it, in such a [and labor, and sometimes research, but 



way as to benefit others. We are not 
in anywise gifted with that peculiar 
quality recognized as genius, and there- 
fore, all that we are, and all that we 
have, is the result of toil — sometimes 
prolonged and weary toil, for we never 
possessed the happy faculty of acquiring 
anything with the facility that many 
others do. We are not nozu, never have 
been, and never expect to be, a man of 
leisure, and hence all of our time is oc- 
cupied in necessary or incidental labors, 
and for years the great desideratum with 
us has been the want of time; and the 
older we grow, we feel this want tlie 
more pressing. We have never expected 
pecuniary reward, and we can truly saj', 
that we have never been much disap- 
pointed in said ''expectations." Our 
pursuits, notwithstanding the labor and 
expense involved in them, as well as the 
disadvantages often attending them, 
have still been, more or less, labors of 
love ; and we have always enjoyed more 
pleasure in givijig than in receiving. Wc 
would at any time rather grant twenty 
favors than to ask one. We believe we 
have never refused a favor when it was 
in our power to grant it, or when we 
felt we could perform a 7(se. 

Scarcely a week passes over our head 
during which we are not called upon to 
answer half a dozen letters or more by 
mail ; and if any of our correspondents 
find their letters and their queries un- 
answered, they may safely conclude (if 
received) that it is for the want of time 
or ability ; for we are asked many ques- 
tions that are out of the pale of our spe- 
cialties, and therefore cannot answer in- 
telligently. It is the misfortune in many 
instances in this world, to be either 
(9Z'<'/'-esti mated or ?/;;(^/(?/'-estimated, or 
alternately both ; and hence, if we hap- 
pen to know a little on a particular sulS- 
ject, people at once jump to the conclu- 
sion that we ought to know everything 
on all subjects. But we cheerfully an- 
swer all questions within our opportu- 
nity and ability, and just here is where 
our coincidence "comes in." 

Not more than one in twenty of all the 
letters we receive, even contains a post- 
age-stamp or a postal-card, and there-. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



'167 



but also envelope, paper and postage. 
This is becoming an onerous tax upon 
our pecuniary resources; but such has 
been our pleasure in the labor, that we 
have never refused a reply, even on this 
account. We hope, therefore, that our 
correspondents will think of these 
things, and act accordingly. Many of 
their queries could be answered on a 
postal-card, and the least they could do 
would be to inclose one of these. In 
cases requiring a longer reply, a //tree- 
cent stamp would not be amiss. — Ed. 



We owe our subscribers an apology. 
On the cover of last issue we requested 
them to "Look at the date on the yel- 
low slip and give the same prompt at- 
tention." We presume quite a number 
heeded our advice, and were disap- 
jiointed in not finding the yellow slip. 
We have arranged and reset our Dix 
list, and owing to unforeseen circum- 
stances were compelled to address the 
last issue in the old style, with pen and 
ink. We trust all our subscribers will 
carefully examine the slip on this num- 
ber and make prompt remittance of the 
amount. AVe arc greatly in want of 
funds, and must have them. We do 
not care to be continually asking our 
subscribers to pay up, and hope it will 
not be necessary. AVe claim we have a 
prompt paying select list of subscribers 
that need only one reminder. AVe know 
that the newspaper man is always paid 
last, but do not think that any one will 
jiresume that a publisher can pay cash 
for his. work, give the reader a good 
journal, keep himself in food and cloth- 
ing, and never receive the amount due him 
for subscription. Once more, let us ask 
you to send in your arrearages, and we 
will fully repay you in valuable informa- 
tion in succeeding issues. 



This Society has this year departed, 
to a great extent, from the practice of 
awarding medals, and offers money pre- 
miums, which with the State premiums, 
amount to the sum of $i4)3' ^■'^o. 

Premium lists may be obtained upon 
application to either of the above named, 
or from the Recording Secretary, AVm. 
M. Force, Esq., Newark. 



NEAV JERSEY STATE FAIR. 



The sixteenth Grand State Fair of the 
New Jersey State Agricultural Society, 
will be held on the Society's gi'ounds at 
AVaverly Station, N. J. Railroad, near 
Newark, commencing Monday, Septem- 
ber 14th, and continue throughout the 
week. 



MEETING OF THE AGRICULTU- 
RAL AND HORTICULTU- 
RAL SOCIETY. 



The Lancaster County Agricultural 
and Horticultural Society met on Mon- 
day,the 6th inst., in the Orphans' Court 
room, at two o'clock. Present, Messrs. 
Levi S. Reist, John M. Greider, M. N. 
Btubaker, Benj. Bausman, Reuben Gar- 
ber, Martin B. Peifer, Frank Griest, S. 
P. Eby, Dr. E. A. Hertz, D. L. Resh, 
Israel L. Landis and S. S. Rathvon. 

On motion of INI. N. Brubaker, Levi 
S. Reist, esq., was unanimously elected 
chairman /rf /<^///., Johnson Miller be- 
ing absent. 

On motion, the reading of the min- 
utes of the former meeting was dis- 
pensed with. 

Levi S. Reist had some very fine 
cherries on exhibition. The society 
unanimously pronounced them the best 
variety grown. 

Levi S. Reist reported that he had re- 
ceived a small quantity of wheat from 
Hon. A. Herr Smith, and which being 
sown very carefully, proved an entire 
failure. He also reported the grain in 
fine condition, not being injured by the 
late hail storm. 

Dr. E. A. Hertz reported the fruit 
crop very promising, the late hail storm 
not having reached his section. 

Mr. Rathvon introduced Mr. Ryder, 
from Loudon, Franklin county, Pa., 
who presented a few circulars introducing 
a patent fruit drier, and also a few sam- 
ples of fruit dried in his machine. 

Mr. I. L. Landis reported crops in 
Manheim township to be above an aver- 
age — wheat in particular. Hay crop 
large and well secured. The late hail 
storm has done very little damage. 
The tobacco crop is hardly up to an 
average. 



168. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



L. S. Reist remarked that tobacco 
planting has been somewhat delayed in 
consequence of the late rains. 

Mr. Landis reported that the potato 
crop will be full. The bugs have not 
done much damage. 

L. S. Reist thought the potato crop 
had been saved by persons picking the 
bugs. 

Dr. E. A. Hertz was appointed essay- 
ist for next meeting. The samegentle- 
tran reported the hay crop very good ; 
wheat good ; potatoes will be short ; 
jotato bugs plenty; corn looks finely. 

On motion, society adjourned. 



GRAIN STATISTICS. 

Chicago elevators, as per official 
figures, contain 1,189,119 bushels of 
wheat; 2,054,770 bushels of corn; 296,- 
838 bushels of oats; 11,029 bushels of 
rye; and 5,301 bushels of barley — mak- 
ing a grand total of 3,557,057 bushels, 
against 3,832,234 bushels one week ago, 
and 5,586,011 bushels at this period last 
year. Milwaukee elevators are stored 
with 984,625 bushels of wheat; 70,874 
bushels of corn; 18,885 bushels of oats; 
7.162 bushels of rye; and 1,324 bushels 
of barley. 

The amount of grain "in sight" in 
the States and Canada, June 27, 1S74, 
was: Wheat, 7,120,672 bushels; corn, 
7,128,543 bushels; oats, 1,812,202 bush- 
els ; barley, 62,810 bushels. 

The figures below show the stocks of 
grain in New York on the 4th instant : 
Wheat, 794,000 bushels ; corn, 227,000 
bushels; oats, 381,000 bushels; rye, 
33,000 bushels; malt, 82,000. The 
amount of grain in Buffalo was reported 
as follows : Wheat, 200,000 bushels '. 
corn, 120,000 bushels; oats, 19,000 
bushels. The exports from six leading 
seaboard ports last week were : Pork, 
3.706 barrels; lard, 1,992,000 pounds ; 
l)acon, 4,499,000 pounds; flour, 90,483 
barrels; wheat, 1,618,000 bushels; corn, 
1,294,000 bushels; rye, 73,381 bushels. 



DOMESTIC. 



Dan Pfifer has taken in Vermont Ab- 
dallah, and is training him at Narragan- 
sett Park for the great stallion champ- 
ionship race at Mystic Park, in Septem- 
ber next. 



OLD FRUIT CANS. 



EMPTY tin fruit cans, like old hoop 
skirts, are a nuisance when out of 
place. The question is : What is their 
place ? and I should be willing to an- 
swer it a hundred times, if I could ban- 
ish them from the gutters, the ash-heaps, 
the vacant lots, and, above all, from the 
hands of the boys. I shudder now at 
the very suggestion of their ever being 
used again as music-boxes, strung witli 
rosined chord. Did that epidemic visit 
your locality, my dear reader? If so, 
you would be in haste to prevent the 
slightest possibility of its recurrence. 
But to the remedy. 

In the first place, to open the cans 
properly, put hot coals on and around 
the little soldered tip on the top, until 
the solder melts, then scrape off lid and 
coals together, with a table knife. Be 
careful, whoever, not to set the cans on 
the hot stove before they are opened, by 
which little neglect steam enough to 
burst the can might be generated, which 
would not be a very pleasant or profita- 
ble method of opening it. When 
opened properly, you have a smooth, 
round orifice through which to remove 
the fruit. 

When the cans are empty and dry, in- 
vert them on hot coals in the stove for 
half a minute, or on a hot stove, until 
the solder melts and loosens the remain- 
ing top of the caUj then strike, it off, 
smooth off the bits of solder, and you 
have a very convenient cooking utensil. 
For a lid, use a saucer, or the covers of 
old tin pint cups or pails. Rice, wheat, 
samp, pearl barley, split peas and many 
other dishes for a small family, and small 
dishes for a large family can be cooked 
in them, either standing directly on the 
stove, or placed in a large boiler or 
saucepan of water, to prevent the possi- 
bility of their burning. It also saves 
more costly tin utensils, for this method 
of boiling in water is hard on tin-ware. 
One can .or may be kept for onions ; 
others can be used for baking or steam- 
ing rye and Indian bread, and some 
kinds of pudding. 

They arc also convenient for pantry 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



169 



use, for holding articles to be used in 
cookery or in the laundry ; for garden 
seeds, for paint pots, and for many other 
things that will suggest themselves to 
every housekeeper, and for which, in- 
tieed, they would long ago have been 
used but 'for the untidy jagged edge 
made by the common method of open- 
ing them. If covers are wanted for 
them in these capacities, discarded rims 
and lids may be put together with a lit- 
tle solder. 

If there are tin shears at hand, and any 
one to use them, the cans may be made 
into very passable scoops. Take sev- 
eral of them at a time to a tinner, and 
he will cut them into the shape for a 
trifle. It saves time to have a scoop in 
every meal tub, flour barrel, sugar pail 
and starch box. In short, eld tin cans 
are far better for many purposes than for 
street organs or for ornaments to dogs' 
tails. Suppose we change the tune, and 
have better economy, more and a higher 
grade of music. — Siience of Health. 

GARGET IN MILCH COWS. 



Prof. Smith, of the Veterinary Col- 
lege, Toronto, in his address before 
the Canadian IXiirymen's Association, 
speaks of cows being often aftected with 
garget in August and September. He 
attributes it to the heavy dews during 
the night and the heat in daytime ; that 
it often results from the wet and cold, 
and from mechanical injuries, such as 
blows or injuries from other cows. It 
may be caused by improper milking, as 
irregularity in the time of milking, or 
from sudden changes of temperature. 

In treating this disease, when it oc- 
curs in hot weather, he recommends 
that the udder be fomented with warm 
water three or four times a day, and 
well dried and hand-rubbed, and a good 
dose of laxative medicine given, as half 
a pound of Epsom salts. 

The heat and moisture to be of bene- 
fit, must be continued, and a convenient 
and effectual method is to apply a cloth 
over the udder, leaving holes for the 
teats, and secured by means of a band- 
age around the body. The udder can 
then be covered with wool or tow, whicli 



should be kept moist by renewed appli- 
cations every hour. The teats should 
be drawn regularly every four hours, and 
when milking is 'attended with great 
pain, the syphon should be used ; it is 
a very simple and useful instrument, 
and every owner of cows ought to have 
it convenient. 

When cows are affected with garget 
during cold weather, he recommends 
that the animal be kept in a comforta- 
ble place and fed upon bran ; but at 
other seasons green food in small quan- 
tities is preferable. Hot fomentations, 
when the weather is extremely cold, he 
says, are seldom attended with benefit ; 
but, instead, he recommends the udder 
to be stimulated several times a day 
with a mild, camphorated liniment, 
while the body of the animal niust be 
well clothed. Blisters and 'irritant 
dressings are not recommended, since 
the most desirable results can be ac- 
complished by the simple remedies 
named, and these have the virtue of be- 
ing safe. 

- ^ 

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON 
THE CREAMING OF MILK. 



The results of a series of experinienls 
carried on through several months, by 
exposing different portions of milk in 
pans to temperatures of 40°, 5 7° and 74°, 
and determining the amount of fatty 
matter still present after various times 
of exposure, are embodied in a report 
by Schubert, from which it appears 
that the separation of fatty matter 
from the milk was most rapid at 40"', 
but that it was more rapid at 74*^ than 
at 57°, the separation being more com- 
plete at 40° in 18 hours than it was at 
57° after thirty hours. After 25 hours 
at 40°, only 296 per cent, of the fatty 
matter remained in the milk, and while 
diminution of it continued up to 30 to 
36 hours, it was so slight as to have no 
practical importance. Tests made on a 
large scale of Schwartz's method of im- 
mersing the milk in deep vessels in ice 
water, showed that it produced the larg- 
est yield of butter for equal measures of 
milk, and also that sweet cream afforded 
more butter than sour cream. The 
method possesses the additional ad van- 



170 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



tange that the milk never sours and 
can be preserved several days in the ice 
water without the least injury, and will 
bear transportation to a considerable 
distance before becoming warm enough 
to change. Cheese made from it is also 
nnich better and less liable to spoil in 
keeping, and since butter made from the 
sweet cream contains less milk-sugar and 
casein, according to the analysis, it is 
consequently less liable to become ran- 
cid. 



HOW TO USE NAILS. 



Every farmer who has had occasion 
to drive a nail irito seasoned oak posts 
knows its liability to bend and break. 
If the point be moistened in the mouth 
it will usually drive more kindly. Oil 
is still better, but then it is inconve- 
nient to dip each nail separately into it. 
Another point observed is, that boards 
become loose eventually from the rust- 
ing of the nails, vv'hich, communicating 
to the wood, causes not only an enlarge- 
ment of the nail hole, but the wearing 
away of the nail itself, rendering the 
fence or the building shaky and inse- 
cure. This may be prevented by heat- 
ing any. rough grease until it smokes, 
and then pouring it over the nails to be 
used. The grease will penetrate the 
pores of the iron, and cause the nail to 
last, without rusting, an indefinite pe- 
riod. Besides this, no trouble will then 
be experienced in driving them into the 
hardest wood. The reason is, that the 
coating of grease prevents contact by 
air, and consequently oxidation. Oxy- 
gen is the great destroyer of iron, and 
moisture is the inducing cause. 



A SIMPLE DISINFECTANT 



One pound of green copperas costing 
seven cents, dissolved in one quart of 
water, and poured down a water-closet, 
will effectually concentrate and destroy 
the foulest smells. On board ships and 
steamboats, about hotels and other pub- 
lic ])laces, there is nothing so nice to 
purify the air. Simple green copperas, 
dissolved in anything under the bed, 
will render a hospital, or other places 
for the sick, free from unpleasant smells. 



In fish markets, slaughter-houses, sinks, 
and wherever there are offensive gases, 
dissolve copperas and sprinkle it about, 
and in a few da3's the smell will all pass 
away. If a cat, rat, or mouse dies 
about the house, and sends forth an of- 
fensive gas, place some dissolved cop- 
peras in an open vessel near the place 
where the nuisance is, and it will purify 
the air. IVicn keep all clean. 



FARMERS IN DEBT. 



Some of our exchanges are descant- 
ing on the ruin sure to follow getting in 
debt to carry on farming operations. 
One farmer, who stoi)ped giving and 
asking credit a few years ago, records it 
as his experience, that he can now buy 
more than he ever bought before, and 
sell more. The case is mentioned of 
the French, who never go in debt, and 
who, having been saving money since 
the days of the first Napoleon, have be- 
come the richest nation in the world, 
which is proved by the fact that the 
German indemnity of a thousand mil- 
lions of dollars, which they were obliged 
to pay, has beeu all discharged in two 
years, while we have been struggling for 
eight years with twice as much. Per- 
haps the wealth of the French farmers 
arises as much from the small farm sys- 
tem and the high cultivation they give 
to the soil. There is a vast difference in 
farming in a loose way and having all 
work done in the best manner. 



In large cities a prevailing custom is, 
the placing of the name of the resident 
on a plate of the door post. A Western 
paper suggests that farmers follow this 
example, and have their names paintetl 
or affixed to the gates in front of their 
residences. The adoption of this would 
afford great satisfaction to travelers and 
especially to those who desire to fami- 
liarize themselves with the names of 
residents of localities through which 
they pass. 



It is reported that W. H. Trimble, of 
Poughkeepsie, has sold his fast trotting 
mare, Music, to W. H. VanderbiU, 
for 1525,000. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



171 



SELECTING GRAPE VINES. 



Ill an article in \.\\q. JiorticiiUin'ist, Mr. 
G. W. Campbell says : "I wish to 
make public a discovery, which I believe 
to be entirely new, and I think of great 
value to all experimenters in growing 
hybrid and seedling grapes. It is a 
method by which the future character of 
the fruit of a grape-seedling can be de- 
termined in the first year of its growth. 
Repeated tests have so far convinced me 
of its entire correctness that I do not 
hesitate to announce that in the taste or 
flavor of the green tendrils of the vine 
may be found a true index of the char- 
acter of the future fruit. Although this 
is something that cannot be exactly de- 
fined or accurately described, it may be 
acquired by any one with a nice, discrim- 
inating taste. Go into a green house 
where foreign grapes are growing, and 
taste the tendrils of the Muscat flavored 
varieties, and of the Black Hamburgh 
and Chassellas, and you will soon learn 
to distinguish the difference, which is as 
distinct as the flavor of the grapes them- 
selves. Again taste and compare the ten- 
drils of the Concord and Hartford Pro- 
lific, with those of Delaware, Allen's 
Hybrid and Iowa. You will find in 
each distinctive differences, suggestive 
of the character of the grapes; then test 
and compare the native wild grapes, the 
Fox and Frost grapes of the woods, with 
the tendrils of our cultivated varieties, 
and you will soon learn easily to distin- 
guish the wild from the cultivated. — 
Scribner for May. 



BOTANY. 



For the I''.Trmer. 

CANADA THISTLE. 



r.V 1. STAUFIF.R. 



MY attention was called to this vile 
l)est of the fiirm.by an article in 
one of our pajiers, resi)ecting the 
enactments to outlaw the weed, stat- 
ing the penalty of $15 for suffering 
it to grow, etc. IJiit it is incum- 
bent upon us, that we should 
be able to designate the one truly con 
demned by the law referred to. I shall 



simply mention a few of the common 
species of thistles that infest our fields. 
The genus Cirsium, includes them; the 
common thistle, C. lanceolatum, in Ger- 
man "Die Kratzdistel, has a biennial 
root. Stem two feet four inches high, 
branched, striate, sulcate, hairy, winged 
by the decurrent leaves; that is a kind 
of flap from the root of the leaves run- 
ning down along the stem. The heads 
terminal, erect, a kind of cobweb-like 
hairyness connecting the scales. Flow- 
erets purple. This delights in rich 
soil, pastures, fence-rows and way sides, 
flowers in June, fruit July, August ; the 
akenes small, obovate oblong, the pap- 
pus silky, about an inch long, which car- 
ries the seeds abroad to sow itself broad- 
cast. Although not condemned by law, 
it is nevertheless a very objectionable 
weed on the farm — and requires con- 
stant vigilance and attention. The 
fruit ought not to be permitted to be- 
come mature and allowed to spread. 

The C. discolor, or Two-colored cir- 
sium, has also biennial roots, has larger 
heads, ( i to 2 inches long) and one or 
more in diameter, stem two to five feet 
high, rather slender, heads also a kind 
of cobweb hairyness, over the scales. 
Found in fields and borders of thickets. 
Then we have the C. pumilum. Low 
or dwarf cirsium, plant pale grayish 
green, root biennial, stem one to two 
feet high, leaves very prickly. Heads 
few, (i to 3), often near two inches in 
diameter, florets long (often two inches). 
These grow in neglected old fields and 
low grounds. The Pxowers are also 
fragrant and the heads quite showy — 
but not troublesome in cultivated fields. 
Then is the C. horridulum, or yellow 
thistle root biennial? De Candolle 
says — perennial, stem 18 inches to two 
to three feet, heads terminal few, mostly 
but one, also large. This species is very 
rare with us, growing mostly on the sea 
coast it is a rugged, repulsive j^lant, and 
not wanted. Now wc come to the 
dreaded species — the Cirsium arvense, 
I'ield cirsium, Canada Thistle, Cursed 
Thistle. This is without doubt the most 
execrable weed introduced from abroad 
that has yet invaded our farms. 

This has a perennial Rhizoma, that is, 
an underground stem, with rootlets and 



172 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



very branching, which has buds and 
sends up new plants, however torn up by 
the plowing. This underground stem 
ramifies and extends in every direction, 
introducing radical leaves the first year, 
and atrial stems the second year. It ap- 
pears to die at the end of the second 
year or summer, but only on the surface. 
These branches are from six to eight 
inches below the surface of the ground, 
seyid up a stem eighteen inches to three 
feet high, slender and smoothish, the 
branches slender and languid, leaves 4 
to 8 or to inches long, sessile, and slight- 
ly growing down on the stem, and 
smoothiih on the upper surface — a kind 
of cobweb beneath. The heads are 
rather small, half an inch to two-thirds 
of an inch in diameter, terminal, sub- 
pedunculate, scales smoothish, minutely 
ciliate. Flowrets purplish lilac with 
whitish anthers; the fruit is slightly four- 
cornered, pappus finally longer than the 
flower. Flowers in July, fruits in August. 
It will be seen that in many respects 
it is like the other thistles, but once 
known it is readily distinguished; but I 
liave had other species brought me that 
were supposed to be the Canada thistle. 
This being perennial is necessarily 
not killed by plowing and scattering the 
rhizoma, or underground stem, nor by 
simply cutting it off once or twice. In 
order to prevent the development of 
radical leaves and to exhaust the rhizoma 
by wasting its energy in its efforts to 
form communication with the atmos- 
])here. It may require three or four cut- 
lings or dressings with the hoe, so soon 
as it makes its appearance above ground, 
no matter how often. Nothing short of 
a continuous effort will tend to destroy 
the perennial portion of the plant, and 
to rid the ground of this pest. I have 
heard some say that such talk is all bosh, 
that they killed it by a single plowing 
over — but it was not the " Canada this- 
tle" that was so easily subdued, I take it. 
They are all unwelcome on the farm 
or pasture lands. Where they grow, it 
is said to be a sure sign of rich or strong 
soil, and of a tolerable good quality ; 
but good crops are quite as good evi- 
dence without the aid of the thistle. 

The word Thistle is applied to plants 
of different genera. Fuller's This- 



tle is the Teasel or Dipsacus ; the Globe 
Thistle is the Echinops ; the Golden 
Thistle, Scolymus ; ISIelon Thistle, a 
Cactus ; Sow Thistle, the Souchus ; Star 
Thistle, the Centaurea ; the Woolly 
Thistle, Onopordum, etc., etc. 

Many years ago Mr. Amos invented 
an effective implement for cutting up 
thistles, a full description of which is 
before me. It is recommended that af- 
ter the thistle is cut and removed to 
clear the ground, a heavy roller is used 
to crush the stumps and render them so 
pervious to water that their roots will 
soon rot and be destroyed, I wonder? 
The genus Cirsium was also known as 
Carduus, and the species C. lanceolatus, 
is the plant which is most generally re- 
garded as the Scottish national emblem, 
though a distinct plant ; the Onopordon 
acanthiun is sometimes so considered. 
The Holy, or Milk Thistle, is the Sily- 
biirii mariatiujii ; the Blessed Thistle is 
Cjiicus benedictus ; I mention these sim- 
ply by way of information of the botan- 
ical names for the common ones often 
heard. The Thistle of Saint Andrew, 
a Scottish Order of Knighthood, said to 
be of great antiquity, but revived by 
James V., in 1540; again by James II, 
of England (VII. of Scotland), in 1687; 
and a, third time in 1703 by Queen 
Anne, who increased the number of 
knights to twelve, and placed the Order 
on a permanent footing — the national 
emblem of the Thistle with its motto, 
" JVemo me impune lacesset,'^ (" No one 
shall provoke me with impunity,") So 
touch gently, worthy critic. If you 
think I have gleaned too closely in 
hunting up matters about the thistle, 
remember I said nothing about "asses" 
feeding upon thistles, whether from a 
sense of modesty on my part or out of 
respect to my worthy critic. I shall not 
lift his hat to inspect the length of his 
ears, so we are quits — and I stop, lest 
further handling of this subject will 

sting as thistles do. Echo answers 

Adieu. 



Subscribe for the Farmer; it is a 
home Journal, one of the best agricultu- 
ral magazines in the country, and worth 
three times its cost. For terms, see 
page 165. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



17B 



BOOK AND SPECIAL NOTICES. 



NOTICE. 



Special notices inserted in this de- 
partment at 25 cents per line, nonpareil 
measurement. Address orders to 
J. ]i. DEVELIN, 
Publisher and Proprietor, 
No. 43 North Queen St., Lane, Pa, 

LITERARY NOTICES. 

" In u/n'ofi, as well as in an onion, there is 
strength," and, acconlingly, we see that the 
Practical Farmer and tlie Journal of the Farm 
are merged in one, the latter having " sold out" 
to the former, and hencefortli the strength of 
l)oth will be concentrated in the Practical 
Fakmkr. The Practical Farmer has never gone 
backwards in its quality as an interesting and 
useful journal. Its progress has been slowly and 
surely upward and onward ; and with its late 
acquisition we hope to soon see it universally 
recognized as the representative exponent of the 
agricultural interests of Pennsylvania. We have 
always considered it a solid and practical journal 
— nothing superficial or tawdry about it — and 
so far as the moral and material interests of 
the farmers of our commonwealth are concerned, 
not inferior to any paper of the kind published 
elsewliere in the country. We are not exclusive 
or contracted in our views, but we i/o think that 
I'ennsyhaniaand her component counties ought 
to manifest sufficient local pride to afford a 
hearty support to their local journals. 

TuK Printkrs' C'iK( ri.AK, a regularand wel- 
come \isiior, is always on deck with a full sup- 
ply of those good things that the cralt crave for. 
" Friend Hob" knows how to please and keep 
up the reputation of his excellent journal. 

Pk.ticrson's MagazixI'-.. The ladies com- 
panion and guide, needs no commendation. Its 
great reputation and reliability is evinced l)y its 
large circulation. Tlie last issue isacumpanion 
for the novelist, a boon to the cookery, a joy lo 
tile lover of music and an invaluable assistant to 
the lady of fashion. Publication office, 306 
Chestnut street, Philadelphia. Peterson, Farmkr 
anil premiums only $3 per year in advance. 

\Vk have on ouj" table a copy of a* new paper 
published in Denver, Colorado, by Messrs. 
I lough, Barna Pace & Co., Real Estate and In- 
surance Agents. It is entitled T/ie Denver En. 
terprise. It comes to us very neatly printed and 



full of spicy and interesting reading matter. 
Theo. W. Ilerr, Esq., formerly of this city, is a 
nieniber of the firm, and his experience in the 
I newspaper business will add much to its success. 
We wish him and his new enterprise long-lived 
prosperity. 



NEW YORK CATTLE MARRET. 

New York, July 13. 
Cattle active. Native steers and oxen, io|< 
@l23,|'c. ; Texans, 7j4@lic. Calves firm; 
poor to prime milk-fed, 6(ii'()c. ; grassers and 
butter milk, 4X@5X'-'- Sheep scarce at 6}:l(ci\ 
6^c. Lambs plenty at 63/(7moc. Hogs- 
Live, no sales ; dressed, firmer at ^l^(a'2)V%c. 

LATEST DOMESTIC MARKETS. 

New York, July 11. 

Flour, Etc. — The inquiry for flour is fair, 
with limited arrivals, and a further advance in 
wheat; most grades of spring are better, espe- 
cially fancy Minnesota and good " lines" of 
shipping extras. No. 2 and superfine stronger, 
and not plenty. At the close, the market is 
stronger for good straight lines shipping extras 
and fancy brands of Minnesota, which are 
scarce. Sales of 8,000 barrels. We quote as 
follows : — Sour, per barrel, ^3.3o(rt;$5,30 ; No. 
2 at ^3.8o@,^4.5o; superfine, $4.90@,^5.50; 
State extra brands, ;^5.8o@^6.05 ; State fancy 
brands at^6.30@^6.75; western shipping extra, 
^5.6o@,^6.20; Minnesota extras, common to 
fancy, at ^5.90@^8.5o; Minnesota superlative 
extras, ^6.So(^'^ 12.00. 

Grain — Wheat opened decidedly better in 
feeling, with limited arrivals liere and at the 
lake ports. Holders are not willing sellers at 
yesterday's prices. Wheat closes better, with 
fair export demand for No. 2 spring. Winter is 
firmer, and in limited demand ; the inquiry is 
confined to shipjiers cliiefly. The sales are 
45,000 bushels, at $1.27(5^1.37 for ungraded 
Iowa and Minnesota, $1.37 for No. i Chicai;i) 
spring, and $i.33('c',5i,35 lor No. 2 do. 

OaI'S are better, and in fair demand for the 
home tiadc. The sales are 38,000 bushels; new 
Ohio mixed at 61^^61 j^c, white at 63(/i 66c., 
western mixed at 6i(«,62c., the car lots ; white 
at 64r" 67c., and barley oats at 69c. 

Ryk is firm and quiet at $i.o?,Ot $1.14. 

Corn is better, and is quite active ; the favor- 
able news from Europe and a good supply of 
tonnage give holders the advantage. The sales 
are 190,000 bushels ; western mixed at 77}^0(' 
78jJ-^c., the latter for choice, closing at 78c. for 
prime sail mixed ; western while at H^OtSyc, 
do. yellow at 7Sj'2C. 

PHILADELPHIA CATTLE MARKET. 
Monday, July 13— P. M. 

Bekk Cattle. — The dullness which has 
marked the course of this market for the past 
month was again the prevailing feature to day, 
and, although prices generally were no lower, 
there was some slight shading of rates now and 



174 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



then in favor of buyers in good standing with 
the market. The quality of the offerings was 
hardly up to the average ; inferior grades per- 
haps predominated, while the number of tine 
droves on sale, though small, was fully up to the 
requirements of the trade. We quote prime at 
7(£r^7Xc., chiefly at the former llgure, and com- 
mon to good at 3U(^C>Hc. Receipts, 3,497 
head. 

SHEKr.— The inrjuirv was quite animated, and 
the tone of the market rided firm. Sales at 
4''2(<^5.¥c- for fair to prime, and 2(rr\3c. for 
stockers. In Lambs there was a lively move- 
ment, at 7r'(^lOc. for the better descriptions, and 
3l.50@,3.oo for other kinds. Receipts, iooo 
head. 

Hogs. — The market was less active to-day, 
the high prices demanded checking the inquiry. 
Sales of corn-fed at ^9-37K^' 9-75, the latter an 
extreme rate. Receipts, 4,500 head. 



rillLADELPIIIA PRODUCE MARKET 

Monday, July 13, 1874. 
Seeds.— A small lot of choiceWestern Clover- 
seed sold at inc. -y m. Timothy is lower. 
We quote at $2.yo0i2.js. Flaxseed is scarce 
and worth $2.20. 

Bark is nominal at ,'>35 ^ ton for No. i 
Quercitron. 

Provisions are in fair request at full prices. 
Sales of messpork at ^I9(;?|,I9.25 ; prime mess 
at ^18; prime, in lots, at $17.50 %J! barrel. 
Warthman's city family beef, in lots, at $17; 
India beef at $29.50; Western do., at $8(7^,IO; 
extra me.ss at $qO< 12; beef hams are worth 
$i5(^r( 22 ; dried i)eef is held at iSfi igc. for city 
smoked. Bacon — Sugar cured city smoked hams 
'3>3^''l5c>; "Excelsior" at I5j<c.; canvassed 
Western at 1401,141^0.; ribbed sides at loi^c. ; 
clear ribbed do. at loj^c. ; clear do. at 'llC'< 
iiXc; shoulders at 8)4f(:,8^ic. Bulk Meats 
are unchanged; sales pickled hams, in lots, at 
i23/g(,M3c., and some at 13XC.; green hams at 
I2c.; ribbed sides at 93^c.; 'clear ribbed do. at 
9^c.; clear do. at io(7i Jo){^c.; shoulders at 
7><c. in bulk and jJ^c. packed. Laid is firm ; 
sales of Western steam at 12c.; kettle rendered 
at 12(11' \2l:lc. 

Fldi'rand meal. — The movement cmuinues 
unimportant, there being scarcely anv iiuiuiry for 
shipment, and only a limited tlemand from the 
local trade to supply their immediate wants; sale 
of superfine at ^3.5orrr4.25 ; loobbls Pennsyl- 
vania extra, low grade, at 34; Northwest extra 
iamily, in lots, at $6(7i 6.37 r< ; 200 bbls Minne- 
sota^do. do., fdr quality, at $6.'62;4' ; 200 do. 
do., good at $7; 100 bbls do. do. do., at $7.25; 
300 bbls Pennsylvania do. do., at $7; 200 bbls 
do. do. do., on secret terms ; 100 bbls Indiana 
do. do., at $7, and 100 bbls St. Louis do. do., 
choice, at $7.75. The receipts and stocks of Rye 
Flour continue small, and it is held firmly ; sales 
in lots at $5. In Corn Meal no sales, and prices 
a;e entirely nominal. 



Grain. — The wheat market is depressed, and 
tliere is no inquiry except from the local millers 
who purchase very sparingly in anticipation of 
lower prices as the supplies increase; sales of 
2,400 bushels prime new Delaware sold at $1.42 
(a\i 40, closing at the latter rate, and 400 bushels 
white spring at SI. 40. Prices of spring wheat are 
for the most part nominal. Rye is steady at $1 
U)V Pennsylvania. Corn is in good request and 
advanced 2 cents under light offerings; sales of 
5,000 bushels of Pennsylvania and .Southern yel- 
low at Sic; 4,Soo bushels Western mixed at 79 
(7(,Soc. Oats are in active demand at an im- 
provement of iC./\2c, and the receipts and stocks 
are light; sales of 6,200 bushels Western white 
at d"] yi, 6S(7( 69c ; 1,400 bushels do. do., choice, 
at 70c; and 1,400 bushels dark and light mixed 
at 65@66c. In Barley and Malt no sales. 

CHICAGO LIVE STOCK MARKET. 
Chica(;o, July ii,"i87.4. 

Cattle. — Receipts, 600 head. Market quiet 
but firm, and prices steady. Texans and com- 
mon to medium natives sold at |2.oof« $5.50 ; 
northern wintered, $2.oo(it $4.25 ; corn-fed, 
$4.50(7('35.50; stockers, $t,.2^0i:$4.^o; com- 
mon to extra shipping, 34-75('" $6.40. Ship- 
ments, 1,400 head. 

Hogs. — Receipts, 6,552 head. Market active 
and very firm ; closed strong, with all the pens 
empty; common to good sold at ^S.SoC" *6.io ; 
choice, ^6.i5(r( 36.30. Shipments, 10,000 head. 

Sheep — Receipts, 90 head. Market nominal, 
at $2.^o(it $^.2^ for poor to best. Shipments, 
none. 

BALTIMORE MARKETS. 

Baltimore, July 16, 1874. 

Flour. — Market quiet and steady; sales of 
100 bbls. Howard Street F.imily at 37.25 ; 100 
bbls. Western do. at $7.25 ; 300 bbls. do. extra 
at 35.25(^(5.75, and 500 bbls. do. family for ex- 
port on private terms. City Mills shipping 
brands are held at $7. 25(7; 7.50 y. bbl. Trans- 
actions, if any, have been kept strictly prixate. 
Trade brands, fresh ground, are in gond request. 
Quotations generally are without change. 

Grain. — Market active and firmer, receipts 
all sold. We note 400 bushels Ohio white at 
Si. 40; 1,200 liushels Kcn.tucky do. at3l-45; 
1,000 bushels Southern do. at $i.2a<t $1.^2 \ 
of red, 800 bushels Kentucky at 3'-4.>". 4"° 
bushels Indiana at 3l.42; 800 bushels old Ohio 
31.30; 6,000 bushels Sovithern red at Sl.30('r 
31.50, chietly at 3i-43C" 3i-45. Corn — Market 
quiet, sales light, viz: 1,000 l)ushels Southern 
white at 92@95c. ; 400 bushels Western re 
jected at 78c.; 400 bushels mixeil from Ele- 
vator at 7Sc.; 400 bushels No. 2 white at 
8Sj4c. Oats- — Receipts large; the opening sales 
were 600 bushels Southern at 8c(?«SS5c. ; 800 
bushels Western bright at 8 1 c— subsequently 
market grew panicky, with sales of 800 bushels 
Western at 75c.; 800 bushels, deliverable to- 
morrow, at 74c.; 800 bushels do. at 70c,; 800 
bushels do. at 68j^c., closing heavy. Rye — 
240 bushels sold at $1.0^ per bushel. 




DEVOTED TO 

AGRICULTURE, HORTICULTURE, DOMESTIC ECONOMY & MISCELLANY. 

EDITED BY S. S. RATHVON & J. B. DEVELIN. 
** The Farmer is the founder of civilization,^^— WEBSTEli. 



Vol. VI. 



AUGUST. 1874. 



No. 8. 



AGRICULTURAL. 



THE LAWN, 



IY there is one feature of a country 
place more im|)ortant than another, 
it is the lawn. A fine house is a good 
thing, and so are groups and avenues 
of thrifty trees, gravel walks, shrub- 
bery, fountains, and flower-borders. 
Yet all these are incomplete and un- 
satisfactory if they do not rest upon a 
broad base of smooth turf. Beds of 
flowers require much care and labor to 
keep them in onier ; and even in their 
best condition the eye wearies of their 
daily presence sooner than it does of a 
simple, quiet exijanse of grass. The pre- 
vailing expression of a country home 
should be that of repose; and this ex- 
pression is violated if the ground is 
broken up into numerous parterres. 
The flovvers themselves are gay and ex- 
hilarating, and the sight of extensive 
borders suggests thoughts of the time 
and toil necessary to keep them in good 
order. If flowers are admitted to the 
front of a pleasure ground, it should be 
only a few constant bloomers, set in 
small circular beds, cut out of the turf 
near the margins of the foot-paths. 

Not the least argument for lawns is 
the permanence of their beauty. The 
grass shoots up in spring almost as soon 
as the snow melts from its surface. If 
it has been properly cared for, it will 
hold its greenness throughout the sum- 
mer. And the fragrance of its frequent 



mowings — is it not more delicious than 
the extracts of the apothecaries? The 
sight of children at play on the velvet 
sward and the shadows of trees stretch- 
ing across it are the delight of painters. 
The winds which often despoil trees of 
their beauty and the frosts which blight 
them, leave the grass unharmed. And 
in autumn, amid falling leaves and pre- 
vailing gloom, it retains its cheerful 
verdure until hidden by the winter 
snows. 

A good lawn possesses an air of re- 
finement. It distinguishes a place at 
once from the uncultivated wildness of 
Nature. It speaks of the hand of taste 
which has fenced it in from the common 
earth, s:ioothing down its roughnesses,, 
heightening its native charms, and still 
watching over it with affectionate care. 
It suggests a home-life lifted somewhat 
above the all engrossing utilities and 
vexations of this work-day world ; it 
links that spot with the cultured and 
happy homes of other lands. 

But a good lawn never comes by ac- 
cident or by simply wishing for it. It 
is never found ready made ; it is a work, 
of art. In its construction the first 
thing to be inquired is whether any 
grading of the surface is necessary. Are 
there any hollows which should be filled 
u{), and rough places which should be 
made smooth ? Grading is important 
both for securing beauty of surface and 
ease in subsequent mowing. It it sel- 
dom advisable to reduce a lawn to a 
perfectly flat plain, or to throw it up 
into a succession of jolting terraces. 



176 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



Far better is it to give it a rolling, un- 
dulating outline, thus securing variety 
of form and a pleasing play of light and 
shade. 

Another first step in lawn-making is 
draining. This work will be necessary 
wherever the ground contains any wet, 
springy spots or where the subsoil is a 
cold, stiff clay, retentive of moisture. In 
such land, if undrained, the finer grasses 
will not thrive. If they spring up, 
mosses, sorrel, and coarse weeds will 
soon over-run and expel them. If trees 
and shrubs are planted, they will lead 
a miserable life or speedily die. 

And draining should be followed by 
a thorough breaking up of the soil, the 
woik being done with a plow if the 
space is large, with a spade if small. 
The great reason why so many lawns 
prove unsatisfactory is that they have no 
deepness of earth. The roots of the 
grass, having scanty pasturage, cease to 
grow in mid summer and the leaves of 
necessity wither. It should be borne 
in mind at the outset that a lawn is a 
permanent affair, and that the prepara- 
tion of the land must be made at the be- 
ginning, before the ground is planted 
with trees and shrubs and laid out in 
walks. Trench the soil at least eigh- 
teen inches deep and the good results 
will speedily appear. The g^-ass will 
send down its roots below the reach of 
drought and its leaves will remain green 
in defiance of the dog-star. 

Of course, manuring should go along 
with trenching. It is not enough to 
enrich merely the surface. This would 
give the grass a quick start in the 
spring, but would not insure its fresh- 
ness throughout the summer. Incorpo- 
rate the manure (if old, so much the 
better), with the whole body of the soil, 
and it will improve its mechanical tex- 
ture and furnish food to the grass and 
whatever else is planted in it. 

It is hardly possible to over-estimate 
the importance of this foundation work. 
Too often it is entirely neglected. 
Most persons, in constructing a rural 
home, expend the bulk of their means 
on showy houses, outbuildings, fences, 
equipage, furniture, and the like, leav- 
ing only a little for improving their 
grounds. This latter work is then done 



hastily and imperfectly. Trees are 
planted in an inhospitable soil ; but 
they refuse to flourish. Grass seed is 
sown upon it , but it comes up only in 
patches, and turns brown in summer. 
As the proprietor walks through his 
grounds, amid his parched and barren 
grass-plots, his sickly shrubs, and his 
dying trees, he exclaims, bitterly: 
"And this is rural life ! I, too, dwell 
in Arcadia !" But let the ground-work 
for which we plead be well done, and 
it will bring its own reward. The 
lawn-maker will seldom sigh for the 
weeping skies of England to keep his 
grass verdant. 

The soil having been thoroughly 
broken up and suitably enriched, the 
surface should now be harrowed and 
raked smooth. All stones, roots of 
bushes, and weeds should be carefully 
removed and the soil worked into the 
finest possible tilth. If the space is 
large, it should be sown with grass seed. 
The seed stores now furnish mixtures 
for making a good turf; but we doubt 
if anything is better for most soils than 
red -top (yAgrostis vulgaris) and white 
clover, at the rate of two quarts of the 
latter to a bushel of the former. In 
some quarters blue grass {Foa praicnsis) 
succeeds better than red-top But 
which ever seed is adopted, it is well to 
add a few hawdfuls of sweet-scented, 
vernal grass-seed, for the sake of its fine 
odor at mowing time. Sow with an 
even hand, liberally, at the rate of three 
bushels to the acre, choosing a still day 
for the purpose, and, if possible, just 
before a shower. Cover the seed with a 
light brush-harrow or with a rake. A 
roller passed over the ground will com- 
plete the operation. If the space is 
small, seeding may be dispensed with, 
and the ground may be covered at once 
with sods from the roadside or an old 
pasture. Care should be taken, how- 
ever, to select turf that is free from 
weeds and coarse grasses. Having 
found a good piece of sward, stretch a 
line across it, and with a sharp spade 
cut into strips a foot wide, roll them up in 
balls, and cart them to the place where 
they are to be used. Now begin on 
one side of the lawn and unroll them, 
matching the edges neatly, as a lady 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



177 



does her carpet, until the surface is en- 
tirely covered. Finally go over the 
whole with a hand-roller or turf-beater, 
and tlie lawn will be made. 

But the after management of a lawn 
is almost as important as the making. 
If weeds invade it, they must be rooted 
out. It should be mowed once in a 
week or ten days. Happily for the 
rural improver the modern lawn-mow- 
ing machines make this work easy and 
expeditious and they execute it in the 
most satisfactory manner. They cut 
the grass short and even, they scatter the 
clippings in a light shower over the sur- 
face, where they soon bed themselves 
around the roots of the grass, serving 
as a mulch in summer, a protection in 
winter, and an enrichment all the year. 
Whether the Excelsior machine ranks 
higher than the Philadelphia, or the 
Archimedean is more scientific than the 
Victor or the Landscape, we will not 
undertake to decide for others. The 
patentees are in the field with their cir- 
culars and will give all needful informa- 
tion to inquirers. Our own wants have 

been fully met by the , one we 

use. A roller should be trundled over 
the surface several times each year, 
choosing a day next after a smart rain, 
when the turf is soft and pliable. If, in 
the course of a few years, grass becomes 
enfccljlcd, the surface should receive a 
good scratching with a rake and then 
be dressed with a coating of old manure 
and wood ashes. 

On farms and other places of large 
extent it is sometimes desirable to con- 
fine the lawn proper to a small space 
immediately around the residence and 
to use the adjacent land for pasturage. 
In such cases the lawn may be surround- 
ed with a low wire fence, painted green, 
which at a short distance will be quite 
inconspicuous. The effect will be all 
the better if occasional clumps of 
shrubbery are scattered about irregularly 
near the line of- fence. The land ad- 
joining may be devoted to sheep, deer, 
or fine cattle, who will keep the grass 
nearly as smooth as the lawn. Some 
arrangements of this sort will convey an 
impression of ample extent to one's 
grounds, and afford a freedom of view 
which can hardly be realized in a small 



lawn where the division fences obtrude 
themselves on all sides upon the eye. 



GREEN MANURES. 



In many parts of the country one of 
the most serious questions is that of ma- 
nure. One may be so 'situated as not 
to make it profitable or convenient to 
keep stock; and yet if manure has to 
be purchased it is seldom that it can be 
done so as to leave much profit. On 
the other hand, it is clearly a loss to 
farm poor ground; and thus, between 
these "upper and nether mill-stones," 
one hardly knows what to do. 

In some places much use is made of 
green manures. That is, the land is 
sown with some rapid-growing crop, 
which, after it is grown considerably, 
is plowed down, and in this way the 
land is fertilized. Clover is often used 
for this purpose, and in the South the 
cow-pea. There is some considerable 
labor involved in this style of manure; 
but this is not all in most cases. A 
whole season is generally lost in this 
way of fertilizing the ground. 

Still in many cases even this has been 
found to pay, instead of buying either 
stable manure or commercial fertilizers; 
and when land is cheap, and the taxes 
low it may perliaps Le the best thing 
that can be done. 

If only some one could suggest some- 
thing which would grow so fast that we 
could plow it down and crop the same 
season, it would be one of the best pos- 
sible of discoveries. Something of this 
kind we find reported in the January 
number of the Report of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, from an English 
source. It appears that some one had a 
piece of land so poor that the wheat yield 
was but /tpz/r bushels per acre. In 1869, 
immediately after harvesting the wheat, 
he sowed cow-peas at the rate of two 
bushels per acre. Early in October he 
turned the resulting crop under in a 
deep furrow. A few weeks later he 
sowed on his pea-sod wheat, harrowing 
it in carefully. He harvested nine bush- 
els per acre. He repeated the same 
process in 1870, and realized 17^ bush- 
els per acre; 'and again in 1871, follow- 
ed by a yield of 27 bushels per acre; 



178 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



and again in 1872, with a promise at 
the time of reporting of 40 bushels per 
acre. Throughout this experiment, cov- 
ering five years, no fertilizer except the 
cow-pea was applied. 

This, if correctly reported, is a tre- 
mendous result; and, if true, eclipses any 
thing ever heard of, and is surely worthy 
of more thought than is usually given 
to newspaper paragraphs. Year after 
year the grain was sown on the same 
land, and with only about two months' 
growth of peas, the yield had in four 
years increased from four to forty bush- 
els of wheat! With such results as these 
it will hardly pay, even under the best 
circumstances, to haul manure from the 
stable yard for wheat. What has been 
done in this way ought to be done again. 
Somehow we can hardly credit this stu- 
pendous result; yet v/e know that green 
manuring is excellent generally, when 
we give it a year's growth of the ground, 
and it may be that something like this 
can be done. We hope what we have 
written may have the effect of stimulat- 
ing trials in this direction. — The Press. 



UNPROFITABLE GRAIN 
CULTURE. 



One of the most beautiful sights on a 
farm is to see a crop of grain of even 
size and quality over the whole surface 
of view, and from one side of the field 
to the other, across its whole extent. 
But this is what we seldom see ; and 
especially this season it strikes the trav- 
eler more, we think, than usual. It is no 
uncommon sight, at least in this part 
of the world, at this particular time, to 
see rye fields in which the plants will be 
near three feet high in some parts of it 
and others not over a foot. In others 
they will stand so thickly on the ground 
that no earth can be seen, and again are 
large patches, with here and there a 
struggling blade, and the baked and 
parched ground everywhere visible. To 
how much of this sort of culture may be 
attributed the report of the past ten 
years, that it is useless to try to grow 
rye for the grain in this part of the 
country? It is the straw which pays. 
Rye will yield hereabouts as well as 



ever, but not under such slovenly treat- 
ment as this. One of our cultivators 
near Germantown assures us that for the 
four years past he has never had less- 
than fifteen bushels per acre of rye, 
while the straw yielded about three tons, 
yet we know of many who contend that 
rye hardly ever pays for threshing ; as 
in this part of the world, where long, 
clean, straight straw is the great point 
to aim at, it has all to be threshed by 
the old-fashioned hand-flail. 

It is not that rye or wheat will not 
pay; it is rather that slovenly culture 
is ruinous. The fact that here and 
there in the tracts under grain that we 
have referred to, are patches which 
would do credit to the most particular 
grower, shows that the trouble is not in 
the soil or climate, but in management. 
Most of the bare or stunted patches are 
due to indifference about draining off 
surface-water ; and some to a neglect in 
regard to the uniform depth and 
"nutriveness" — to coin a word — of the 
soil. Surface-water is, however, the 
greatest foe to an even stand of grain. 
It does not seem to hurt plants much in 
winter; but as soon as growth begins, if 
the roots are in earth in which the 
water does not pass freely away, some of 
the roots decay, and wlien the water has 
finally escaped, the p'ant is left with 
less roots than those more favored, and ' 
thus cannot progress as fast. Often- 
times a few open furrows led through 
the wettest portions would make all the 
difference between a first-class and a 
poor result. 1 

We know the excuse for much of this 
neglect is that it requires too much labor j 
to do things well. The labor question I 
is always the great frightener. We do ) 
not wonder that it is so in view of qual- !■ 
ity and price of labor, but the great j 
point in our remarks is that the labor is ] 
too often thrown away, as the poor ^ 
patches do not pay the labor spent on 
them. — Germatitoivn Telegraph. 



ROTATION OF FARM CROPS. 



It is impossible to continue to grow 
good crops for a length of time without 
pursuing the rotation plan, and I think 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



179 



in the Middle States, the best rotation, 
commencing with the land, is to plow late 
in fall or early in spring, as deep as your 
team is able to draw the plow, say 7 to 
9 inches, and plant to corn. I am well 
aware this will meet with much objec- 
tion among those who advocate shallow 
plowing for corn, nevertheless past ex- 
perience teaches me that the deeper the 
better, providing you have been in the 
habit of deep plowing heretofore. 

If your land is in good heart, fifty 
bushels of shelled corn per acre may be 
expected, without any manure, save a 
little gypsum thrown upon the hills 
when the corn first comes up, and again 
when about iS inches or two feet in 
height. Thorough cultivation must be 
given the corn during the months of 
June and July to insure a good crop. 

After having gathered your crop in 
the fall, split the corn hills by plowing 

I with a light plow just deep enough to 
turn the hills out, then harrow well, and 

: you are ready to plow for an oat crop. 
If possible, plow late in the fall, rather 

[ than wait till spring, as by sodding you 
are ready to sow your oats as soon as the 
weather will permit in the spring, and 
fall plowing will give just as good re- 
sults by way of large yield, as spring 
plowing, and by pursuing this plan the 
work is done and out of the way, and 
you have more time to attend to other 
work that will be crowding you during 
the spring months. 

If the season is at all favorable, your 
oat crop will yield 40 bushels per acre. 
After your crop is gathered, thoroughly 
harrow the stubble in order that the oats 
which have been left upon the ground 
may be induced to sprout as soon as 
possible. Alter the oats have com- 
menced growing, plow them under as 
deep as your team is able to draw the 
plow, being careful that every inch of 
the ground is thoroughly broken up. 
After having done plowing, draw on 
your stable manure that is well rotted, 
and mix with the soil by repeated har- 
rowing. Sow with wheat, and a good 
crop may be expected. After harrow- 
ing in the wheat, sow on a half bushel 
of timothy seed per acre, and in the 
spring following sow a half bushel of 
clover seed per acre. After the clover 



has commenced growing, sow on one 
bushel of gypsum per acre ; this will 
help both wheat and clover. After the 
wheat crop has been gathered, don't get 
in too much of a hurry about turning 
your stock on the young grass ; wait till 
late in the fall, the later the better, and 
if you should forget and not turn in at 
all it will not harm the future welfare of 
the soil or hay crops. 

Those who are accustomed to sowing 
only four to six quarts of timothy and 
clover seed per acre, will argue that the 
above quantity of seed is a waste, and 
there is no use of sowing so much seed 
per acre. I say to such that those 
farmers who have tried thick seeding 
never go back to thin seeding, and that 
thick seeding gives more hay per acre at 
the first mowing than thin does at the 
second. If you don't believe it, try 
one acre and see. 

In the spring the stubble should be 
rolled, in order to keep the wheat stub- 
ble from among th^ hay, and also to 
press down any uneven surface left by 
the harrow when harrowing in the wheat. 
Mow or pasture three years, as the case 
may be, and then break up for corn 
again, following the rotation above 
given. If this course is followed, your 
land will continue to hold its fertility, 
and good crops will be the result. 

The following method is quite exten- 
sively practiced by many Pennsylvania 
farmers. They haul their manure out 
on the sod land in the spring, plow and 
plant to corn, sow the corn stubble the 
following spring with oats, and after the 
oat crop is out of the way, haul and 
spread what manure they have on hand 
on the oat stubble, then plow under and 
sow wheat, seed down as before stated, 
and mow or pasture three years, then go 
over the same routine again. Both of 
the above methods have many advo- 
cates. In some sections large quanti- 
ties of potatoes are grown ; especially is 
such the case around the large towns 
and along the railroad lines. These 
take the place of corn in the rotation, 
or else four crops instead of three are 
taken from the soil before re-seeding. In 
the latter case, corn is the first crop and 
potatoes next, followed by oats and 
wheat, as above. 



180 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



On soil that is not considered good 
enough for wheat, oats is sown. In the 
vicinity of large towns, the latter pays 
about as well as the former, on account 
of the price obtained for straw of good 
quality, — American Farm J^ottrnal. 



RATE OF EXHAUSTION OF 
, MANURES. 



giving fair and reasonable compensation to 
the tenant, when he leaves his farm, for all 
unexhausted improvements and manures 
that will add to the value of the farm ; and that, 
on the other hand, when a tenant, through neg- 
ligence and bad farming, deteriorates the natural 
fertility of the soil, he should be compelled to 
pay his landlord for all such deterioration. 



PLANT EVERGREENS. 



At a late meeting of the Ayrshire 
Farmer's Club, Scotland, the subject 
discussed was, compensation to out- 
going tenants for permanent improve- 
ments and unexhaustible manures. By 
way of illustration, an agreement with 
his tenantry entered into by Sir Patrick 
Keith Murry was introduced. Among 
the principal points were these : The 
beneficial effects of horse, cow, and 
town manure, guano, bones, and copro- 
lites are held to last four years, and the 
rate of exhaustion to be four-tenths the 
first year, and one-tenth less each suc- 
ceeding year ; of lime, applied to 
arable land, to last ten years, and the 
rate of exhaustion ten-fifty-five the first 
year and one-fifty-five less each succeed- 
ing year ; applied to permanent pas- 
tures to last twelve years, and the rate 
of exhaustion fifteen-seventy-eights the 
first year, eleven-seventy-eights the sec- 
ond, and one-seventy-eight less each 
succeeding. Nitrate of soda and sul- 
phate of ammonia are held to be ex- 
hausted by the crop to which they are 
applied. For oil-cake or any similar 
substance or equal manurial value ex- 
cept grain of all kinds, purchased and 
used by the tenant in feeding sheep or 
cattle on the farm, one-sixth of the en- 
tire cost of all so used during the last 
three years of occupation shall be al- 
lowed. The value of any new manures 
not included in the above list, and the 
unexhausted value of any included, but of 
a quality better or worse than average, 
or applied in exceptional quantity 
or under exceptional circumstances, 
is to be determined by arbitration. In 
the course of the proceedings it was 
unanimously 

Resolved, That in the opinion of this meeting 
the land of this country will never be farmed in 
such a way as to make it produce all that 
it is capable of doing until a law is passed 



What is needed to change the aspect 
of Northern country homes more than 
anything else is a free use of evergreen 
trees and shrubs. The rich green of 
their leaves, h.ilf hidden in snow, not 
only appears to give warmth to one's 
home, but actually does add much in 
this direction. A grove, hedge, or 
group of evergreens checks the velocity 
of storms, sheltering our buildings and 
animals, and changing the entire aspect 
from that of a cold, gloomy abandon- 
ment to one of cheerful, homelike com- 
fort. I do not believe any one who 
has ever traveled or lived in the coun- 
try during the winter, will for a mo- 
ment disagree with me in this; but 
there may be a question of cost that 
would come up for discussion. This 
should not, however, be any impedi- 
ment to the realization of the pleasures 
sought in this direction, because really 
beautiful and suitable evergreens can be 
obtained in any quantities and at a 
mere nominal price. If a man cannot 
afford to purchase a hundred evergreen 
trees at fifty cents each, he can take 
smaller ones at $5 per hundred, (or even 
less), and then plant and wait for them 
to grow. There is not a farm in the 
United States, at least not in the thick- 
ly settled portion of them, which would 
not be enhanced in value $5 for every 
fifty cents expended in ornamental trees 
up to a reasonable sum. In addition to 
this advance in price, a man and his 
family will live longer, be more happy 
and contented, and I believe be more 
industrious, where the home surround- 
ings have some show of beauty about 
them, than those of an opposite char- 
acter. Just look at your dooryards, 
barnyards, and surroundings generally 
at this time, and ask yourself if they 
cannot be improved without any con- 
siderable expenditure of capital. 



1HE LANCASTER FARMER. 



181 



MIXED PLANTATION. 



William Parry has given his views of 
mixed plantation of large and small 
fruits and vegetables, while the orchard 
trees are young. He alludes to the 
mixture of grasses to make good lawns : 
to tlie practice of market gardeners in 
alternating rows of peas, tomatoes, &c., 
one following the other in ripening on 
the plot of ground, affording better re- 
sults than separate sowing, each extract- 
ing from the soil the nourishment pecu- 
liar to it — recommending at the same 
time " high culture and plenty of ma- 
nure." He cites the example of a suc- 
cessful and extensive cultivator near 
Philadelphia,' on whose grounds he was 
surprised to see the large amount of 
vegetables and other crops. On one 
plot of three or four acres, mostly 
planted with Lawrence pear trees, he 
has between them six rows of asparagus, 
five feet apart ; tli^n five feet distant a 
row of pear trees, ten feet apart in the 
row ; then six rows of asparagus, and so 
on. In the tree row, and between the 
trees, are planted gooseberries and rhu- 
barb, filling up the rows. From this 
ground he has taken annually ^400 
worth of asparagus per acre, and from 
one- half the plot he sold one year more 
than fifty bushels of gooseberries at two 
dollars per bushel. Many of the pear 
trees have already borne from three to 
five bushels of fine Lawrence pears each. 
In other parts of the plantation, rasp- 
berries are planted instead of asparagus, 
every sixth row being pear trees. In 
other places again are strawberries, alter- 
nating with vegetables. To rich or 
highly matured ground, easily worked, 
this practice is especially adapted, but 
it must positively have the very best 
attention. On poorer ground, with less 
care, it would not be so successful. 



CLOVER FOR HOGS. 



A clover field is a most excellent 
thing for young hogs. I set apart a 
field for that purpose, and have now 
from one hundred and thirty to one 
hundred and forty hogs upon it, and 
they have been doing well all summer 



with scarcely any corn. When the 
weather is very wet the best plan is to 
move them off from it, to prevent them 
from rooting up the land. They will 
graze on green clover all the while, and 
it is an excellent food for them. The 
cheapest way to maice meat in the up 
country is to have a good clover pas- 
ture for your hogs, and after you cut 
your small grain in the summer, turn 
them in for a time and pasture them 
there. Taking the two together, you 
need feed them very little corn until 
August or September. Then, as soon 
as your corn is in roasting ear, fence off 
a small piece at a time, turn them upon 
it, or cut it and throw it to them, stalk 
and all. They will eat the ear and 
chew up the cob, the stalk and fodder 
— and an its nutritions. 

You will find it will start them off to 
thriving, growing and fattening as fast 
as dry corn ;" and they get a great deal 
more of the stalk, including the fodder, 
ear, etc., than they do out of a dry ear 
of corn. In this way they may be car- 
ried on until corn-gathering time, and 
then feed them for a short time upon 
dry corn, and they are ready for the 
butcher. 



ROLLING THE GROUND. 



A correspondent writes : " On dry or 
wet ground, the effect of the rollers is 
found to be salutary. Plowed and pre- 
pared for sowing, dry land is much 
helped by the roller. The blades of 
grass spring up sooner, and retain a 
firmer hold in the earth. In a season of 
drought, rolling has saved the crop, 
when, without it the seed would have 
never sprung from the ground. In wet 
and heavy ground it is believed the 
rollers, smoothing and hardening the 
surface, '.vill leave the soil immediately 
beneath the surface in a better condi- 
tion to generate the seed. On grass-, 
ground that has been heaved by the 
frost, the roller has an excellent effect in 
fixing the roots. Rolling the ground is 
also good when the land has been laid 
down unevenly the previous year. If 
the land is too dry, wait till just after a 
soaking rain, and it will work capitally. 



182 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



It is a good idea to roll plowed ground 
before harrowing, as it presses down the 
furrows that would be turned back, and 
makes the surface less uneven, and the 
harrow pulverizes it much. We find 
that on the average not one farmer in 
four has a roller." 



A 



A CROP OF CLOVER. 



Autumnal hay was found to be more nu- 
tritious and digestible than summer hay. 

HARVESTING ROOT CROPS. 



If it is a desire to take a fall or second 
crop of clover, it is necessary to cut an 
early crop in June, or when the blos- 
soms have generally appeared through- 
o.it the field. Then, unless a very seri- 
ous drouth occurs, a second growth takes 
place, which is generally cut for seed 
some time in September. If the first 
crop is not out, the clover falls down, 
ripens some seed, and withers. In this 
case, the drouth of last summer may 
have hastened the ripening of the clover, 
but it is doubtful in the roots that have 
altogether died out. Clover is a biennial 
plant, and after ripening and shedding 
its seed the second year, many of the 
roots will die ; but it is generally fol- 
lowed by a self-sowing crop, and lasts in 
the ground some years before running 
entirely out. If the early crop is not 
cut, a fall crop cannot be cut, but the 
field may be pastured, and much of the 
coarse herbage eaten off. It is, how- 
ever, very unnutrious feed. 



NUTRITIVE VALUE OF GRASS. 



Some interesting experiment? have 
been made by the German chemists, on 
the nutritive value of meadow grass at 
different points of its growth, and upon 
hay cut at different seasons. An elabo- 
rate series of analysis shows, that young 
grass is more nutritious than mature 
grass, and experiments shows' that it is 
more easily digested. Thus grass two 
and a-half inches high contains nearly 
50 per cent, more of albumenoids than 
grass which is six inches high, and about 
ten per cent, against 4.82. The mature 
grass contains more woody fibre and less 
ash than the young grass, and besides 
this, it is found that the nutritious albu- 
menoids exist in a- less soluble form in 
hay than in young grass; hence, the diff- 



The one thing that makes labor in 
the root field so objectionable to 
Americans, is the constant stooping 
that it nearly always involves. I 
obviate this almost entirely in harvest- 
ing by using the hoe, ground sharp. 
With this in your hands begin at the 
outside row, and as you follow it down, 
cut the top clean from each turnip with 
the blade striking right or left, as is 
most convenient. The impetus given 
to the top will carry it about half way 
to the adjoining row. Returning in 
this, you strike in the same direction 
and so proceed. After a few minutes' 
practice two or three tops may be cut 
with one blow, and almost any one can 
"top" as fast as he ordinarily walks. 
After the field has been thus "topped," 
it will present this appearance. Two 
rows of turnips will alternate with each 
row of tops. In polling the roots, 
strike the blade of the hoe back of the 
turnip, and with a quick jerk pull it 
toward the adjoining row, pulled or un- 
pulled. The blade of the hoe cuts 
many of the lateral roots, thus render- 
ing the task of pulling comparatively 
easy. After topping and pulling, a row 
of turnips will alternate with a row of 
tops ; and in hauling, the wagon should 
be driven between these rows of tur- 
nips. If the turni[)s are left out in the 
field after pulling a few days, the rains 
and frosts common to the fall of the 
year, with the tumbling in and out of 
a wagon, will leave the turnips as clean 
as need be. I have myself topped and 
pulled by this method 400 and 500 
bushels in 10 hours. — £. M. S. in New 
York Tribune. 



As an illustration of the immense 
bovine resources of Texas, it is stated 
that one breeder there boasts that he 
will have 75,000 calves to brand in one 
season. He says that he branded 63,000 
one year, and 70,000 the year preced- 
ing. Compare this with a New Ensr- 



land barn-yard, with its two cows and 
erence ofnutritive value and digestibility, j yoke of oxen. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



183 



HORTICULTURAL. 



CAN ONE BE BOTH MARKET 
^ GARDENER AND FLORIST. 



A CORRESPONDENT asks if the 
prosecution of the business of 
market gardening can be profitably 
combined with that of the florist, and as 
there are doubtless many readers situa- 
ted in places where the products of both 
are wanted I will occupy a short space'in 
reply. On this subject I feel competent 
to advise, hav.ng for many years been 
extensively engaged in both pursuits at 
the same time, and have made them 
both fairly profitable, more so, I believe, 
than if the two had been separate. 
This was particularly so in the begin- 
n ng. Beginning with some ten acres 
of market garden and three small green- 
houses, I employed an average of 
eight men throughout the year. From 
April to December our labor was al- 
most exclusively in the market garden, 
or what little was necessary for the 
flowers planted outside, these then being 
of but secondary importance. Our 
main energies were devoted to the 
market-garden. On the approach of 
winter, instead of discharging a por- 
tion of our hands, as our neighbors 
who were market gardeners only did, 
the work then necessary in our green- 
houses profitably enployed the help no 
longer required in the vegetable de- 
partment, thus enabling us to retain a 
full corps of trained men ready for the 
busy work in spring, instead of having 
the annoyance of breaking in unknown 
and inexperienced hands each year, the 
loss from which is rarely sufficiently es- 
timated. 

A difficulty with the florist at the be- 
ginning is, that the business is usually 
too small to afford the expense of a 
horse and wagon, which at some seasons 
is indispensable ; but when he com- 
bines his business with that of market 
gardening the teams necessary for that 
can be used for the occasional require- 
ments of the greenhouse with little or 
no detriment. In many other respects 
one business can be made to serve the 
other. Under the tables or benches of 
the greenhouse on which the flowers are 



grown is a capital place for forcing 
rhubarb, an article everywhere com- 
manding a ready sale at a high price. 
It requires but little knowledge or labor 
to produce this crop under the green- 
house benches. A^ll that is necessary to 
do is to pack the large crowns or clumps 
of rhubarb as closely together as they 
will go, filling in the interstices with 
any good soil, beginning say the first 
week in January, February and March, 
to give succession of crops. The roots 
should have been previously dug up and 
kept in some cool shed or cellar or in 
the open ground, provided they are so 
protected from frost that they can be 
dug up at any time in winter. As- 
paragus roots may be treated in the 
same way, but it is necessary that the 
asparagus and rhubarb roots should be 
of good size, such as when growin-g in 
the open ground would give strong and 
healthy shoots. Young or small plants 
of either would not answer. Mush- 
rooms may also be grown under the 
benches of the greenhouse, the beds be- 
ing prepared in the usual way; but the 
crop of these in inexperienced hands 
would not be likely to be so successful, 
nor would the sale, unless in very large 
cities, be so certain. The greenhouse, 
too, as we have before stated in your 
columns, is quite as safe a place in 
which to raise all kinds of plants in use 
in the market garden as either the hotr 
bed or cold frame. It can be easily 
made to serve this purpose if the de- 
mand for flowers is not yet enough to 
require the whole space. Vegetable 
plants can be raised with greater safety 
and with less care than is necessary in 
raising them in hot- beds or in frames, 
while the work is far more agreeable. — 
PeUr Henderson. 



THINNING FRUIT. 



In districts where the curculio pre- 
vails it seems like sarcasm to tell a per- 
son he ought to thin his fruit. In the 
case of the plum, after the curculio has 
done with the tree, there is seldom any 
fruit to thin. In the case of the pear, 
and often the peach, thinning is of de- 
cided advantage, not only to the quality 



184 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



of the fruit, but to the tree itself. It 
must have often fallen within the obser- 
vation of persons interested in fruit cul- 
ture, that very often a tree w^ill be cov- 
ered vi'ith blossoms, from which, how- 
ever, rarely a fruit results. This is 
generally the case after a year of full 
bearing. Some people suppose the 
blossoms are destroyed before they have 
been properly fertilized, by a late frost 
or a cold rain storm, or some other un- 
toward circumstance ; but close observ- 
ers know that this is not so, but is the 
consequence, in most instances, of a 
previous year of overbearing, by which 
the vital powers are in a measure ex- 
hausted. If trees are thinned of a por- 
tion of their surplus fruits, and other- 
wise treated as they ought to be, they 
generally go on bearing regularly every 
year. , 

Moreover, people seldom lose by tak- 
ing off some fruit early ; and yet the de- 
sire to make all they can from the trees 
is often one of the reasons for leaving all 
on the tree will bear. It has been found 
that by judicious thinning the total 
weight is not much decreased. If, for 
instance, a load be left on a tree which 
would yield, when mature, a hundred 
pounds, the taking off of a fourth in in- 
fancy would still leave enough to make 
the same hundred pounds, while the 
fruit would be so much finer as to com- 
mand a higher figure in market. The 
grape, especially, is a fruit which is 
benefitted by thinning. It is not too 
much to say that in many cases one- 
fourth of all the young bunches formed 
may be cut off" to advantage. The bear- 
ing shoots, which proceed from the 
buds of the last year's wood, may have 
all but two bunches taken off"; and more 
if the young shoot be not very strong, or 
the general vigor of the vine not good. 
— Maryland Farmer. 



> DUST IN FRUIT CULTURE. 



It is singular that along dusty road- 
sides there is generally an abundance of 
fruit, and this abundance is usually in 
proportion to the quantity of dust. Not 
only is the fruit abundant, but the leaves 



are generally remarkably healthy ; and 
we do not remember an instance of a 
blighted or seriously diseased tree, when 
they have been covered with the road- 
side dust. 

This has been frequently noted in re- 
gard to old pear trees in gardens along 
roadsides ; but this year, especially as to 
the cherry, was very striking, especially 
low-headed pie cherries, which are more 
easily covered with dust than trees of 
larger size. In this vicinity this year, 
we have had a particularly dusty time. 
There was no rain of any consequence 
for five weeks, and the roads, many of 
them at least, are not famous for a free- 
dom from dust. The consequence was 
that many of the trees were, for weeks, 
of a dusty brown, instead of their usual 
living green. The trees did not seem 
to mind it in the least, and the prodi- 
gious crops of cherries that they bore 
was something wonderful. One friend 
gathered four hundred pounds from one 
tree, which he sold for ten cents per 
pound, yielding the handsome sum of 
forty dollars from one tree. . This tree 
stands on his little grass-patch, in front 
of the house, and thus served the double 
purpose of putting money into its own- 
er's pockets, and of screening the 
house from much of the dust. 

We do not pretend to account for 
this curious fact, but rest with simply 
stating it. It is supposed that the plant 
breathes through its leaves — how it does 
this when covered with dust it is not for 
us to say. It may be that the minute 
insects, which crowd on fruit trees gener- 
ally don't like dust; indeed, people do 
say that it is to destroy insects that 
chickens so love to cover themselves 
with dust. Again, some people have a 
notion that many fruit diseases come 
from minute fungi, which develop on 
the leaves and branches, and soon cover 
the whole surface, destroying tissues as 
they go. It may be that absolutely dry 
dust falling on these minute, juicy little 
plants, may suck the moisture out of 
them and leave them high and dry. We 
do not intend to discuss any of these 
propositions; at the same time it is 
curious to note that these dust covered 
fellows should always do so well. — Ger- 
mantown Telegraph. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



185 



A GOOD GARDEN. 



The ordinary vegetable table garden 
seldom contains anything beyond the 
old stereotyped list that has been hand- 
ed down from father to son, or from 
mother to daughter, generations ; and 
yet there is no good and sufficient rea- 
son why every dweller in the country 
should not enjoy all the little delicacies 
that a well-kept garden is capable of 
growing. There are many persons who 
think that if they have a row of celery, 
a small bed of asparagus, or a few hills 
of lima beans, that is certainly luxury 
sufficient for one season at least ; but I 
want to see this desire for the finer 
kinds of vegetables carried still fur- 
ther, and with a little extra care in 
some cases, success will assuredly result. 
For instance, cauliflowers maybe grown 
in most situations in this country, that 
is, if the weather should not prove too 
dry; and then why not try endive; it is 
a decided luxury when properly grown ; 
or salsify, as easily raised as parsnips or 
beets, and very much finer flavored than 
either ; spinach too, for very early 
spring, when green vegetables are 
eagerly sought after ; and even mush- 
rooms, difficult as they are to grow, are 
among the little extras that pay well for 
the attention bestowed upon their cul- 
ture. 



WATERING IN A DRY TIME. 



has all disappeared and the surface gets 
a little dry, then draw the earth back 
again which had been displaced to 
make the basin. This will make a loose 
surface over the watered part, which 
will preserve it from drying out rapidly. 
Tomatoes, egg-plants, cabbages, and 
things of this character, watered in this 
way will need no renewal of water for 
several weeks. It is a slow way of get- 
ting such work done, but it is the only 
sure way of doing it. — Germantown 
Telegraph. 



POTASH FOR PEACH ORCHARDS. 



In the summer droughts, which now 
and then occur, it is common to see 
persons everywhere at work watering 
the garden to keep things alive till the 
regular rains come. It is, however, the 
experience of all, that the more the 
garden is watered the more it wants, 
and thus, on the whole, it does little 
good. Yet water can be so given as to 
be free from this objection. It is the 
hardening of the surface which causes 
the evil, and a hard, compact surface 
always dries out faster than a loose one. 
The proper way is to take the earth 
away for a few inches around the plant 
to be watered, so as to make a sort of 
basin, and into this pour the water, let- 
ting it gradually soak away. After it 



According to the statements of a Mr. 
Shepard, at a meeting of the Cincinnati 
Horticulturul Society, says the 'Country 
Gentleman, potash is a cheap and excel- 
lent manure for peach trees. A barrel, 
costing ^35, lasted four years for an 
orchard of twenty-five acres. He dis- 
solved the potash in water, making it of 
a strength just insufficient to float a 
potato, and then gave each tree two 
quarts of this liquid every spring. From 
2,000 peach trees treated thus, he sold 
1,500 bushels; in 1867, 680, and in 1S68, 
and in 1871, Soo bushels, and equally 
satisfactory crops afterwards. He claims 
to have sold ^12,000 worth of peaches 
from this orchard in five years. This 
would be an average of $120 per acre 
for each year; a good yield certainly. 
If potash in such small quantities will 
produce such an effect, it must soon come 
into general use. 



CRACKING OF PEARS. 



Pears do not crack when the soil is 
sufficiently supplied with lime and pot- 
ash ; and they crack most where the 
salts are deficient. Common wood ashes 
contain those salts, nearly in the quan- 
tity and proportions that pear trees re- 
quire — forty per cent, of potash and 
thirty per cent, of lime. Reasoning 
from these facts, I applied wood ashes 
at the rate of four hundred bushels to 
the acre, after the fruit had formed and 
cracked. Many of them healed up and 
made perfect fruit the same season, 



186 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



others not until the next season, A 
friend, at my suggestion, applied it 
heavily to a favorite butter-pear tree in 
his own garden for several years in suc- 
cession, and has had for several years 
perfect and delicious pears, and I will 
guarantee it to cure any case, where 
the ashes are fairly and abundantly ap- 
jDlied. 



SALT AS A FERTILIZER. 



An inquirer of the New York Tri 
dune wants to know how much salt can 
be used per acre with benefit, to which 
Prof. S. W. Johnson gives the scientific 
answer as follows: "As to the quan- 
tity that may be applied per acre, that 
depends upon the crop and the climate. 
On asparagus several hundred bushels 
may be used without harm. On sugar 
beets and tobacco, large applications 
will often promote growth; sometimes 
wonderfully ; but the beets will not 
yield their sugar, and the tobacco will 
not make good smoke. On grain 
crops, five to fifteen bushels per acre, 
and in England larger quantities, have 
been used. More can be safely em- 
ployed in moist climates or seasons 
than in dry. Ten bushels is perhaps 
the happy medium adapted for an ex- 
perimental trial." 



GROWING STRAWBERRIES. 



The Rochester Unio7t tells of a 
strawberry grower who states that to 
two barrels of rain water he put one- 
quarter of a pound of ammonia, and 
one-quarter of a pound of common 
nitre, and with this solution he sprink 
led his strawberry beds every night 
when blossoming. The result is said to 
have been double the amount of large 
strawberries to chat on the beds just ad- 
joining, not so treated. The trouble 
with the inexperienced is the fancy that 
"in proportion as stimulation is increas- 
ed, the result will be more and more 
beneficial— the fact being that, while a 
moderate stimulus may do good, excess 
is the precursor of destruction. 



telje iauccisto Jrarmer* 



LANCASTER, AUGUST, 1874. 



S. S. RATHVON, Editor. 
J. B. DEVELIN, Ass't Editor and Publisher. 

Published monthly under the ausijices of the Aoki- 

CULTUllAL AND HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

fl.OO per Year in Advance. $1.25 if not 
paid in Advance. 

One extra coiiyto persons sending a club of ten sub- 
scribers, and a copy of our beautiful Steel Engraving 
to every subscriber. 

All communications, to insure insertion, must be in 
the hands of the editoi-s before the first of each 
month. All advertisements, subscriptions aud remit- 
tances to the address of the publisher, 

J. B. DEVELIN, Lancaster, Pa. 
No. 43 North Queeu-st. 

' OUR LATE EXCURSION. 



WE have been sojourning for a week 
on the shores of Delaware Bay, 
entomologizing, botanizing, concholo- 
gizing, ichtheologizing, and otherwise 
killing time, for the recreation which 
such out-door exercises afford. 

We left Lancaster early on Monday 
morning, the 27th ult., and p^jssed 
almost through the entire State of Dela- 
ware, from north to south. So far as 
concerns the country along either side 
of the railroad, it compares but poorly 
with the fertility of Lancaster county. 
In some parts of it — about Wilmington 
and Lewistown — things look tolerably 
thrifty. Delaware is regarded as the 
greatest peach-growing State in the 
Union, but it makes a rather "poor 
show" this season, if the orchards we 
passed are to be taken as an example — 
indeed, the peach-growers of that State 
themselves allege that they will not 
have a sixth of a crop, taking the whole 
State through, and in many places not 
more than a tenth. We did not see 
more than half a dozen orchards, in 
more than a hundred miles, that 
appeared to be in a good bearing condi- 
tion, and what peaches Ave saw and 
tasted, were only of an ordinary quality. 
The larger number of trees look yel- 
low and sickly, and even many of those 
that look green and luxuriant are bare 
of fruit. Late cold and freezing spring 
winds, when the trees were in bloom, 
the "Peach aphis," {Aphis persica), the 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



187 



"Peach borer" {Ti-ochiliiim excitosaj, 
and other insects, are attributed as the 
cause of faikire. Some, however, enter- 
tain the opinion that there is a cause 
anterior to all these, involving questions 
of vegetable'physiology and agricultural 
chemistry, which is the fundamental 
one. This may be so or not, but it be- 
hooves ]jeach-growers everywhere to 
thoroughly explore — "without fear, 
favor or affection" — and find out what 
is wanting and the remedy therefor. 
None are more favorably situated and 
circumstanced than they are for such a 
work, and none have a greater pecuniary 
interest in it. We also found that the 
"Colorado potato-beetle" is present in 
nearly every part of the State, and is 
making its mark. The Delaware farm- 
ers are quite anxious about It, for they 
are an intelligent, reading people, and 
have heard of its history and its progress 
in other States. 

On Wednesday, the 29th ult, the "Far- 
mers' and Mechanics' Club," of Har- 
rington, together with "Central Fruit 
Growers' Association" of Delaware, 
met to receive a delegation of the 
"American Institute Club," of New 
York, at Milford. The meeting was to 
have been held in a woods near the 
town, but it rained hard all day, and 
therefore the meeting was held in a hall. 
The meeting was well attended not- 
withstanding the rain, and a more in- 
telligent set of men we have rarely seen 
assembled on any occasion. The ob- 
ject of the assembly was to discuss the 
question of the peach failure, and they 
were very orderly and attentive to all 
that was said on the subject, so nearly 
allied to their interests. We were i)res- 
ent by a very pressing invitation from 
the Presidents of the two Delaware associa- 
tion, although it had been no part of 
our programme when we left home. 
With all their intelligence, however, on 
other sul)jects, they entertain some sin- 
gular notions on insect propagation — for 
instance that the "Lady-birds" are the 
parents of the Aphids. In adopting the 
apparent they overslaugh the real in insect 
development. They will never be able 
to fight the aphids or any other insects 
"on that line." It really seems that 
the only way not to be entirely defeated 



in agricultural and horticultural produc- 
tions is to stimulate the growth of ve- 
getation sufficiently to produce enough 
for the human family and the insects too. 
^\'e well remember the thrifty orchards 
of apples and peaches of forty years 
ago and more, when the ground was 
perfectly carpeted with fruit all summer, 
and the trees, at the same time, bearing 
a none the less prolific yield. Nobody 
seemed to complain then of insects, 
although every apple or peach on 
the ground might contain the "worm" 
of a codling or a curciilio. Indeed these 
worms in those days performed a most 
important pruning service, and probably 
but for them the trees would have borne 
more fruit than they would possibly 
have matured. It might, at all events, 
be profitable to look a little in that di- 
rection. It is true that the population 
was not so dense then as it is now, 
neither was fruit so generally consumed. 
Canning fruit was then unknown. 
"Schnitz" and apple-butter with a few 
"preserves" were the only ways in 
which it was used out of the usual sea- 
son. But neither had we then so many 
and such large peach and apple orchards 
as we have now. Just look for a mo- 
ment at the nursery business of the 
country. There seems to be " some- 
thing rotten in Denmark" about fruit 
growing in these days. Is it an evil 
that accompanies humanity, and is in 
accord with its ruling principles now 
in the world? But we must stop here. 
On Saturday evening, the ist inst., we 
returned home again, feeling better than 
when we went away. 



MEETING OF THE AGRICUL- 
TURAL AND HORTICUL- 
TURAL SOCIETY. 



This society met in the Orphans' 
Court room at two o'clock yesterday 
afternoon, Johnson Miller, Esq., of 
Warwick township, in the chair. Mem- 
bers present: Messrs. H. M. Engle, Dr. 
P. W. Hiestand, S. S. Rathvon, John- 
son Miller, M. D. Kendig, D. L. Resh, 
Henry Musser, John Huber, J. L. Lan- 
dis, M. B. Eshleman, A. B. Hostetter, 
Peter S. Reist, Ephraim Huber, Abm. 



188 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



Kauffman, J. Stauffer, Thomas Wood, 
S. P. Eby, John Miller, Wm. McCom- 
sey. 

On motion of Dr. Hiestand, D. L. 
Resh, of Columbia, was elected Secre- 
tary pro tem. The minutes of the for- 
mer meeting were read and adopted. 
H. M. Engle had on exhibition fine 
specimens of pears. He reported that 
he had used Paris green on the potato- 
bug with decided success. 

Prof. S. S. Rathvon had attended a 
meeting of the Delaware Peach-Growers' 
Association, and gave a lengthy report. 
The failure of the peach crop is attri- 
buted to the following causes : 

ist. — The cold, freezing winds when 
the trees were in bloom. 2d. — An in- 
sect — the Aphis persica. 3d. — The 
peach-borer. 4th.— Another insect which 
eat the bulbs, and a beetle which eats 
into the peaches. He also made some 
very interesting and valuable remarks 
about different kinds of destructive 
insects. 

Milton B. Eshleman reported the 
crops in his section (Paradise-twp.) in 
very good condition. Corn will be very 
heavy, potatoes good, not damaged 
much by the bugs; tobacco crop good. 
He also exhibited several fine apples 
which were kept in good condition over 
a year. 

M. D. Kendig sai-d the wheat and hay 
crop in Manor was very heavy this year. 
Oats light. Corn will be good if rain 
falls soon. 

John Miller, of Warwick township, 
reported as follows: The season of 
harvest is about over. A fine crop of 
hay has been housed, and an excellent 
crop of wheat of the best quality is in 
our barns, and already we hear the 
steam engine whistling in our neighbor- 
hood thrashing it out iand getting it 
ready for market, while the plows are 
running and turning the fields to sow 
another crop. The oats crop has been 
a partial failure, being very short in the 
straw and rather light in the grain, it 
may be a little over half a crop, caused 
by the late spring and dry season before 
hay-making. Corn is growing fast, and 
with a few showers of rain during August 
will make the heaviest crop housed for 
years ; the prospect is very promising. 



Pasture is in fine condition. Fruit will 
be plenty. Apples are falling off to 
some extent ; however, enough are left 
to make an average crop. Peaches and 
pears about an average crop. Grapes 
plenty as can be expected. As to pota- 
toes, the early planted will produce a 
full crop, while the late stand in need 
of rain, and they may make an ordinary 
crop. The Colorado bugs are reported 
in small numbers all around. The Early 
Rose have escaped in my patch. 

Israel L. Landis reported that the 
potato bug is on the increase in Man- 
heim township. The tobacco crop will 
be very light. The oats is below the 
average. 

Johnson Miller thought the finest field 
of tobacco he had seen was at Neffsville, 
Manheim township. He also read an 
extended report of the crops in his 
section. 

Peter S. Reist remarked that 'judging 
from the appearance of the potato crop 
in his vicinity, he could not believe that 
such an insect as the much-talked-of bug 
was in existence. He also reported a 
fine crop of flax in his neighborhood. 

H. M. Engle believed, in regard to 
the Colorado potato-bug, that it was best 
to " take time by the forelock" and kill 
the first brood. He also denied the 
possibility of persons being poisoned by 
the eating of potatoes on which Paris 
green had been used. 

S. S. Rathvon said the beetle had 
many enemies among the parasitic insect 
tribe. \ 

Dr. P. W. Heistand reported that this 
insect had destroyed the entire potato 
crop of one of his neighbors, and then 
proceeded to destroy his tobacco crop. 
He thinks the beetle migrates by flying — 
sometimes at a great height from the 
ground — sometimes they crawl in the 
dust. 

A. B. Hostetter, of Mount Joy, re- 
ported crops in his neighborhood very 
good, except oats, which is very light. 
Potatoes very good, but late. Corn crop 
very promising. 

Mr. Reist thought that the potato 
bug — like the weevil and other insects — • 
would live out their time, and then 
leave us. 

S. S. Rathvon said that some seasons 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



189 



were favorable and some are unfavorable 
for the production of insects. This sea- 
son has been especially propitious thus 
far in that direction. 

Thomas Wood, of Fulton, reported 
croi)s in his section good — wheat ex- 
ceedingly so. Potatoes good. Oats 
rather light. 

S. S. Rathvon closed the discussion of 
potato-beetle by giving a full history of 
the insect. In exists in three states- 
larva, quiescents, and perfect. 

The essayist. Dr. E A. Hertz, was 
absent. 

Johnson Miller made some remarks 
in regard to holding an exhibition in 
the fall. 

H. M. Engle spoke in favor of hold- 
ing a county fair. 

A letter having been addressed to the 
society by the Lancaster Park Associa- 
tion, inviting the society to act with 
them in holding an exhibition, remarks 
were made by H. M. Engle, S. S. Rath- 
von, Peter S. Reist, and others. It was 
considered advisable to consult the asso- 
ciation in regard to allowing our society 
to set apart separate days for the exclu- 
sive show of fruits and industrial pro- 
ducts, and to have no horse racing on 
those days, but also have separate days 
devoted to that purpose. 

J. Miller offered the following resolu- 
tion : 

Resolved, That the Lancaster County Agri- 
cultural and Horticultural Society will hold a 
fall exhibition, either by itself or in connection 
with the Park Association. 

On motion of Peter S. Reist, the society 
adjourned to meet again in two weeks — 
Aug. 17th — to make arrangements in 
regard to the fall exhibition. All the 
members are earnestly requested to be 
present. 



/ For the Farmer. 

DESTRUCTION OF TIMBER IN 
THE UNITED STATES. 



Very few people as yet, give much of 
their attention to the subject involving 
the preservation and destruction of tim- 
ber in America. One good thing, rail- 
road building was not increased since 
1870, but rather decreased from 187 1 to 
1873. I" 1871, 7,600 miles of railroad 
was built; in 1872, 6,167 miles, and m 



1873 only 3)9i6 miles. We have to 
keej) 66,237 miles of railroad in repair, 
and furnish lumber for sixty-six occupa- 
tions, consuming a large amount of lum- 
ber, besides what is annually used for 
running engines on railroads and ma- 
chine shops. It is therefore at once 
seen that the destruction is greater than 
it was previous to the application of 
steam to industrial pursuits. The peo- 
ple have certainly some reason to be 
alarmed at these results, and to consider 
how the destruction of timber can be 
stayed; and how we can replenish our 
timber groves, a thing very easily done 
when once began. But the government, 
both State and National, ought to en- 
courage land-holders in some way to 
plant and re-plant timber. The Na- 
tional Government did make some pre- 
tension, some time ago, to encourage 
the Western States to plant and raise 
forest trees, while at the same time it 
is itself engaged in the most wholesale 
and sometimes wanton destruction of 
timber. We find that in many cases, 
boxes that had been used in packing 
dry goods, groceries and shoes are care- 
fully saved, and whole car loads are re- 
shipped from Lancaster to Allentown 
and Philadelphia, to be used for the 
same or other purposes again. It is, 
however, somewhat different with cigar 
boxes. 

Just at this time, hundreds, yes, even 
thousands, of men are engaged in des- 
troying the poplar trees to make cigar 
boxes. First, men are employed to buy 
up poplar logs; others to cut them 
down ; others in hauling to saw mills, 
where they are sawed into two or three- 
cii^hth boards for cigar boxes, the cut- 
ting of the saw wasting almost as much 
as is left for use. Again, hundreds of 
men are employed in manufacturing 
these boxes, to be used only once, and 
then thrown away, or used as kindling, 
or left to gradual decay. 

Now, in the first place, I cannot see 
why these boxes should not be used a 
second, or even a third time, or until 
they are no longer fit for use. The 
Revenue department, in my opinion, 
ought to be so organized by this time 
that they cotild safely restamp and reuse 
their sound cigar boxes. I hope the 



190 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



government will look into this matter, 
and no longer exhibit the example of 
being the most profligate and universal 
destroyer of our forest timber, without 
properly assisting in a renewal of it. To 
set such an example, especially when 
the saving of timber is the question of 
the day, in every thickly populated 
country, only adds to the demoralization 
of the whole subject. 

In a future number I will give some 
hints on the raising of forest trees. 

Yours, &c., L. S. R. 

[There is no doubt much truth in 
the strictures of our contributor, but 
"what are we going to do about it?" 
We fear the case will be more difficult 
to reach than that of '' Boss Tweed " 
The fact is, cigar-box making is a busi- 
ness just as any other kind of box- 
making is, and men who embark in any 
business in these ciays, will naturally de- 
sire to increase it as much as possible. — 
Ed.] 



DOMESTIC. 



POULTRY IN GARDENS. 



IF one could only make use of the 
good qualities of poultry in gardens 
without suffering from their bad ones, 
what a capital thing it would be. The 
amount of insects they destroy is aston- 
ishing to those who have not been 
initiated into the mystery of the thing ; 
but everybody knows they claim all the 
crops in pay therefor, if they get a 
chance ; and thus we have all our labor 
for our pains. We like to have our peas 
come up early, but they come up a little 
too soon when there is a flock of chickens 
about ; and they are not satisfied with 
the early worm, but want the early green 
blade from the strawberries also. 

There are many times when chickens 
cannot only be introduced into the gar- 
den without serious injury, but with 
great good. It is best to have a good 
chicken-yard attached to all gardens, 
where the poultry can be confined when 
there is damage to be done, and let out 
when they can work to advantage. Be- 
sides this, simple arrangements can often 
be employed, whereby the seed beds and 
often the growing crops, can be pre- 



served from danger, and at the same 
time the chickens be allowed to roam 
about, doing good as they go. Brush- 
wood can be laid over the seed beds and 
young crops just planted, for a little while 
and found to be a good protection. 
Chickens do not care to rumple their 
feathers against these crooked sticks. 
Then, again, many have coarse fish-nets, 
or other manufactured articles, which 
suspend over the seed beds, make a cheap 
and efficient protection. 

Of course all these suggestions are in 
tended only for small gardens. They 
cannot be well employed on a large 
scale. But it is only in small gardens 
that the evils of chickens running 
around loose are so seriously felt. In 
the Far West ducks are looked on as ex- 
cellent things for potato fields and vine- 
yards; and even in gardens they are 
looked up to as the preservers and de- 
fenders against insect enemies. Wheth- 
er what good they do in this way pays 
for their keep we do not know, for as a 
general thing, ducks are hardly a pay- 
ing investment. They shovel down the 
food alarmingly in most cases; while 
the "luck" in raising young ducks, or 
in getting an abundance of eggs, is not 
equal to that from the ordinary fowl. 
Where there is water, or marshy ground, 
or other conveniences where ducks can 
get in a measure their own living, it is 
of course different. We are speaking 
chiefly of ducks as an everyday affair, 
and solely from an insect-gathering 
point of view. 



GRAHAM GEMS. 



Of the many ways to make gems, we 
believe there are none to surpass the 
following, which we find in the , Hera/ii 
of Health, with full instructions for those 
who may not be accustomed to make 
these healthful delicacies. " The flour 
is the principal ingredient, and on it de- 
pends chiefly the success of the baker ; 
it must necessarily be of the very best 
kind, made of the best winter wheat, and 
be possessed of the qualities, commonly 
known as "dry and strong." 'The 
treatment varies according to the quali- 
ties of the flour. If the flour is of the 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



191 



kind described above, the dough can be 
baked immediately j but if the flour be 
moist the dough must be allowed to stand 
in a warm place for at least four hours, 
in order to obtain a palatable article. 
The German hygienists allow the dough 
for their unleavened bread to stand six 
hours, in every case ; this is, however, 
unnecessary, provided the flour is of 
good quality. The next in order is a 
good baking oven, one that is capable 
of baking equally as well from the top 
as from the bottom ; it is difficult to 
state the exact amount of heating re- 
quired, as some ovens are more easily 
heated than others ; suffice it to say that 
a quick oven is ne* essary, and that the 
glaring heat, which always accompanies 
a freshly heated oven, be allowed to pass 
away before baking the gems, as they 
are very apt to blister on the top, espe 
cially the water-gems. In mixing the 
dough, take blood-warm milk or water, 
adding the flour and beating thoroughly 
for at least five minutes. It is better to 
retain some of the milk or water one 
intends to use, making the dough slightly 
thicker, beat it well, and then add the 
remaining milk. By this method the 
dough becomes more thoroughly mixed, 
and is entirely freed of the small lumps 
that are so difficult to get rid of. If milk 
is used, make the dough thick enough, 
so that it can be spooned out comforta 
bly ; but for water gems it must be some- 
what thicker. 

The pans used in baking the gems 
are oval shaped, nua^uring 2)4 by i)4 
inches; eight of these unite in making 
one pan ; there are also some pans made 
of tin, but as the cast-iron pan retains 
the heat longer, it is the best. 

If the dough is ready and the oven 
heated, then put some of the pans in 
the oven and allow them to become 
quite hot ; take one out, grease it with 
a clean rag dipped in butcer, and dro[) 
the dough in the pan with a large spoon; 
return the pan quickly to the oven. Il 
the pan is too hot, so that when greased 
the butter is burned, allow it to cool 
before using it, as the gems will be apt 
to stick to the pan and be burned. After 
eight or ten minutes they must be looked 
after, and if they are getting too brown 
must be put in a cooler place and allowed 



to bake for ten or fifteen minutes more. 
They ought not to be taken out before 
they are thoroughly baked, as they will 
become wet and doughy if taken out too 
soon, and no amount of after-baking can 
undo this. They may be eaten hot with 
impunity, a quality not possessed by any 
other form of bread. 



FARMERS' CHILDREN. . 



Farmers' children are the hope and 
the life of a nation. If they grow up in- 
telligent, moral, patriotic, there is hope 
for the country, for a continuance of 
free institutions. Seven-tenths of our 
children are born on the farm. They 
have the preponderance in numbers, as 
well as they have in strength and influ- 
ence. They grow up hearty, robust, 
active, industrious. They become our 
most active business men in our cities 
and towns. Our cities would soon de- 
generate, were it not for the fresh blood 
infused into them from the country 
yearly. Go to the most enterprising and 
successful business men in St. Louis to- 
day, and ask them where they wefe born, 
and they will tell you upon the farm — 
perhaps in a cabin. Ask your most suc- 
cessful lawyers, ministers, and physi- 
cians, where they were born, and they 
will tell you in the country — not in the 
city. 

There is more in farmers' children 
than most people look for, and there 
might be much more still. Do you ask 
how? We will tell you. By furnishing 
them better facilities for education. It 
is the mind and the morals that make 
the man. The man must be educated 
to become useful. The ignoramus does 
not make an impression upon the body 
politic. Ignorance does not rule, but 
intelligence does. If we would have 
society become better, we must educate 
our children. Farmers' children are 
educated chiefly in the common schools. 
Good com.iion schools are doing more 
for the people, for the country, for good 
morals, than any other instrumentality. 
They must be encouraged. Those 
having them in their keeping must em- 
ploy the best teachws, visit them, give 
them their influence, and sustain them 
in every possible way. They should 



192 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



constantly strive to secure the best — -not 
the cheapest — teachers. They must em- 
ploy teachers whose hearts are in their 
work ; who love their vocation ; who do 
not teach simply to make a few dollars, 
but because they are performing an im- 
portant duty, which they wish to do hon- 
estly and well. 



LOTS OF STUFF IN THE CELLAR. 



I heard a young wife boasting to her 
mother one time, and among other 
things she said : " Oh, we have lots of 
stuff in our cellar ! turnips, potatoes, 
apples, squashes, cabbages, onions, pars- 
nips, soap, pork, sausages, tallow, milk, 
butter, lard, candles, soap-grease, and 
I don't what we haven't got there !" 
The mother smiled approvingly, as 
though she thought, " Oh, what an ex- 
cellent provider my son-in-law is !" 

It is no trouble to heap things into a 
cellar in the fall of the year, but it is a 
great trouble to carry out the filth and 
decay in the spring, and it is very often 
neglected, and the result is serious if not 
fatal. An illy ventilated cellar, stored 
with promiscuous edibles, is almost as 
dangerous as a powder magazine. Think 
of the steamy dungeon whose foul airs 
permeate the living rooms above, whose 
poison is inhaled by every breath that 
goes into the lungs, and from thence 
into the red life-current. We only won- 
der that people live as long and as com- 
fortably and happily and they do. 

We hope that cellars " with lots of 
stuff in them" are not common; that 
men bury in the ground their surplus 
vegetables, bringing into the cellar only 
a limited supply at a time. Soap, tal- 
low, pork, lard and soap grease should 
none of them be kept where the milk 
and butter are, for they are wonderful 
absorbents of foul odors. 

If barrels must stand in the cellar, 
sweep them often and let no cobwebs or 
mold accumulate — let them be placed on 
trestles up off the ground — sweep the 
walls thoroughly, move every decaying 
vegetable, and pour water about it in 
which has been dissolved copperas. 
Have chloride of lime standing about in 
plates, secure thorough ventilation — 
whitewash if you want to, and there will 



be no typhoid fever or chills rise up out 
of your cellar and seize you for its vic- 
tim. — 0/uO Farmer. 



HOW TO DISINFECT A ROOM. 



The best way to get foul air out of a 
room and fresh air in, is to open the 
windows and doors, to let in the exter- 
nal air. This is the best possible puri- 
fier. If the room contains germs they 
will probably find surfaces to rest upon, 
and it is by cleansipg all surfaces that 
the room is to be purified, and rot by 
the futile attempts to disinfect an ever- 
changing atmosphere current. As germs 
of disease must be looked upon as dan- 
gerous enemies, they must be treated 
as an invading army, and deprived of 
every possible feeding and resting place. 
As they are fostered in filth and putrid- 
ity, all filth and decaying matter should 
be carefully removed, and decomposi- 
tion should be arrested in sewers, on 
road surfaces, and in all holes and cor- 
ners where putrefying matter of any kind 
is deposited. For the purpose of ar- 
resting decomposition, chemical sub- 
stances should be used which do not by 
nature defile the air, and are not dan- 
gerous, destructive or offensive; for it is 
of the utmost importance to make dis- 
infection popular, and it is contrary to 
human nature to delight in substances 
which are irritating and obnoxious to 
the senses, and which have a tendency 
to cause a positive evil in the attempt to 
prevent a possible one. For this reason 
the vapor of carbolic acid is obnoxious 
to disinfect a room with, useful as it 
may be in some places. Sunlight, per- 
fect cleanliness and good ventilation, 
are the best means of securing pure air 
in a room. — Herald of Health. 



TO CLEAN BLANKETS. 



The Boston Journal of Chemistry gives 
the following method of cleansing 
blankets : 

Put two large teaspoon fuls of borax 
and a pint of soft soap into a tub of 
cold water. When dissolved, put in a 
pair of blankets, and let them remain 
over night. Next day rub out, and 
rinse thoroughly in two waters, and 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



193 



hang them to dry. Do not wring them. 
But this is not the only domestic use to 
which borax may be put. Borax is the 
best cockroach exterminator yet dis- 
covered. This insect has a peculiar 
aversion to it. As the salt is perfectly 
harmless to human beings, it is much 
preferred for this purpose to the poison- 
ous substances commonly used. Borax 
is valuable for the laundry; use one 
pound to about ten gallons of water, 
and you need only about one-half the 
ordinary allowance of soap. For laces, 
cambrics, etc , use an extra quantity of 
this powder. It will not injure the 
texture of the cloth in the least. For 
cleansing the hair, nothing is better 
than a solution of borax water. Wash 
afterwartls with pure water if it leaves 
the hair too stiff. Borax dissolved in 
water is an excellent dcntrifice or tooth 
wash. 



COMPARISON OF BREEDS OF 
POULTRY. 



Isaac Lynde, of Ohio, writing to the 
Poultry World, describes an experiment 
tried by him last season. At the first of 
September he took ten pullets each of 
five breeds, each within a week of being 
six weeks old, and placed them in yards 
forty feet square, with comfortable 
houses. For the next six months he 
kept an account of their food and egg 
productions, with the following results : 

The Dark Brahmas ate 3693^ quarts 
of corn, oats and wheat screenings, laid 
605 eggs, and weighed 70 pounds. 

The Buff Cochins .ate 406 quarts, laid 
591 eggs, and weighed 73 pounds. 

The Gray Dorkings ate 309^ quarts, 
laid 524 eggs, and weighed 59)2 pounds. 

The Houdons ate 214^4 quarts, laid 
783 eggs, and weighed 45^^ pounds. 

The Leghorns ate 2311^ quarts, laid 
807 eggs, and weighed 36'^ pounds. 

It will be seen by the above compari- 
son that the Leghorns laid the greatest 
number of eggs with the smallest weight. 



HOW TO MAKE USE OF PAPER. 



Few housekeepers are aware of the 
many uses to which waste paper may be 
put. After a stove has been blackened, 



it can be kept looking very well for a 
long time by rubbing it with paper 
every morning. Rubbing with paper is 
a much nicer way of keej^ing the out- 
side of a tea-kettle, coffee pot or teapot 
bright and clean than the old way of 
washing it in suds. Rubbing them 
with paper is also the best way of 
polishing knives and tinware after 
scouring them. If a little soap be held 
on the paper in rubbing tinware and 
spoons, they shine like new silver. For 
polishing mirrors, windovvs, lamp chim- 
neys, &c., paper is better than dry 
cloth. Preserves and pickles keep much 
better if brown paper instead of cloth is 
tied over the jar. Canned fruit is not 
apt to mould if a piece of writing paper, 
cut to fit each can, is laid directly upon 
the fruit. Paper is much better to put 
under carpet than straw. It is thinner, 
warmer, and makes less noise when one 
walks over it. Two thicknesses of paper 
placed between the other covering on a 
bed are as warm as a quilt. If it is 
necessary to step upon a chair always 
lay a paper upon it, and thus save the 

paint and wood-work from damage. 
, .-♦-. 

DOMINIQUE FOWLS. 



The London J^/eldsays of this variety^ 
which it denominates American : 

There are two or three useful and good 
breeds of poultry that are not well-known 
in England. One of the oldest estab- 
lished, and certainly one. of the most 
useful, is the Dominique. This breed 
more closely resembles our Cuckoo 
Dorking than any other English variety. 
It differs, however, in having only four 
toes — a great advantage, by the way, in 
a practical point of view — and in the 
legs being yellow. Each feather is of a 
very light gray, barred across, with 
darker si Uy-blue bars or pencilings. The 
Dominique cocks are showy birds, with 
with full saddles and hackles, and abund- 
ant, well matched sickle feathers. They 
sliould weigh from six to eight pounds 
when mature. As table fowls, they 
should necessarily be short-legged, fulK 
chested, and broad in the back. The 
ear lobes should be red, and the wattles 
and comb neat, the former of medium 
size. The merits of this breed will re- 



194 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



commend them to persons residing in 
the country as well worthy of promo- 
tion in the poultry-yard, whether as 
makers of eggs, or of meat ; as sitters, or 
nurses, they are invaluable. 

POULTRY HOUSES FOR THE 
FARM. 



The cheapest way to build a fowl- 
house, and give the greatest amount of 
ground room, (which is what counts 
with poultry,) is to make but one roof, 
and have that meet the ground. The 
building should be nine feet wide at the 
underpinning, and nine feet high at the 
highest part. This gives as much floor 
room for the fowls to move about in as 
if the walls were high on all sides of the 
structure, and with great economy in 
building materials. There should be 
twelve doors in the building, besides the 
small openings under the windows for 
the use of the fowls, and the ventilator 
near the peak; three board doors in 
each end, the tallest being for the at- 
tendant to enter, and the other two for 
ventilation in extremely hot weather. 
The doorways of the boards are furnish 
ed with another set of doors made of 
lath. 

When the board doors are all open in 
hot weather, and the lath doors shut, 
there is a fine circulation of air, and 
when the house is to be cleaned the lath 
doors as well as all the others may be 
ope n ed . — Farmers' Union. 



THE FRENCH WAY OF SAVING 
CHICKEN FEATHERS. 



Cut the plume portions of the feathers 
from the stem by means of ordinary 
hand scissors. The former are placed 
in quantities in a coarse bag, which, 
when full, is closed and subjected to a 
thorough kneading with the hands. 
At the end of five minutes the feathers, 
it is stated, become disaggregated and 
felted together, forming a down per 
fectly homogeneous and of great light- 
ness. It is even lighter than natural 
eider down, because the latter contains 
the ribs of the feathers, which give extra 
weight. A quantity equal to about one 
and six-tenths troy ounces of down can 



be obtained from the feathers of an 
ordinary sized pullet, and it readily sells 
in Paris for about $2 a pound. The 
down thus obtained is said to form a 
beautiful cloth. For about a square 
yard of such material a pound and a 
half of the down is required. The 
fabric is found to be almost indestructi- 
ble, as in place of fraying or wearing 
out at folds it only seems to felt with a 
greater degree of tightness. In addi- 
tion to these valuable qualities, the 
fabric takes dye rapidly and is tho- 
roughly waterproof. — St. Louis Re- 
publican. 



UNEASY MILKERS. 



I have found the following plan very 
useful in preventing kicking and stej)- 
ping cows from upsetting the milk and 
the temper of the milker : Have a strap 
about 30 inches in length, and one-half 
to three-quarters of an inch wide, with 
buckle and holes punched from 18 inches 
to the end of the strap, one inch apart. 
When you wish to milk raise the fore-leg 
on the side you milk on and strap it 
doubled up, so as to have the strap up 
rather close to the body in front and 
just below the hoof on the back side 
Adjust it rather loosely, and the joint 
just above the hoof will then be below 
the strap and will form an angle that will 
prevent it from slipping down. Having 
once got it right, the strap need not be 
unbuckled, but can be slipped on and 
off by pressing the legs closer together. 
The cow will always naturally bear on 
the strap and keep it in position. In 
this way she has only three legs to stand 
on, and needs them all for that purpose. 
Many a valuable cow could thus be saved 
as a milker that otherwise will go to the 
shambles — E. H. Norton, Sussex Co., 
Del. 



POULTRY DIET. 



Cayenne pepper, mustard or ginger, 
can, with great benefit, be added to the 
food of fowls, to increase their vigor, 
and to stimulate egg production. This 
apparently artificial diet will be seen to 
be natural if we remember that wild 
birds of the gallinaceous species get 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



195 



access to very many highly-spiced ber- 
ries and buds ; articles that give the 
" game flavor" to their flesh. The or- 
dinary food of the domestic fowl is not, 
indeed, entirely without some such 
addition, since there is more or less of 
an aromatic principle in wheat, Indian 
corn, and all other grains. Neverthe- 
less, it is not sufficient in quantity to 
supply the place of the stronger spices, a 
taste for which is part of the fowl's in 
herited constitution. A moderate quan 
tity of cayenne, etc., added to the 
ground grain, is always productive of 
health and thrift in poultry. 

UTILIZING HEN POWER. 

With the tread- power for dogs, canine 
pets, otherwise useless, were made of 
some little value, but a device for turn- 
ing hen-scratching to some account is 
one step in advance of this. Some man, 
too tired by nature to hoe, has utilized 
the scratching power of the hen — has 
bent her ever-prevailing propensities to 
the aid of agriculture. He makes long, 
narrow cages, just wide enough to fit 
between his garden rows of vegetables, 
&c. ; has slat sides, board tops, and 
open bottoms. In these cages he puts 
his best dirt-throwers and lets them hoe 
out the patch. When the ground is 
well torn up, he moves the cage along, 
and in this way keeps the earth mellow 
and the garden free from insects. 

BEANS AS POULTRY FOOD. 

If you have any beans that you can 
not market, you may make good use of 
them for your fowls. They will not eat 
them whole, however, as every boy 
knows, but they must be cooked. Boil 
them well, and when done, stir in at 
once about one part of cornmeal to two 
of beans. The mixture can be kept 
several days, and the hens will be found 
to thrive well upon it. 



SLAUGHTERING CATTLE.' 



The Australian butchers have invented 
an improved method of slaughtering 
cattle. At Sidney the animals are driven 
by fives at a time into the slaughter- 



house, where there is no person to be 
seen. While they are quietly staring 
around the strangely quiet apartment, a 
man silently passes above them, walking 
along the open beams which closely 
cross the house. He is armed with a 
lance with a point like a mortising 
chisel. One by one the beasts are 
pierced with this weapon just behind 
the horns; they drop instantly, and as 
soon as all are down, the other men, 
waiting in the next apartment, enter and 
bleed, and dress the carcases. 



ADORN YOUR HOMES. 



Nothing adds so much to the beauty 
of a home, in town or country, as the 
tasteful adornments that may be effected 
by trees, vines and shrubbery. Where- 
tver there is ground sufficient, the 
planting of vines should not be ne- 
glected. Even grape-vines in back 
yards are an ornament, and furnish a 
refresliing shade and coolness in the 
summer heats. For houses or cottages 
planted in open grounds, vines and 
trees are indispensable to health as well 
as comfort — while the grace and beauty 
they afford is always admired. 



Bread Sponge ( Potato.) — Six pota- 
toes boiled and mashed fine while hot ; 
6 tablespoonfuls of baker's yeast ; 2 
tablespoonfuls white sugar ; 2 tablespoc n- 
fuls lard ; i teaspoonful soda; i quart 
warm — not hjt — water; 3 cups of flour. 
Mash the potatoes, and work in the lard 
and sugar. Stir to a cream, mixing in 
gradually a quart of water in which the 
potatoes were boiled, which should have 
been poured out to cool down to blood 
warmth. Beat in the flour, already 
wet, up with a little potato-water to pre- 
vent lumping, then the yeast, lastly the 
soda. Cover lightly if the weather is 
warm, more closely in winter, and set 
to rise over night in a warm place. 

Nutritious food and plenty of it is 
essential to good health. Meat soup is 
better than beer, and a cup of good 
coffee is more invigorating than a 
pitcher of hard cider. Good bread and 
firm, fat pork, are better than cakes or 
cookies. 



196 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



Pretty Table Ornament. — A cor- 
respondent says: "I was much struck 
lately with the wonderfully beautiful 
effect produced by simply a handful of 
heads of wheat in a vase of water. Each 
grain sent out a bright green leaflet, and 
continued to replenish the fading ones 
for weeks together. Some have doubt- 
less seen this pretty table ornament, but 
to me it was new, and perhaps it would 
be so to many others. 

A HOG that will not eat is of no more 
use than a mill that will not grind. 
And it is undoubtedly true that the 
more a pig will eat in proportion to his 
size, provided he can digest and assimi- 
late it, the more profitable he will prove. 

The New England Farmer says : "So 
long as dairymen travel through the 
country, pick out the best milkers, and 
keep them for milk till they grow 
old, without raising a single calf, no 
improvement of our milk stock need be 
expected." 

J^ Drying Off a Cow. — The quickest 
and best way of turning a fresh cow dry, 
so that you may immediately fatten her, 
is to feed the cow four or five quarts of 
dry corn meal every day, and all the dry 
wheat straw she would eat. Two weeks 
of this diet, with care in milking, so as 
not to let the udder be injured by over 
distention, dried off an Ayrshire cow 
that could not be dried off in the ordi- 
nary way. 

y Dry Earth is a cheap disinfectant. 
Use it freely, and be not sparing of 
water, soap and lime. 

Prejudice squints when it looks and 
lies when it talks. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



SPRING AND SUMMER CARE OF 
SWINE. 



THE readers of our journal have 
learned that we do not believe in a 
period of "storing" in the management 
of pigs ; that the business of the pig is to 
turn food into pork, and not be rooting 
around for a mere subsistence, thereby 
wasting all the food it eats. No farmer 
can afford to keep any animal intended 



for its flesh in a stationary condition ; 
there must be progress, constant and 
unvarying, to insure profit. But we do 
not believe in growing pigs altogether 
upon grain or refuse of the dairy. The 
pig is a grass eating anim.il, and there- 
fore is not likely to be healthy when fed 
entirely upon concentrated food. The 
farmer will find it greatly to his profit 
to have a small grass lot connected with 
the pen for his pigs to run in after grass 
starts in the spring ; but he must not 
depend altogether upon the grass for 
growth. They should be fed in pen, 
also, all they will cat of bran and corn 
meal, other grain or skim milk, or whey 
and bran, giving all the food they can 
use to make a rapid and vigorous growth. 
The grass will keep them in health by 
mixing with the grain in the stomach, 
and thus assisting in the digestion of the 
solid food. When it is not convenient 
t ) have a pasture lot near the pen, a 
small quantity of grass (clover is best) 
may be cut and carried to them. A 
bushel basket full is enough for six pigs 
a day. We have found the same quan- 
tity of meal to produce fifty per cent, 
better result on two pigs fed thus with 
grass, tlian on two others of the same 
litter with no grass. Skimmed milk 
with grass will produce as good growth 
as can be obtained by feeding grain in- 
stead. It will be found that one-seventh 
to one-fifth of the live weight of the 
pigs will be consumed daily of skim 
milk, and this will produce a gain of a 
pound live weight to about twelve pounds 
of milk, average, during first 300 days 
in the life of the pig, with the small 
quantity of grass mentioned. This will 
give, in many States, the value of one- 
half cent per pound, or one cent per 
quart for refuse milk. It will also make 
the value of the skim milk of an ordi- 
nary cow (say 4,000 pounds of milk,) 
worth ^20 per annum. But this can 
only be predicated uj 01 full feeding, 
for if fed only enough to keep the pig 
only in store co/idition, the milk would 
pay 'little or nothing. Farmers must re- 
member that it takes from three-fifths to 
two-thirds of the food that is ordinarily 
fed to animals to keep them alive or in 
their present condition, and that from 
the other third or two-fifths comes the 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



197 



pay for the whole food used, as well as 
the profit. Some of our readers may 
think we illustrate this point oftener 
than necessary, but we know there is 
nothing in stock raising upon which the 
f u-mer is so conservative as that of feed- 
ing. He is always inclined to seek 
breeds that eat less, whilst his efforts 
should be to develop those that can eat 
more and consequently produce a larger 
surplus of growth. 

We must also call attention to the 
economy of feeding pigs well through 
the warm weather, because it makes one 
eighth to one third less food to lay on a 
pound of live weight in warm than in 
cold weather. Fatten your pigs ever\ 
day of your lives, and do your principal 
feeding in summer. Pork usually brings 
a better price, in local markets, in Sep 
tember and October, than in November 
and December. 



In passing along the sidewalks of half 
a dozen squares, a few days ago, we 
crushed dozens oi" Colorado potato- 
beetles that seemed to be on a move in 
quest of something to feed on. We see 
nc th.'ng but disaster to the potato crop 
ne.ct year, unless something fatal to 
their propagation and spread occurs 
during the approaching autumn and 
winter. Because they have not de 
stroyed the entire crop the present sea- 
son, people, as a general thing, are in- 
different about them. We regret to see 
this, because of the probable conse 
quences next season — consequences 
which have followed indifference and 
neglect wherever this insect has 
appeared. 



We have received the premium list of 
the 2oth anniversary exhibition of the 
"Berks County Agricultural Society," 
on the 8th, 9th, loth and nth of Sep- 
tember next, at Reading. The list is a 
large and liberal one, occupying about 
four and a half finely printed columns 
in the Berks and Schuylkill Journal. 
We commend the living aspect of the 
society to our readers, and only regret 
that we are unable to make a similar 
record in reference to Lancaster county. 
Indeed, at this moment, we cannot say 



that we will have a general exhibition at 
all. A committee meets on Monday 
next, to make a report on the subject, 
August loth, 1874. 



BOTANY. 



ON PEACH CULTURE. 



BY J. STAUFFER. 

To the Editor of the Farmer : 

INASMUCH as we had the honor, in 
our late visit to the sea-side, to be 
kindly invited to meet with the Peach 
Growers' Society, held at Milford, July 
29, 1874; and in consideration of the 
kind and gentlemanly conduct, and 
polite attention shown us by J. F. Tharp, 
Esq., and the members generally, it is 
with deep re^^et that I left them so un- 
courteously without expressing my high 
estimation of the several intelligent 
men, such as Dr. Trimble, of New Jer- 
sey, who, like ourselves, has for years 
collected facts, illustrated and published 
much of value to fruit-growers ; but I 
suffered such pain from gastric dis- 
quietude as to unfit me for sociability, 
and hope my conduct may not have 
been construed as arising from a morbid 
dissatisfaction. On the contrary, I was 
pleased with the intelligent counte- 
nances of all present at the meeting, 
and can say I never met a body of men 
of horticulturists, more gentlemanly 
and courteous than on this occasion, 
and under other circumstances would 
have delighted myself with making a 
closer acquaintance with Dr. Trimble. 
I should like him to see my illustra- 
tions also, well known to you to be 
extensive. I was interested in all the 
Doctor said, and could endorse every 
word, as well as yourself, from personal 
observation. Your own remarks were 
well-timed and to the purpose. What I 
said before the meeting was only pre- 
paratory to what I wished to say, and I 
promised you an expression of my views 
on the subject of peach culture. I will 
give a summary of the thoughts that 
arose from the facts seen and mentioned 
at the meeting. 

Along either side of the railroad, 
from Wilmington to Lewes, we pas^^'' 



198 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



numerous extensive peach orchards. 
The hasty glance allowed us seated in 
the moving cars, scarcely authorizes us 
to assign a cause why the orchards in 
some localities presented the young 
trees with a dense mass of deep green 
foliage in full vigor ; others, equally 
dense but of a sickly yellow color ; 
others, again, evidently depauperated, 
and in fast decline — showing a great 
diversity with respect to foliage — but 
all, as far as observed, destitute of fruit 
— evidently, a year of failure along the 
line of travel. The soil and geological 
formation of the greater portion of 
Delaware is like that of New Jersey, 
and belongs to the so-called, cretaceous 
period, composed of bluish and gray 
clays, micaceous sands and darker clays, 
and beds of green sand and yellow lime- 
stone in certain localities. My object 
in this is to call attention to other 
sources of failure than those caused by 
insects. Nature's operations are much 
like chemical combinations in the 
laboratory — indeed the chemistry of 
nature is wonderful and past finding 
out ; yet patient investigation and 
microscopic research has brought much 
to light that it is well to take into con- 
sideration in making up our verdict as 
to the remote or immediate cause of the 
thing complained of. 

To those who have given their atten- 
tention to the physiology of plants and 
their growth from the seed or buds, the 
morphology of the root, stem, and 
brarches, foliage, inflorescence, and the 
ultimate result in fruit, well know the 
complication involved, and how diverse 
the results may be from a change of cir- 
cumstances, even by the same means of 
cure or culture. There are relations as 
to the amount of root surface to the de- 
mand of the trunk and body of the tree. 
So with the foliage a certain equilibrium 
is essential, and this nature endeavors by 
its inherent laws to establish; but meets 
with opposing influences with which to 
contend, as indeed is the case in all 
mundane or physical operations — an- 
tagonism, negative and positive forces 
to produce action — too often resulting 
in counteraction — and yet wisely ordain- 
ed to a purpose. I was let to these re- 
flections from the fact that "yellows" 



have been cured by severe pruning in 
some cases, and supposed to have caused 
the " yellows" in other cases. For in- 
stance, when the root is insufficient to 
supply .all the branches with sufficient 
sap, it is evident that the foliage will 
loose its vigor and peel off" — but when 
pruned, the demand of sap is reduced, 
and the supply sufficient to give vigor to 
the remainder and restore a healthy 
action. On ihe other hand, severe 
pruning to form a round full head, when 
the roots are abundant and the sap 
ascends with force, the lateral buds will 
develope in lateral branches, making 
new wood and foliage so as to draw on 
the vital forces to such a degree as to 
exhaust its energies in making young 
wood and leaves only, with no fruit for 
that season — thus the foliage may be 
vigorous and of a deep green, with suffi- 
cient protroplasm deposited to yield a 
good crop of fruit the following year. 
We must bear in mind that the pistil 
or germ as well as the stamens, petals, 
calyx, are all modifieji conditions of the 
leaf, and it only requires a certain eli- 
mination ofthe sap in condensing the pro- 
troplasm and by the stimulus of sun light 
and the nutritive forces to swell and pro- 
duce the perfection of the fruit, as the 
ultimate end of the vital force to collect 
and house itself in the germ of the fruit, 
for the double purpose of food and pro- 
creation by the seed. Should a defi- 
ciency or deterioration of the sap arise 
from any cause, the leaves may bleach 
and turn sickly and yet not cause the 
death of the tree. 

It sometimes happens during a severe 
winter that the heart wood of the tree 
has a greater degree of watery sap than 
the portions next the bark, which may 
by evaporation loose the aqueous por- 
tions and leave a deposit of nutritious 
matter within its tissues, so that in the 
following spring they may seem vigor- 
ous and healthy, but from a clogged 
condition in the interior of the wood, 
occasioned by thp chilling frost referred 
to, there will arise an unequal action in 
the sap-vessels, and may result in pro- 
ducing the decay of some ofthe branches 
and induce the yellows in the leaves. 

Then again, it has been observed 
years ago, and lately demonstrated by 



THE LANCASTER FARMER, 



199 



Mr. Thomas Taylor,Miscroscopist of the 
Department of Agriculture, at Washing- 
ton, that there is a root fungus which he 
calls iVrt'wrtjr/^ra, which attacks the peach 
tree and induces the yellows. We find, 
tlien, that insects are not alone charge- 
able with causing the yellows. It is 
proved, however, that the plant louse, 
"Aphis persica," does puncture the 
leaves, causing it to shrivel and curl up, 
and unfitting it to perform its functions 
in aitHng to elaborate the sap needful 
for the healthy perfection of the fruit. 
There have also been discovered 
aphids at the roots, depleting and ob- 
structing their healthy action — hence it 
has happened that in the use of hot water 
or strong solutions of potash, good has 
been done the tree by killing these para- 
sites, whether fungus or root- louse. Then 
again, the old enemy, the peach tree 
borer, " yEgeria exitosa," is too well 
known to elucidate here ; there is also 
a kind of twig-borer, much like those on 
the currant bushes, that punctures the 
terminal shoot and causes its decay. A 
branch so pruned was on exhibition at 
Milford ; this had an excess of well de- 
veloped and matured fruit on a lateral 
branch. In my mind, owing to the fact, 
that in arresting the flow of sap to the 
injured lead, it was diverted to the lateral 
branch, giving it more nourishment than 
it would have received had not the prun- 
ing taken place, and thus producing an 
excess of flower and fruit buds, not sim- 
ply by the excess of. sap, but in its 
check, so as to thicken up with proto- 
plasm or starchy matter, which, like the 
cream on milk, is what the fruit de- 
mands to draw upon as it swells, and 
the albuminous portions are converted 
into the saccharine juices of the fruit in 
its tissues, as in process of ripening, and 
converted from the crude state found 
in the leaf or green fruit, to its ultimate 
perfection. The sunlight, etc., has its 
functions to perform also. The object 
I have in view by this hasty compila- 
tion is simply to call the attention of 
fruit growers to the various conditions 
involved before making up their verdict 
as to the cause of disease. The subject 
involves so many contingencies and 
considerations, that to enumerate them 
would require more time than we can 



give to it now, and be too great a tax 
on your patience. 

This is well known to those who read 
the diverse opinions, and advocate 
different systems of culture, pruning 
and the like, with divers remedies, 
found good and approved by some, and 
deleterious and condemned by others, 
clearly showing that we have much to 
learn yet in vegetable physiology, and 
that we must diligently observe sur- 
roundings of soil, conditions of climate 
and effects of the remedies applied under 
the various contingencies, and learn 
from experience as the only school, 
aided by observation. 



BOOK AND SPECIAL NOTICES. 

NOTICE. 



Special notices inserted in this de- 
partment at 25 cents per line, nonpareil 
measurement. Address orders to 
J. B. DEVELIN, 
Publisher and Proprietor, 
No, 43 North Queen St., Lane, Pa. 



SPECIAL NOTICES. 



" Old Eyes Made New" — Ts the heading of 
Dr. J. Ball & Co.'s advertisement. Our readers 
afflicted with any disease of the eye will do well 
to consult this advertisement, and read the won- 
derful cures of these celebrated Patent Ivory 
Eye Cups. A cure when directions are followed 
is guaranteed in every case, or tne money re- 
funded. They have been tried by different 
persons in this county, and have given universal 
satisfaction. They are so simple in form, and 
can be applied by the smallest child with per- 
fect safety; by their use spectacles are no longer 
reiiuired. The most astonishing cures have been 
made with one application. Agents are wanted, 
to whom liberal inducements are offered. 



NEW YORK LIVE STOCK MARKETS. 

Monday, Aug. 10, 1874. 
Beeves — For fair to prime steers the market 
was firm, and the better grades ranged fully up 
to the mark of last week ; Tcxans and poor 
grass-fed native cattle were dull and irregular, 
and closed weak at a decline from last week of 
V<@|4' '^ It). Inferior to common native cat- 
tle ranged from S):( to io|4fc. '^ lb, to dress 55 
tb to 561b ; ordinary to good do. from 1 1 to 
laj-^c, to dress 56 to 58 lb; and prime and 
extra do. from 12 3^ to 13c., to dress 58 lb. The 
bestTexans shown were only fair, and were sold 
at 9>^c. '^ lb. to dress 56 lb, while the poorest 
lots were forced off at 6}((^']c. "^ lb. to dress 



200 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



54@55 ^'- It seems like a waste of time and 
money to ship cattle from the Far West to this 
point that must be sold at $2i,(Te,$T,o per head. 

Milch Cows. — There was but a light call to- 
day, and no trade to speak of, but dealers were 
holding for last week's prices, and quote com- 
mon to choice at 340ff^$75, calf included. 

Calves. — The demand was fair, and the 
market was about steady at 6^@9j4c. '^ K) for 
poor to strictly prime milk-fed veals; 4(«,6c. ^ 
lb for buttermilk calves and mixed lots, and 
$'j(a$lo per head for grassers. 

Sheep and Lambs. — The demand was fair 
for good stock, and the market was moderately 
active, but prices were a trifle easier. Poor to 
prime sheep ranged from 4t%c. to 6^ '^ ft, 
with a few picked lots sold at 6^c. ; lambs 
from 6c. to 8J/2C. %1 It). 

Swine. — None on sale alive. Dressed hogs 
were sold at 8}4(a'S^c: "^ lb for rough grass 
hogs; 8^ ((1,9c. for corn-fed; and 9^c. for 
selected pigs. 

CHICAGO CATTLE MARKET. 

Chicago, Aug. 10, 1874. 

Cattle active and firm ; fair to choice steers 
$5.12^(5:6.05 ; extra steers, $5.25@5.6o; 
Texas, $2.5o@,3.50; receipts, 5,000; ship- 
ments, 730. 

Hogs fairly active at full prices ; at noon all 
the pens were empty ; common to medium, 
$6.50(7(6,75; good to choice, $6.8o@7.i5; 
extra, $7.25(rt;7.40; receipts, 1,000; shipments, 
4,200. 

Sheep in moderate demand and prices steady ; 
poor to medium, $^@4 ; good to choice, $4.25^ 
5 ; receipts, 900. 

PHILADELPHIA CATTLE MARKET. 
Philadelphia, Aug. 10, 1S74. 

Beef Cattle. — There was less vitality in 
this department of the live ?tock market to-day 
than prevailed at the close of our last report, but 
there was a fair trade effected nevertheless, 
many buyers who failed to secure a full comple- 
ment last week having put in an appearance 
and purchased with comparative freedom. The 
supply was pretty liberal, there being fully 3,500 
head on sale against 1,700 head on Monday 
last, and prices receded lully J^c. on good 
grades, and ^c. per lb. on the low and medium 
grades, the market closing rather tame, within 
the range of 6(«;7^c. for fair and prime, 4}i^@, 
5^c. for common. 

Sheep. — There was no new feature developed 
in this trade to-day. Buyers were out in goodly 
numbers, and purchased to a fair extent, con- 
fining their transactions principally to the better 
grades, although there was a steady movement 
in stockers; sales of fair and choice at A^® 
53,^c. per ft, and stockers at $2.50(^5. per head 
— the latter for a few choice. Lambs sold as 
wanted at 6(S,8c. for fair and choice, and $l@, 
2.50 for common. Receipts, 16,000 head. 

Hogs were in scanty supply and with a lively 
inquiry prices again advanced, closing firm at 



$10.50(2)10.75 for corn fed. Receipts, 4,500 
head. 

PHILADELPHIA MARKETS. 

August 10, 5 P. M. 

Seeds. — Cloverseed sells in a small way at 
lO^(«Ml^c. New Timothy will noi bring 
over $3.5o@3.75. Flaxseed is worth $1.90(^,2. 

Flour. — There is a steady home consump- 
tion demand for flour, but shippers buy sparingly, 
and low grades are drooping. Sales of 900 
barrels, including extras, at $4.75(7*^5.25; the 
latter for choice; Minnesotas, $6.25(5)7; for 
Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indiana do. da., and 
high grades at $8(2)9. No change in rye flour 
or meal. 

Grain. — The wheat market is quiet, with 
sales of 8,000 bushels new red at $1.29, and 
3,000 bushels old Pennsylvania amber at $1.50. 
Rye cannot be quoted over go(aj,<)2c. Corn is 
ic. higher; sales of 4,000 bushels yellow at 84c., 
and mixed at 83c. Oats are dull at 54(g6oc. 
for new and 70c. for old white. 

LATEST DOMESTIC MARKETS. 
' New York, Aug. 10, 1874. 

Flour — The inquii-y for floar is more gen- 
eral, and shipping brands are more active and 
stronger. No. 2 and superfine more plenty, the 
former heavy. New is in fair demand at the 
decline noted on Friday. Old family extras are 
dull and irregular. At the close the market is 
quite active for the low grades, which are a lit- 
tle firmer. The medium and high grades are 
dull and irregular. The sales are 17 000 bar- 
rels, including 3,500 barrels city ground and 
6,500 barrels western State extras, the latter at 
5 55(5-5 80. We quote, viz: flour per bbl. 3 30 
(5'5 70; No. 2 at 3 65(5'4 40; super 4 So@ 
510; State extra brands 5 40(5>,5 75 ; State 
fancy brands at 6 10(^6 50; western shipping 
extras 5 35(5'5 8o; Minnesota extras, common 
to fancy at 6 oo(rt;,8 65 ; Minnesota, new process, 
600(^11 50. 

Grain — Our wheat Market opened stronger 
under moderate arrivals and more favorable ad- 
vices from London. The light arrivals at the 
lake ports induce more confidence in the future. 
The market for wheat closes stronger and fairly 
active, the demand chiefly for export ; winter is 
in better demand and is firm ; the sales are 100,- 
000 bushels, at l I5(2;l 30 for ungraded In- 
diana and Minnesota, and I 30 for No. i Cliicago 
spring; I 24(2)1 24 J^ for No. 2 do. do. and 
northwestern at$i 28. 

Oats are fairly active and better ; old scarce; 
the sales are 40,000 bushels; new Ohio mixed 
at 6o(a'/65c ; new white at "jo^J^c, the inside 
price on track ; western mixed old at 72(2} 78c ; 
old white at 82(rtj85c ; Jersey at t^ia^'jo, afloat. 

Rye is scarce and firm. 

Corn is less active and hardly so firm ; much 
of that arrived to-day was previously sold ; the 
sales are 7500 bushels; western mixed at 82c. 
for No. 2, and 81(2,81^0. for No. 3; do white 
at 9i@92^c; do yellow at 82}4c. 



DEVOTED TO 



AGRICULTURE, HORTICULTURE, DOMESTIC ECONOMY & MISCELLANY. 

EDITED BY S. S. RATHVON & J. B. DEVELIN. 



" The Fftrmrr is (he fomuler of civilization,*'— WEBSTER. 



Vol. VI. 



SEPTEMBER, 1874. 



No. 9. 



AGRICULTURAL. 



FARM ACCOUNTS. 



An essay read before the Lancaster 

COUNTY agricultural AND HORTI- 
CULTURAL SOCIETY, SEPT. 7, 1874, BY 
DR. E. A. HERTZ. 

WE claim that one of the most im- 
j)ortant features of farming is that 
of keeping correct accounts. What 
farmer would not feel just a little offend 
ed if he were told that he did not under- 
stand his business ; and yet how few 
farmers there are who do understand 
theirs. The merchant knows the cost 
of all his goods ; he knows the profit on 
sugar, calico, cloth, &c. He knows at 
the end of the year his profits or losses, 
and how much, because he keeps ac 
counts. The manufacturer knows what 
it costs to produce his wares. It would 
be a hazardous business if he did not. 
Does the farmer know what it costs to 
produce a ton of hay? Does he calcu- 
late his interest on land, the cost of seed 
and seeding, the expense of harvesting? 
Does he know whether hay, wheat, oats 
or corn pays best, and how much; or 
whether it pays best to convert grass 
into beef, milk, butter, mutton or wool? 
How many farmers know the cost of a 
bushel of corn, or know which pays best 
— to sell it or feed it to cattle, hogs or 
sheep ; or how many pounds of beef, 
pork or mutton, a bushel of corn will 
make? A tew farmers, and only a few, 
do know these things, because they keep 



accounts and a record of their opera- 
tions. 

Without accounts the business of the 
farmer is guess-work, as he does not 
know the cost or income of his crops 
and the value of his labor. Many mer- 
chants and others who retire from busi- 
ness generally choose farming. They 
carry with them the systematic business 
of the counting-room, thus knowing the 
profits or losses of each different article 
or product raised, which from year to 
year tends to make them wise and 
happy. 

Book-keeping is as applicable and bene- 
ficial, if not as essential, to farming as 
it is to any other occupation. The 
reason why farmers do not generally 
keep full accounts of their business is 
that they have not been taught it or its 
importance. Here is the root of all 
evil. Farmers may be divided into two 
classes. Practical and Imitative. Of 
the latter are those (and I am sorry to 
say there are a great many) who carry 
on farming as a mere mechanical opera- 
tion. They till their soil, have their 
regular days and signs for seeding and 
harvesting their standard crops, such as 
ther fathers and great-grandfathers 
practiced for almost centuries before 
them. You see no improvement in 
them or their work. Their farms, their 
buildings, their crops, all seem to re- 
main and go on in the regular routine 
which has been handed down from 
generation to generation on the same 
farm, the only change to be noticed 
being a gradual decay of buildings and 



202 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



fences, and a wilderness of undergrowth 
and weeds growing around them. If 
you converse with this class of farmers, 
you will find that they are opposed to 
educating themselves or their children. 
Unlike the p7-actical farmer, who seeks 
to gain knowledge from every possible 
source and moves with the times, he 
farms such crops and in such a manner 
as pays best; he improves his farm, his 
building and his fences in a manner 
which tends to make his home a Para- 
dise, and enhances it value. He knows 
the cost of his products because he 
keeps accounts. 

Book-keeping should be taught in all 
of our public schools. We look upon 
it as more necessary than many of the 
other branches taught. Every boy, as 
soon as he can add, subtract, multiply 
and divide readily should study book- 
keeping. It is of much more importance 
to him than to do all the "knotty sums" 
in arithmetic or algebra. 

Farm accounts should differ in char- 
acter from mercantile accounts. A 
journal of the farm should be kept, in 
which should be noted every event of 
the farm, such as the commencement of 
plowing, the time of seeding and plant- 
ing, cultivating and harvesting the sev- 
eral crops, the time of planting trees, 
with their varieties, etc. A journal of 
the stack should not be neglected ; also 
an account of every item of income and 
expenditure connected with the farm 
operations, striking a balance of profit 
and loss at the end of each year. A 
memoranda should be kept of matters 
that do not strictly belong to accounts, 
such as seeding, foliation, florescence, 
fructification, defoliation and harvests; 
a record of misfortunes and losses, errors 
and resolves, whereby he may profit by 
experience. By carefully entering in 
the account every item or transaction, 
the farmer is not only enabled to see at 
all times his financial condition, but the 
practice fosters the economy and regu- 
larity which must necessarily be attended 
with the happiest results. I venture to 
say that any farmer who has perseverance 
enough to keep an accurate farm account 
one year will not be easily persuaded to 
stop the practice. "This is true ; for 
the farmer who does not keep an account 



with his farm is just as short-sighted as a 
merchant would be who sold goods 
without knowing their cost." 

I would advise the following as a reg- 
ular system of accounts that should be 
kept by farmers: 

ist. A suitable book should be pro- 
cured properly ruled for the different 
headings, and entries made in the 
appropriate columns. An inventory of 
resources and liabilities should first be 
taken, giving full accounts of all real 
and personal property owned. 

2d. Commence an account for ex- 
penses for cultivation, making entries of 
the cost of all iA\vc\ utensils purchased 
or made on the farm during the year, 
and for all repairs of utensils and cost of 
keeping and shoeing all working horses, 
mules, &c. ; amount paid for labor, 
manure, fertilizers and seed. 

3d. Have an account for permanent 
improvements on the farm. This ac- 
count will be highly useful, as it will 
aid in knowing the increased value of 
the farm at the end of the year, which 
must be transferred to the inventory of 
resources. To this account should be 
recorded the cost of all permanent im- 
provements, such as clearing land of 
timber, stumps f^nd stones, grading, 
draining, planting fruit or shade trees, 
building fences or walls, erecting build- 
ings, digging of wells, or any other 
improvements of a permanent nature. 

4th. Household expense account. 
Here make an entry of all expenses for 
the household, including all articles of 
clothing, furniture, domestic help, all 
articles of table-ware provisions pur- 
chased, and the market value of the 
produce raised on the farm, but appro- 
priated for familv use. 

5th. A record of help account, with 
columns for their various headings — as 
names of employees ; when he or she 
commenced work; when finished ; how 
employed ; kind of wages agreed upon ; 
time worked ; kind of work ; when and 
how paid ; receipts. 

6th. Live stock account. This 
account, if carefully kept, willdetermine 
what kind of stock pays best. In deter- 
mining the value of hay, straw, pasturage 
and grain fed to stock, in which account 
the several items should be entered at 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



203 



the time of purchase or appropriation to 
the purpose for which used. When all 
horses, cows, sheep and calves are fed 
from the same mow, the whole quantity 
should be estimated, and a judicious 
average charged to each class. 

7th. Register of all crops grown. 
This perhaps is one of the most impor- 
tant accounts to the farmer, and requires 
a number ot headings : kind of crops ; 
total cost of crops ; amount harvested ; 
amount sold ; amount and value con 
sumed on the farm ; total amount. 

8th. Sale of farm products. All sales 
of farm i)roducts should be recorded 
here : When sold ; to whom sold ; 
articles sold; number of bushels, pounds 
or dozen sold ; price per bushel, pound 
and dozen sold ; total amount. 

9th. Miscellaneous account. Here 
record any transaction or event worthy 
of notice, which would not properly 
come under any of the other accounts. 

loth. Profit and loss account. Under 
this heading, at the end of each year 
place all accounts representing a gain or 
loss ; in other words, place the total 
sum of those accounts which cost you 
value on the debit side, and those which 
have produced you value on the credit 
side of this account. If the debit ex- 
ceeds the credit, you have suscained a 
loss in the business; but if the credit 
exceeds the debit you have a gain. 

It might be proper here to impress 
upon the mind of every farmer the 
importance of at all times carrying in 
his pocket a small memorandum book, 
to be used at the moment any transac- 
tion takes place where value is con- 
cerned. 

The advantage of keeping a system 
of accounts are these: They stimulate 
farmers to more correct thought ; they 
see where profits can be increased and 
expenses lessened ; it increases his 
knowledge of doing .business; it leads 
him to sympathize, and gives him posi- 
tive knowledge of his own affairs; assists 
him in keeping out of difficulties with 
those with whom he has to deal ; it 
enables him to decide what crops or 
branches of farming pay best ; by com- 
parison of results and facts for a series of 
years it gives him judgment that amounts 
to positive knowledge as compared with 



the guess-work of others ; he may see 
where he spent money that he need not, 
where he could have saved money he 
did not ; he can better furnish informa- 
tion when wanted to assessors and other 
officers. At the beginning of the year 
resolve to pay more attention to keeping 
complete accounts of business. We 
owe it to ourselves and others. When 
the facts and real results of our vocation 
become known, we as a class will be 
better known and respected. 



UNDER-DRAINING. 



There are very many farms, fields, 
or parts of fields, that would well 
repay the owners to under-drain. We 
say under-drain. Open ditches are a 
nuisance anynvhere, and especially where 
sassafras, briars, and all kinds of foul 
weeds abound. The advantages of 
draining are numerous. We will speak 
of but three: r.' The land is more easily 
tilled. 2. It is more productive. 3. It 
removes the cause of malarious disease. 
Very many v/ho realize and acknowledge 
its advantages are debarred by the ex- 
pense. In many places, at a distance 
from factories, narrow boards are being 
used instead of tiles, and it is said they 
will last almost a lifetime. Where wood 
is plenty, farmers have but little excuse 
for working around unsightly and un- 
healthy bog-holes year after year. 

But it is not enough that a dry mellow 
and clean seed-bed is prepared. The 
good farmer will keep his land in good 
condition. The main end with very 
many farmers seems to be, to obtain the 
largest yield with the least possible 
expense. Cheapness in obtaining a 
present crop is not everything. The 
prudent man will have an eye to the 
future. He will see that, if he always 
takes away without adding, the richest 
land will sooner or later become poor 
and unproductive. For years and years 
this exhaustive system has been followed, 
until a large portion of the once rich 
and productive soils are nearly worth- 
less ; and this exhaustion has been 
largely aided of late years by the use of 
the (so-called) concentrated fertilizers, 
stimulating the land to produce large 



204 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



crops, but always leaving it poorer than 
before. Now, the man who does this, is 
like that one in the old fable who 
killed the goose that laid him daily a 
golden egg. He thought there must be 
many eggs, but of course there was but 
one ; and he found when too late, that 
he had foolisJily destroyed the source of 
his riches. 



SMUT IN GRAIN. 



Smut is caused by a parasitic fungus 
long known to botanists by the name 
of Ustilago Maidis, and it has frequently 
been described and figured in botanical 
v.-orks. Its development for growth is 
also pretty well understood. The fungus 
grows from very minute spores, which 
are produced by millions, but exactly as 
to how these spores react and infest the 
growing corn, I can find nowhere any 
definite information, nor have I seen 
data relative to preventives. We are 
here left to surmises and analogies. 

Smut in wheat is produced by a 
similar fungus, similar in its botanical 
characters, in its results, and this wheat 
smut fungus is much better known. It 
is proved that this gains access to the 
plant through the seed. The spores are 
sticky and adhere to the sound grain at 
harvest or threshing, and are sown with 
the seed wheat. As the new wheat-plant 
grows, the fungus develops in due time 
with it, ripening into spores at harvest. 
The spores may be killed and the crop 
saved by soaking the seed wheat in 
strong brine, or in a weak solution of 
sulphate of copper, commonly known 
as the blue vitriol or blue stone. (The 
proportions used are three to five ounces 
of the crystals per bushel of wheat.) It 
would be well to try the same remedies 
with corn. I have seen this recom 
mended, but I have no information 
whatever as to the results. Corn-smut 
is rarely abundant enough to seriously 
affect the crop, and is principally 
dreaded because it is poisonous to the 
cattle. — Fro/. Brewer. 



HINTS TO FARMERS. 



Have your fields well dressed ; you 
must sow as large a breadth as possi- 



ble. A grain of foresight will insure a 
sight of grain at harvest. — A man may 
fleece his sheep, but not his land. The 
farmer's game is, "Give and Take." — It 
is not a lazy farmer who takes to his 
bed in the morning and stays till night, 
if the bed is in his garden. — Plough- 
shares are the best investment ; divi- 
dends are sure in fall. Fawning is not 
commendable ; but there is no objec- 
tion to currying favor with one's cattle. 
The best motto for dealing in stock hay 
is, never sell short. — It is sheer non- 
sense to shear sheep too early ; take off 
your own and your flocks', overcoat at 
about the same time. — Now is the time 
for the farmer to mend his ways — high- 
ways and byways. — Kitchen gardens 
should be under picket guards — the 
fowls will come up to the scratch, if the 
farmer don't. — Fences should be looked 
to. Defense of the crops is often staked 
on a single post. — Raise all you can. If 
you can raise the mortgage on your 
farm, so much the better. — Dull days 
may be spent in practicing dentistry on 
your rakes and harrows. 



VALLEY OF THE NILE. 



Bayard Taylor, writing from Egypt, 
says : 

Even Herodotus made the mistake of 
declaring that the fruits of the earth 
are nowhere brought forth with so lit- 
tle labor as in Egypt. We are accus- 
tomed to consider the Valley of the 
Nile as a sort of natural harvest-field, 
self-renewed from year to year, its in- 
habitants having little more to do than 
sow the seed, and look on idly until the 
grain is ripe. I cannot see, however, 
that the Fellahs perform less, or less 
continual labor than the farmers of 
Europe or America. The inundation, 
it is true, leaves a thin deposit of new- 
loam, but the field must be manured, 
in addition, from the supply furnished 
by the numberless pigeon-houses, and 
afterward well plowed. Then, during 
the growth of the grain, the irrigation 
requires daily supervision and toil. As 
the water sinks in the canals, it must 
be raised to the fields, either by wheels 
turned by buffaloes, or poles and buck- 
ets worked by men. From morning 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



205 



until night the people are busy, and I 
never heard one of them complaining of 
the amount of his toil. 



WET PASTURES. 



A writer in the London Field relates 
his experience in reclaiming wet pas- 
tures. He has found shallow draining 
the most advantageous, and that the tile 
may be safely laid either nearer the 
surface or further apart than in draining 
arable land. Having tried lime and 
barn-yard manure as top dressitigs after 
drainage, he was led to substitute bone- 
dust, and foun4 it much more beneficial 
than either or both of the former. On 
a thin, light soil, i, coo pounds of bones 
produced a fine, rich, thin herbage, in 
place of the coarse grasses and sedges 
that grew previous lo the draining. On 
heavier clay the quantity of bones was 
increased with good effect. An outlay 
of $20 per acre in bones, he found was 
returned in a very short period, while 
the benefit was still apparent after the 
expiration of twenty years. 

— • • « 

LONG FURROWS. 



A German agricultural journal prints 
a plea for long furrows. The turning 
of the plow and the commencing of a 
new furrow require more exertion in the 
plowman and the team than continued 
work on a straight line ; and how great 
may be the loss of time from frequent 
interruptions in short turns may be 
shown in the following calculations: In 
a field 225 feet long, five and a half 
hours out of ten are used in redirecting 
the plow; with a length of 575 feet, 
four hours are sufficient for the purposes; 
and when the plow can proceed without 
interruption for 800 feet, only one and 
a half hours of the daily working time 
are consumed. — Rural Register. 



LEARNING FARMING. 



The New York World says : Again 
and again — and especially at this season 
of the year — do young men ask advice 
of agicultural editors as to the best way 
to learn farming. The answer in all 
cases is simple and brief : Go to work 



on the best farm and under, the direc- 
tion of the best farmer you can find 
who will accept your services. There 
is no other way — no schools nor system 
of study" that will so quickly make a 
farmer of a young man ; but he should 
not neglect to study. Every agency 
that he can employ to give him a better 
insight into the scientific features of 
husbandry should be employed ; even 
when his bones ache with labor of the 
day, his mind may work ; and two 
hours daily given to wise reading or 
study, will enable him to accumulate 
a vast amount of theoretical as well as 
practical information from the recorded 
experience of others. 

COST OF CROPS. 



A Delaware count) (Ohio) correspond- 
ent of Ihe Rural New Yorker estimates 
the cost of growing the different crops 
on land worth sixty dollars an acre to 
be— corn, 80 bushels per acre, 20 cents 
per bushel ; 60 bushels per acre, 25 
cents; 40 bushels per acre, 31 to 35 
cents; 30 bushels per acre, 37 to 40 
cents. Wheat, average cost, one dollar 
per bushel. Oats, at least 30 cents at 
30 bushels per acre. Potatoes, at 100 
bushels per acre, 20 cents. These esti- 
mates include manure, plowing, harrow- 
ing, drilling, planting, thorough, good 
cultivation ; and the stalks and straw of 
corn and grain to pay for husking or 
threshing, and five dollars per acre for 
interest and taxes on land. 



WASTE LANDS. 



The reclamation of land and utilizing 
it, thus making waste places ])roductive, 
is one of the economical modes a farmer 
has of reducing the proportion of his 
taxes to production. Thousands of 
acres of most productive lands lie idle 
and taxes are paid on them in almost 
every State, the net product resulting 
from the reclamation of which would 
pay the entire taxes of the farmer. 
Often the best lands on the farm are 
thus wasted — worse than wasted — for 
the want of a little vim and enterprise 
on the part of the owner. It should be 
a rule with all farmers, not to own an 



206 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



acre of land that does not pay him a 
profit (either by production or apprecia- 
tion in vakie) on its assessed valuation. 
No business man can afford to keep 
such land if he has active, profitable use 
for his capital. 



WHY POTATOES RUN OUT. 



Some one asks why it is that pota- 
toes so soon run out. There are but few 
potatoes in a hill that are fit for seed. 
Some are overgrown, coarse, rank, and 
will not transmit the original quality. 
Others are undergrown, and not fully 
developed seed; A potato of medium 
size, perfect in all its parts, with change 
of ground, will produce its like a(/ in- 
finitum. One other reason — cutting po- 
tatoes between stem and seed end con- 
tinually is wrong. It requires the stem 
and seed end to make perfect %eed. If 
cut, cut lengthwise. Single eyes will 
run out any potato. There is no other 
seed that will bear mutilation like the 
potato ; the only wonder is, that it does 
not run out completely. 



OKRA A SUBSTITUTE FOR 
COFFEE. 



A correspondent of the Rural World 
says that if okra or gumbo {^Hibiscus 
esculentus) is tried as a substitute for 
coffee, it will give general satisfaction. 
"It," he adds, "bears a long pod filled 
with black seeds the size of small peas, 
very prolific ; the seeds are easily 
collected, readily separated from the 
husks, and can be kept at any length of 
time suitable for burning. In preparing 
them, burn them like coffee, then grind 
and boil as other coffee is made. This 
is the cheapest, cleanest, easiest raised 
and best substitute for coffee I have ever 
used. The seed should be planted the 
same as corn, in rows about three feet 
apart, and plants one foot apart in the 
row. Cultivate like corn, and gather 
the pods when they begin to crack 
open. I recommend all persons who 
wish to use any substitute, to begin by 
using a certain proportion of real coffee 
at first, gradually decreasing it until it 
may be entirely left out ; vt'hen, very 
often, some o-t^p chronic affections of 



the system will very mysteriously disap- 
pear, to the decided advantage of oid 
coffee drinkers." 



DIVERSIFIED AGRICULTURE. 



The advantage of a diversified in- 
dustry in agriculture are illustrated by 
facts which may be interesting to our 
farmers. It is stated that at an agricul- 
tural meeting in Valenciennes, France, 
a triumphant arch was erected bearing 
the following inscription : "The growth 
of wheat in this district, before the pro- 
duction of beet-root sugar, was only 
976,000 bushels ; the number of oxen 
was 700. Since the introduction of the 
sugar manufacture, the growth of wheat 
has been 1,168,000 bushels, and the 
number of oxen 11,000." 



HORTICULTURAL. 



ASPARAGUS. 



WE advise all our friends who own a 
garden or farm, to plant a bed of 
this most delicious vegetable. There is no 
crop more sure, and no vegetable more 
palatable at the same season of the year. 
Once planted, it continues to yield freely 
for many years, and if well cared for 
will produce large and fine stalks, There 
is said to be several varieties; we think 
that the soil and treatment makes the 
difference, rather than the variety. Form- 
erly, the one or two year old roots were 
set quite deeply, say one foot deep in 
the trenches ; but within a few years the 
practice has somewhat changed, as it 
cannot be had so early by deep planting. 
We should not advise planting it more 
than four or six inches deep, preferring 
on many soils four inches. The young 
plants should not be covered more than 
two inches deep when set, or they will 
be likely to decay. The earth can be 
drawn in gradually during the summer. 
The rows may be three and a half or 
four feet apart, and the plants in the row 
about a foot apart. Latterly, some of 
the gardeners have adopted the plan of 
planting in stools some two feet apart, 
and treating these stools as a stool or 
hill of rhubarb. We doubt not larger 
stalks ran he raised in this way than by 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



207 



the old method. Salt may be used to 
advantage on the beds. We have seen 
salt api)tied so freely as to cause the soil 
to turn re<l, and to prevent all weeds 
from growing, and yet the asparagus 
would flourish finely. 



LONGEVITY OF TREES. 



From an article by Elias Lewis, on 
the "Longevity of Trees," published in 
the Pol^ular Science Monthly, we learn 
the following facts of the greatest age of 
trees : 

Years. 

Palms 500 

Wliite Pine 43© 

Wadsvvorth Oak, Genesee, N. Y 500 

Cuwthoipe Oak, England 1,800 

Oak at Saiiites, Fiance 2,000 

Chcsinut, Terthworth, England 1,000 

Linden, Wuttenibiirg, Germany I,ooo 

Eveigieen Cypress, Spain 800 

Cedar of Lel^anon 1,200 

Cypress of Montezuma, Mexico 2,000 

Cypress of Santa Maria del Tule 4,024? 

Ankewyke House Yew, England 1,100 

Brahene Churchyard Yew 2,500? 

Sequorias. California 2,000? 

Baobab, Africa 3,000 

According to this, 500 years may be 
reckoned the longest life of a tree in 
the United States east of the Rocky 
Mountains. 



VALUE OF WALNUT TIMBER. 



As an illustration, of the increasing 
value of walnut lumber, the Indianapolis 
Journal notes that the standing walnut 
trees on a half section of land on Eel 
River, in Miami county. Indiana, were 
sold toalumberdealer for $17,000. There 
is a large amount of other timber on the 
tract which is not included, only the 
walnut timber being sold. Walnut lum- 
ber is coming more and more into use 
throughout this country and Europe, and 
at present a very large business is done 
in preparing and shipping it from In 
diana. 



COTTON CLOTH FOR HOT BEDS. 

V . 

A .successful market gardener states, 
that he uses cotton cloth at a cost of 
one-eighth that of glass, for more than 
three-fourths of his hotbeds, and 
although not so good for the earliest 



beds, is preferred for all latter ones. It 
is prepared by making the cloth covers 
a few inches wider and longer than the 
frame, hemmed and provided with 
small curtain rings fifteen inches apart 
around the border, stoutly sewed on ; 
and by hooking over nails, the cloth is 
drawn air-tight over the frame. One 
quart of linseed oil, one ounce of pul- 
verized sugar of lead and four ounces 
of pulverized rosin are heated, dis- 
solved and thorougly mixed in an iron 
kettle, and one coat applied while hot 
to the upper side of the cloth. This 
renders it tight and nearly transparent. 



The Tree Pumpkin: 'Tis a new 
species announced from the Jardin de 
Acclimation at Paris. It is a native of 
Buenos Ayres, and grows in erect 
tufts, bearing numerous fruits of a 
depressed spherical shape from five to 
eight inches in diameter. The quality 
is said to be excellent ; but its mode of 
growth is its chief merit, requiring but 
little space in cultivation as compared 
with the trailing kind. 
- Lettuce : A seedsman in the Cottage 
Gardener says that of all the sorts the 
Old Black seeded Black Cos is the best. 
There is no lettuce like it for true, full 
flavor, solidity and crispness. "This," 
savs the writer, "whatever others may 
be grown, is the variety to depend on 
for summer or winter supply." 

Tomatoes Pruned : There are some 
varieties of tomatoes that overbear and 
do not ripen their fruit. Indeed, some- 
times the vines die from an overload of 
fruit. The fruit should be thinned out 
in such cases. That which is left will 
be more sure to ripen, and will develop 
into finer specimens. 



LIVE STOCK. 



THE EFFECT OF IMPURITIES ON 

THE DAIRY, AND DAIRY 

PRODUCTS. 



[From the Jourual of the Farm.] 

NO article of human food is, per- 
haps, so sensitive to the effect of 
impurities as the various products of 
the dairy. The susceptibility to injury 
from contact or contiguity with impure 



208 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



or foetid matter, is not confined to any 
particular stage or condition of milk or 
its products, though some conditions 
are more favorable to the action of 
destructive influences than others. The 
fact was long since thoroughly estab- 
lished, that the inhalation of foetid air 
by a cow, especially such foetid gases 
as are eliminated from putrid animal 
matter, will taint the milk before it has 
been drawn from the udder; and 
numerous instances are authentically 
recorded, of abortion of the cow from 
the same cause. 

The Hon. Lewis Harris, of Herkimer 
county, N.Y., in an address, at an annual 
meeting of the W. Dairy Association, 
the subject of which was "Taints ok 
Milk," etc., mentions a case of ^^ float 
ing curd,''^ which occurred at a cheese 
factory in Tompkins county, N. Y., 
some five years since^ 

This serious difficulty in cheese man- 
ufacture occurred, at the same factory, 
several consecutive days. Diligent in- 
vestigation, however, finally revealed 
the cause, which was removed, and the 
effect ceased. A putrefying carcass of 
a horse was found in a pasture where a 
herd of cows were kept, the milk from 
which was brought to the factory, and 
turned into a common receptable witli 
that from numerous other herds, all of 
which was injuriously affected. The 
horse was buried, when no more diffi 
culty of the kind occurred. 

I have known two cases of abortion 
in cows which were believed to have 
been occasioned by the cows drinking 
from a stagnant pool, in which were 
dead and putrefying frogs and fish. 

Numerous cases of abortion in cows 
stabled, have occurred, accounts of 
which have been published, in which I 
have often observed that where a case 
of the kind happened it was not unfre 
quent for a number of others to follow 
in the same herd immediately subse- 
quently. Dairymen who have suffered 
loss from this cause very generally state 
that no reason for it could be discovered. 
I am well satisfied, however, that the 
impurity of the air of the stable, in a 
large majority of instances, was an 
active cause, and in the first case that oc- 
curred in the stable it was probably 



where the animal first attacked was pre- 
disposed to the malady, probably from 
one or more various causes: e. g. — she 
may have been rendered sensitive to 
attack by imprudence in watering, feed- 
ing, driving, or handling, in which 
latter, a very common barbarity is that 
of kicking the cow in the stomach by 
the biped brute calling himself a dairy- 
man. 

Over-exertion from too rapid driving, 
frightening and beating, has often re- 
sulted in cases of abortion, independent 
of the effects of impure inhalations. 
Over-feeding and foundering, or surfeit- 
ing the animal, is another fertile cause ; 
and still another equally common occurs 
from neglecting to water the cow regu- 
larly and at proper intervals, then allow- 
ing her to drink excessively of ice-cold 
water, producing a chill of the entire 
system, which, of course, is followed by 
a febrile condition and a weakness that 
would predispose to the attacks of a va- 
riety of maladies, but more especially to 
attacks resulting in premature parturi- 
tion, which, in an abnormal condition 
of the dam, are often so easily provoked. 

In this connection I desire to express 
an opinion and conviction which, if 
dairymen will heed, they will find it 
safe. I am satisfied that no pregnant 
brute animals should have their food 
salted, but should be allowed access to 
salt at all times, that they may obey 
their instincts. 

When persons void of both judgment 
and interest in animals they are to feed, 
are permitted to supply salt in the feed 
(of cows particularly), they are liable to 
force the animals to eat it with their food 
in such excessive quantities that undue 
thirst is produced, the over-drinking oc- 
casioning severe chills, purging, and 
numerous concomitant effects, that often 
result in great injury to the animal. 

The milk of milk dairies, as the sta- 
bles are usually managed, is all more or 
less tainted, and is very unfit for food, 
for children particularly. The common 
and most universal practice of using me- 
chanical absorbents in the dairy stables, 
by which the liquid portion of the ex- 
crement is absorbed by the bedding, 
with imperfect ventilation, is admirably 
calculated to effectually destroy the pur- 



TEE LANCASTER FARMER. 



209 



rity of the air of the stable. The animal 
heat of the bodies of the animals in 
contact with substances so saturated 
with fermenting excrementitious matter, 
tends to eliminate, with great rapidity, 
foetid gases that are very irritating and 
injurious to such sensitive organs as eyes 
and lungs. I 

No stable is fit for use for cows where 
the most effective ,means for removing 
the excrement beyond the liability of 
contact with the bodies and tails of the 
animals are not provided. There is no 
longer any excuse for the want of means 
by which this may be effected. I have 
a number of stables in which I am using 
my improved lattice or grating floor, 
with which I use on bedding, or ab 
sorbents, and the cows are cleanly and 
dry, and the tails of the animals cannot 
possibly get wet with urine. 

How blissful is the ignorance of the 
mass of milk consumers, and how seri 
ous the injuries arising from it that arc- 
attributed to everything else but the 
true cause. J. Wilkinson, 

Baltimore, Md. 



ASSAFOETIDA AS A PREVENTIVE 
OF ABORTION IN COWS. 



In the January number of \.\\g Jour?taI, 
H. C, in concluding his article relative 
to abortion in cows, directs the fol- 
lowing question to me: "Supposing 
assafcetida to be a perfect preventive, 
would it not be better to have the 
disease than a preventive that would 
spoil the milk and butter ; and as a few 
sprouts of garlic in the spring render 
both milk and butter unsalable, what 
would be the condition of these articles 
after a feed of assafcetida?" As I 
promised in my article in September 
number to aid in every possible way 
his laudable efforts to unshroud the 
mystery connected with this disease, 
and as I believe he is acting wisely and 
well in endeavoring to procure all 
obtainable facts relative to it before 
drawing conclusions, or pronouncing 
his theory, I thought it also wise before 
answering his question to apply a prac- 
tical test. Accordingly the S])ecified 
dose of assafcetida was administered to 



one of my cows after milking, for three 
successive mornings. 

The milk was kept by itself during 
those days, and the day following the 
different samples of both milk and 
cream were carefully examined. No 
disagreeable odor or taste was observed. ; 
the cream was afterwards churned, 
together with the product of two 
other cows. The resulting butter was 
entirely free from taste or odor that 
would render it unsalable or unpalatable. 
In short, there was not the slightest 
evidence in milk, cream or butter, that 
the drug had been used. 

The dose was administered after 
milking, for the reason that it is a fact 
known and practiced upon by some 
dairymen, that cows may feed on 
pastures abounding with garlic witliout 
seriously affecting their butter, provided 
they are brought from the pasture two 
nr three hours before the time of milk- 
ing, and given a feed of meal or clean 
hay. This fact is worthy of further 
investigation and experiment, as in view 
of the fact the question has been raised : 
Does the milk obtain its odor and taste 
of garlic direct from the food taken into 
the stomach of the cow, or is it im- 
parted to the sensitive newly drawn 
milk by the inhaling breath of the cow? 
A herd of cows coming from a pasture 
of garlic will scent the atmosphere of a 
stable, or even large yard, but after a 
clean feed and short rest, the odor 
seems to pass from their breath in a 
great degree. 

In conclusion I wish to re-assert that 
while I do not contend that assafcetida 
is a certain preventive of abortion, I do 
claim that the disappearance of the 
disease being simultaneous with its use, 
in three different instances that have 
been brought to my knowledge, is a 
sufficient guarantee for recommending 
my fellow farmers to give it a fair and 
general trial, particularly as there 
appears to be no known remedy for the 
disease. — From the Journal of the Farm, 
W, P. Magill. 
New Hope, Pa. 



SMALL HOGS. 



Some sensible feeder of swine writes : 



210 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



"There is not one single advantage to 
be claimed in favor of large hogs. 
There never was a monster hog which 
did not make tlie man who raised him 
pay for every pound he weighed. They 
don't furnish an ounce of meat gratis, 
but charge full price for every atom of 
their carcass. When slaughtered it 
takes a long time to get one cool to the 
marrow of the bone, and when the 
hams are put in salt, it is troublesome 
to finish them to the centre. Four 
hundred pounds live weight, is as large 
as hogs should be, in order to make 
good bacon. Beyond this size, there is 
a loss somewiiere — either the feeder, 
butcher or consumer is beaten ; and as 
a general thing, every one who has 
anything to do with the big hog, will 
find, if he observes closely, that they 
are not so profitable as the smooth, 
little hog of only three hundred and 
fifty pounds weight. Small head, with 
little upright ears, and legs and feet 
delicate to perfection, are marks which 
indicate the greatest amount of flesh for 
any given amount of food consumed, 
and more rapidly draw the attention of 
the butcher." 



HOW MULES CAME INTO 
FASHION. 



•Few of the farmers of this country 
are aware what a depth of gratitude 
they owe George Washington for the 
introduction of mules into general use 
for farm purposes. 

Previous to 1783 there were very few, 
and those of such an inferior order as 
to prejudice farmers against them as 
unfit to compete with horses in work 
upon the road or farm. Consequently 
there were no jacks, and no disposition 
to increase the stock ; but Washington 
became convinced that the introduction 
of mules generally among Southern 
planters would prove to them a great 
blessing, as they are less liable to be 
injured than horses by careless servants. 

As soon as it became known abroad 
that the illustrious Washington desired 
to stock his Mount Vernon estate with 
mules, the King of Spain sent him a 
jack and two jennets, from the Royal 
stables, and Lafayette sent another 



jack and two jennets from the Island of 
Malta. 

The first was a gray color, 16 hands 
high, heavily made, dnd of sluggish 
nature. He was named the Royal Gift. 
The other was called the Knight of 
Malta; he was about as high — lithe, 
fiery, even to ferocity. 

The two different sets of animals 
gave him the most favorable opportunity 
of making improvements by cross- 
breeding, the result of which was the 
favorite jack, Compound, because he 
partook of the best point in both the 
original. The General bred his blooded 
mares to these jacks, even taking those 
from his family coach for that purpose, 
and produced such superb mules that 
the country was all agog to breed some 
of the sort, and they soon became c^uite 
common. This was the origin of im- 
proved mules in the United States. 
There are now some of the third and 
fourth generation of Knight of Maltaand 
Royal Gift to be found in Virginia, 
and the great benefits arising from 
their introduction to the country are to 
be seen upon every cultivated acre in 
the Southern States, 



CLEARING SHEEP OF TICKS. 



One of the most disagreeable pests in 
sheep husbandry are ticks or fags. 
Morrell, Randall and others recom- 
mend a decoction of tobacco for a dip. 
Tobacco water will kill ticks, but it wi// 
not kill the nits. If you wish to clear 
your sheep from ticks, you must dip the 
lamb in a solution of arsenic, and then 
keep them from mixing with other 
peo])le's sheep which are full of ticks. 
Dipping the lamb in arsenic water is 
not dangerous if ybu will do it just as I 
now describe the process. In the first 
place procure a gallon iron kettle and 
place it upon three stones on a bare 
piece of ground free from any herbage. 
Fill the kettle one-third full of water ; 
put into the water four ounces of arsenic 
and six quarts of soft-soap; put a fire 
under the kettle and heat up nearly to 
the boiling point ; keep it at that tem- 
perature for half an hour, stirring the 
water all the time, so as to keep the 
arsenic in motion. Then fill up the 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



211 



kettle with cold water. Then make a 
fence around the kettle large enough to 
enclose all the lambs you wish to dip, 
and be sure not to inclose any grass or 
herbage on which the arsenical solution 
can drip from the lambs, for if they eat 
it, they will certainly die. Have a 
rack made long enough to straddle the 
kettle, and about sixteen inches wide. 
When you are all ready, bring the 
lambs into the inclosure around the 
kettle, and then catch a lamb, take hold 
of his four legs, and your assistant must 
inclose the lamb's head in his hands 
and hold it stiff and firm, so that it 
cannot move up, down or sideways. 
Then lower the. lamb back downwards, 
into the arsenic water in the kettle, so 
that you cannot see any part of his 
body, but leave his head out clear above 
where it joins the neck. , Keep him in 
this position about ten seconds, and 
then lift him up vertically, slip the rack- 
under him, and then squeeze all the 
arsenic water out of his wool that you can 
into the kettle, and then put him down 
among the lambs that are not dipped. 
Proceed thus till you have dipped all 
of the lambs; let them remain in the 
pen till nightfall, and then turn them 
out into the pasture with the ewes. 
This dipping, to be effectual, must be 
done about two days after the ewes are 
shorn. If you keep your sheep apart 
from ticky sheep, you will never need 
to dip them again, for the arsenic will 
dry up the nits. In Lincolnshire the 
lambs are sprinkled over with arsenical 
water ("fag water"), but I do not think 
it is so effectual, as dipping, and it is 
just as dangerous. 



PREVENTION OF GAPES. 



A great deal has been said on the cure 
of gapes, and but very little on the 
prevention, but we believe in the adage 
that "an ounce of prevention is worth 
a poinid of cure." A few years ago, on 
account of not having a sufficient supply 
of wheat screenings — our usual feed for 
young chickens — we commenced feed 
ing whole corn to the larger ones, and 
were surprised to see those not more 
than a few weeks old pick out the small 
grains and swallow them. We contin- 



ued feeding corn, except to the quite 
small ones, and we had the pleasure of 
noticing that our young chickens were 
free from gapes during the euitire spring, 
while other years this disease has been 
a source of great annoyance to us. The 
following spring we fed nothing but corn 
to our young chickens — the first few 
days after being hatched, corn meal 
moistened with water, then coarse 
cracked corn until tliey were a few weeks 
old, and after that whole corn — and not 
one showed any symptoins of gapes. 
Since then we have pursued the same 
plan with the same result, not one of 
our chickens being affected with the 
gapes during the last three years. We 
pick out ears with small grains for them 
while qui^e young and before they can 
swallow large grains. We attribute this 
freedom from gapes entirely to the feed- 
ing of corn, as we pursue the same plan 
of management as before, when our 
raising early young chickens was attend- 
ed with much difficulty and poor success, 
in consequence of the gapes. If feeding 
corn in this manner has been the cause 
of preventing the gapes, we can give no 
reason why it is so, but we simply give 
our experience, and hope others may be 
induced to try the same experiment and 
let the public know with what success. 
If the preceding directions are fully 
adhered to, chickens can be raised suc- 
cessfully. — Lancaster Intelligencer. 



THE CATTLE DISEASE. 



FATAL CASES OF SPINAL MENINGITIS — 
THE FARMERS ALARMED. 

Probably no more healthy locality 
for man or beast can be found in Con- 
necticut than Newtown. As a grazing 
region it has no superior. The farmers 
have abandoned the cultivation of the 
soil as a business, and have for many 
years engaged in the work of slock 
raising. This year, however, the change 
of pasture or some other cause has had 
a bad effect. Out of 1 1 1 four-year old 
steers brought ' from Michigan and 
owned by Elmer Fairchild, a large 
cattle dealer, seventy have been seized 
with what is known as spinal meningitis. 
Mr. Fairchild was unacquainted with 
the character of the disease, and think- 



212 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



ing it was poison, applied remedies 
accordingly. Two days afterward one 
of those affected died, and the following 
day another died, and a third ami 
fourth were seized with convulsions. A 
consultation was held with Drs. Bennett 
and Judson, when a post-mortem ex- 
amination made in the case of one of 
the victims revealed the disease to be 
as above stated. The kidneys were 
found inflamed' and the stomach dis- 
closed the presence of unhealthy bile 
and other substances foreign to it in its 
normal state. The farmers are becom 
ing alarmed for the safety of their native 
cattle, and the situation has been 
brought to the notice of the State 
Cattle Commissioner, Mr. Gould, who 
has signified his intention to make an 
investigation for the benefit of the 
cattle raising interest. The Secretary 
of the State Board of Agriculture ex- 
amined into the nature of the disease. 
He is of opinion that the water which 
these cattle were given to drink during 
the transit from West to East was not 
good, and might have produced the 
effects narrated. The spleen of each 
diseased animal examined was found to 
be enlarged and to weigh from seven to 
eight pounds. 



RICH SOIL BEST FOR HONEY 
PRODUCING PLANTS. 



Mr. E. Gallup of Iowa, has noted the 
conditions of soil and climate most fa- 
vorable for the production of honey in 
flowers. The facts he gives are \vorth 
remembering : — If the atmosphere is 
moist and warm, and well charged with 
electricity, then is the time our flowers 
produce the most forage. On the con- 
trary, the air may be dry, warm or hot, 
and flowers produce nothing. But by 
heavily manuring a piece of land for 
white clover or buckwheat we can cause 
it to produce honey in a dry or cool 
season. Manure warms up the land, and 
it also causes a vapor of moisture to arise 
from the soil, which does not arise from 
an impoverished soil. We have noticed 
this repeatedly. We have seen a row of 
currant bushes alive with bees, that had 
been heavily manured the season previ- 
ous, while a row that was not manured 



was not visited by bees. We have seen 
a four-acre patch of white clover that 
had been heavily manured the season 
previous, covered with bees, while the 
clover field by the side of it was not vis- 
ited by a single bee. We have had some 
buckwheat on poor land and on rich 
land at the same time. That on the 
poor land was not visited, while that on 
the rich land was alive with bees, and 
fairly scented the air around with Fweet. 
White clover on warm land produced an 
abundance of forage, while on clay soil 
it produced nothing. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL. 



r, ENTOMOLOGRAPHY. 



MR. EDITOR: Since I have per- 
mitted myself to be written down 
an Entomologist in your columns, there 
may be am.ong your readers some who 
would like to know exactly what that 
name implies; and also would like to 
have an initiatory bow from one whose 
function is indicated by such an impos- 
ing title. Without any further ceremony 
then, I may be permitted to say, that 
an Entomologist is one of that peculiar 
class of men who make the collection, 
classification and developmental life of 
insects a special or incidental study, 
through which a knowledge of their 
histories and habits is obtained. It 
does not necessarily imply that an 
Entomologist knows all about insects 
that is worth knowing ; because his 
knowledge must be limited to those 
objects only which have been brought 
under his practical observation ; and of 
others, except in theory, he may be as 
profoundly ignorant as any other man. 
If, however, he is a systematic Ento- 
mologist, he may be able to reach more 
accurate conclusions in regard to the 
unknown, and by a much shorter and 
safer process, than he, without system, 
can ever attain to, by merely floundering 
at haphazard in the dark. 

Of the etymology of entomology it 
may be said that this term is a Greek 
compound, and is derived from entoma, 
insects, and logos, a discourse ; and 
relates to that branch of human knowl- 
edge which includes the natural history 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



213 



of insects. The former' word, as well 
as the synonymous Latin word, insectum, 
which have been anglicised into insect, 
being themselves compounded of other 
words, signifying a cutting or dividing 
into sections, or articulations; whence, 
in fact, one of the great characteristics of 
these animals is arrived at, namely, the 
articulated structure of the various parts 
of the body, which .nay be properly 
regarded as the skeleton, as it serves as 
supports for the muscles and other 
internal organs, just as the internal 
skeletons of the more highly organized 
animals support their corresponding 
parts. 

According to Straus, in the body of 
an insect not exceeding an inch in 
length, there are three hundred and six 
pieces, which enter into the composition 
of the external envelope: y<7«r hundred 
and ninety-six muscles for putting tlie 
aforenamed pieces into motion : ttventy- 
four pair of nerves to animate them, 
divided into innumerable fillets; and 
forty-eight pair of trachse, equally ram- 
ified and divided, to convey air and life 
into this "inextricable tissue." These 
are the little animals with which the 
Entomologist has to do, and for which 
the larger number of the balance of 
mankind have too often a sovereign 
contempt ; unless when their increasing 
numbers threaten their material sub- 
stance with destruction, and then, like 
the great Caesar floundering in the 
waves of the Tiber, they appealingly 
cry out, 'Help me Cassius, or I sink." 

Entomology and entomologists may 
properly be divided into two classes, 
the merely scientific and the practical — 
I was going to say popular, but I con- 
sider the efforts during the last ten 
years, which have been made to popu 
larize entomology, equivalent to a 
failure. It might be a comparatively 
easy matter, for instance, to popularize 
cock-fighting, bull-baiting, and donkey- 
racing, together with the pecular tech- 
nologies that attach to these " elegant 
sports," just as Fashion, with its tech- 
nology, has become popularized — but 
it is questionable whether entomology 
will ever become popular tmder any cir- 
cumstances, not within the limits of the 
nineteenth century, at least. Purely 



scientific entomology relates more par- 
ticularly to description, classification, 
anatomical dissection, functional sti^uc- 
ture and embryological development ; 
and can get along very well without 
what is known as practical entomology; 
but the latter is like being out at sea 
destitute of a compass, without the aid 
of the former. Practical entomology 
has more to do with the histories, habits, 
transformations, and general economies 
of insects — their noxious, innoxious or 
neutral characters — and their benefits or 
injuries to the vegetable and animal 
worlds, and incidentally to the human 
family. But even in this practical phase 
of the subject, it cannot be intelligently 
studied or discussed without a recogni- 
tion of its technology — to a certain ex- 
tent — its nomenclature, and its obvious 
classification. To reject these, only in- 
volves tiie subject in mystery and inex- 
tricable difficulty. 

The significance of Entomology, and 
the subjects it treats of, may be inferred, 
when we contemplate the amount of silk 
produced in the world ; the honey, the 
bees-wax, the cochineal, the lac, the 
nut-galls, the cantharides, and the vari- 
ous other insect products which have be- 
come so large a part of commercial ex- 
change, on the one hand, and the de- 
structions of fruits, forests and field crops 
by insects, together with their infesta- 
tions and inflictions of the human family 
and domestic animals, on the other 
hand. Doubtless their presence is es- 
sential to the general "make up" in the 
economies of nature, or, in some man- 
ner an outward manifestation in corres- 
pondence with the moral condition of 
the human fiimily; and, that when they 
become locally and excessively destruc- 
tive, it is through a conscious or uncon- 
scious disturbance of nature's equilib- 
rium. If it is certain that a redundancy 
of some species in special localities, have 
been the authors of great famines and 
distress, it is quite as certian that the 
presence of other species are, and have 
been, more or less, a sanitary necessity. 

It is the legitimate function of the 
Entomologist to describe and illustrate 
the beginnings, the progress, and the 
different forms of insect development — 
their transformations, habits and histo- 



214 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



ries — when and where they appear and 
disappear, and their local status at dif 
ferent seasons of the year, so far as his 
knowledge on these subjects expends ; 
but — except incidentally — he is not sup- 
posed to know better than every body, 
or any body else, what is the best reme- 
dy for their destruction. The discove- 
ry and application of remedies, are mat- 
ters that more particularly attain to the 
functions of the practical and intelligent 
farmer, fruit-grower and florist — the men 
who encounter insects, in some form, 
every day of their lives, and who have 
an immediate pecuniary interest at slake. 
Under any circumstances, the reputation 
of an Entomologist may not be founded 
so much upon his own transcendant 
knowledge of the subject, as it is upon 
everybody else's profound ignorance of 
it — in other words, he may only seem to 
know so much beciuse other people 
know so little. The greatest objection 
to the study of Entomology — or indeed 
any department of natural sience — ap 
pears to be its technology ; and yet there 
is hardly an occupation recognized in 
civilized society, that has not a most 
peculiar set of terms, used for the illus- 
tration of its different parts, which would 
be more or less arbitrary and unmean- 
ing, when used out of their proper 
spheres. It is true, that a complicated 
and verbose nomenclature ought to be 
as much as possible avoided in a popular 
treaties on insects, but to make such a 
treaties universally understood, scientific 
names would be unavoidable. 

But if the subject was taught in our 
educational institutions, scientific terms 
would in time become familiar. The 
term Cur uUo, for instance, is now much 
more popular than "weevil," or "snout 
beetle," and yet either of these names 
includes precisely the same family of in- 
sects. R. 



$S ENTOMOLOGY. 



The following extract from a letter of 
one of our entomological correspond- 
ents, dated September 2d, 1874, we 
consider of interest to our agricultural 
and horticultural readers. After other 
matters of a private and personal char- 
acter, he concludes as follows : 



"I will just mention a few words 
concerning the injurious insects of 
Nebraska, during the past spring and 
summer. We have but few insects here, 
when compared with the Eastern States. 
The only species that do any very great 
harm, are the "Colorado potato-beetle" 
{^Doryphora \o-lvuafa) and the " Colo- 
rado grasshopper," {Caloptenus spretus). 
The former is not as bad as it used to 
be, for its enemies are becoming more 
numerous, especially the " spotted lady 
bird" [ Hippodamia tnaculata) which in 
Douglass county, near Omaha, were so 
numerous last spring that hardly an egg 
was left long enough to hatch ; the lady 
birds eating them almost as soon as they 
were deposited. What few eggs ma- 
tured, the young were almost immedi- 
ately killed by a small red-and-green 
beetle, the name of which I do not 
know. The larva are also attacked by 
several species of "bugs" of the order 
i)f Hemiptera {Arma, Harpactor et 
Reduvius). Up here at West Point, in 
the northern part of the State, the Col- 
orado potato-beetle is more numerous, 
and does considerable damage. But 
'he dread of the farmers of Nebraska is 
the Colorado grasshopper, which did 
thousands of dollars worth of damage to 
the corn crop alone last summer, and 
especially in the latter part of July. 
Althougji they have been so numerous 
the present season, I am of the opinion 
that there will be none of any conse- 
quence for some years hence. They 
have deposited no eggs as yet in this 
part of the State, and are being killed 
in myriads by the larvae of a two-winged 
fly {Tachina). I have no specimens in 
my collection at present, but as soon as 
I can raise some I will send you several 
specimens. The larva is about the size 
of that of the common house-fly < Musca 
domestica') and sometimes two are found 
in one grasshopper. I had two to 
transform to the pupa, but they were 
neglected and dried up. 

"It is also attacked by di fungus in 
wet weather, which is almost always sure 
to cause the death of its victim. If it 
keeps on for a day or two with the same 
weather that we now have, they will be 
endangered. There is also a small spe- 
cies of AcAR^, that is parasitic on their 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



215 



undervvings, which in a great measure 
assists in diminishing their numbers." 
We would like our correspondent to 
send us specimens of the "small red- 
and-green beetle;" all the other ene- 
mies to insects which he has named, we 
believe, exist in Lancaster county, and 
have been detected in performing the 
same friendly labor, where ignorance 
has not confounded them with our 
enemies. Intelligent observation, as- 
sisted by patience and perseverance, 
will demonstrate in many instances, 
that wherever a imne in the economy of 
nature exists, it will not be long before 
its antidote will also appear, if it is not 
prevented by human progress and im 
provement. R. 



HABITS OF THE CURCULIO. 



Prof. Riley gives in the Tribune the 
following brief summary of the habits of 
the curculio, which is worthy of being 
placed on record. As his residence is 
as far south as Central Virginia, it is not 
probable that the destruction of this in- 
sect by hot dry weather, to which he al- 
ludes, would take place to much extent 
in the Nothern States. 

The plum curculio winters as a beetle 
above ground ; hence all theories based 
upon its wintering in the ground are 
false. It shelters under the bark of trees, 
brush or any other rubbish, hence it is 
more injurious in timbered than in 
prairie regions, and hence the burning 
of rubbish and underbrush around or- 
chards destroys large numbers. It can 
fly ; hence all attempts to stop it from 
crawling up a tree will not prevent its 
injury. It is single-brooded, and the 
beetle is long-lived, the female living 
sometimes for more than a year, and 
ovipositing during a period of several 
weeks. It is nocturnal rather than 
diurnal, and though during the season 
of egg-depositing, the female may be 
found at work through the day, especi- 
ally in cloudy weather, it generally keeps 
quiet and secluded until evening ; hence 
the jarring may be done very early in the 
morning or late in the evening. It may 
be trapped with chips, as described, es- 
pecially in the early part of Spring, 
when it more invariably seeks shelter 



near the ground. It always becomes a 
pupa under ground, hence very hot, 
drouthy weather may destroy it in mid- 
summer, by baking it to death. The 
grub frequently remains in such fruit as 
falls, some time after the falling ; hence 
the daily picking up and destruction of 
such fruit is to be recommeded. Cherries 
and the smaller fruits do not fall when 
infested with it, as do plums, peaches, 
etc. During its beetle life, both sexes 
feed as long as the weather admits of 
activity ; while fruit lasts they gouge 
holes in it, attacking pip fruit when 
stone fruit is not to be had. At the 
proper season and under favorable con- 
ditions these punctures and gougings are 
instrumental in spreading rot ; hence the 
insect may sometimes do more indirect 
than direct harm. Jarring should be re- 
peated every morning or evening from 
the time the fruit is the size of a pea till 
it is ripe. 



Cut- Worms. The New York Times 
says : We have succeeded in greatly 
reducing the number of this pest by 
enticing a flock of poultry into the field 
while it was being plowed. The fowls 
followed the plow closely, picking up 
every cut-worm exposed, and serching 
every furrow for more. There is no 
other way of ridding the fields of these 
vermin but by encouraging their natural 
enemies. These are crows and black- 
birds which devour the grubs, and 
skunks and moles which devour both the 
grubs and the beetles, of which they are 
the larvK. While these creatures are 
killed or driven off, we shall suffer from 
the depredations of the insects which are 
their natural prey. To prevent ,the 
destruction of the young corn by the 
cut-worms to some extent, the seed 
should be rolled in common pine tar 
and then dried in plaster before it is 
sown. 

Remedy for Slugs. A correspond- 
ent of the Gardener's Chronicle says 
that he has found gas tar water, diluted 
to the color of weak coffee, to be the 
best preventive to the ravages of slugs 
on all garden crops, and also an excel- 
lent manure, applying it by night from 
an ordinary watering pot, and half the 
slugs will be killed, and the rest much 



216 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



weakened. A second dose after an 
interval of a week, is sufficient to banish 
them altoghter. 

Insects. During the discussions of 
the Alton Horticultural Society, Mr. 
Stewart said he excluded the cut-worm 
from his plants by pouring hot water on 
hen manure, and then pouring a ring of 
this liquid around the plant. Dr. Hull 
said a handfuU of white clover placed 
near the plant would attract the cut- 
worm, so that it might be easily captured 
and killed. Mr. Riehl said prevention 
was better than cure, and no one should 
have cut-worms ; keep the ground clean 
of all weeds ; plow late in the Fall, turn- 
ing the bed upside down and it would 
freeze before it could get under cover 
again. 

To Destroy Bugs, Ants, etc. No 
insect which crawls can live under the 
application of hot alum water. It will 
destroy red and black ants, cockroaches, 
spiders, chinch bugs and all the myriads 
of crawling pests which infest our houses 
during the heated term. .Take two 
pounds of alum and dissolve it in three 
or four quarts of boiling water; let it 
stand on the stove until the alum is all 
melted ; then apply with a brush while 
nearly boiling hot, to every joint and 
crevice in your closet, beadsteads, pan- 
try-shelves, and the like. Brush the 
crevises in the floor of the mop-boards, 
if you suspect that they harbor vervira. 



DOMESTIC. 



COOKING. 



There is no more important branch of 
"preventive medicine," the Lancet as- 
serts, than cooking. Bad cooking may 
cause a dwindling of the race, ruination 
of the temper, and deterioration of the 
morals. Good cooking, on the other 
hand, is accompanied by national pros- 
perity and domestic bliss. So say the 
promoters of the National Training 
School of Cookery, who are undoubted 
ly right in the main, and are deserving 
of all imaginable success. Now, cook 
ing is both an art and a science. For its 
progress as an art we are not greatly 
concerned, although our profession would 



undoubtedly suffer in pocket should fine- 
art cookery go out of fashion. "Ele- 
gant" dishes are generally whited sepul- 
chers, and the forerunners of blue pills 
and other disagreeable correctives. We 
hope that the school will busy itself main- 
ly in imparting a knowledge of the 
scientific principles of cooking, and will 
teach their cooks that the quality par 
excellence which all food should have is 
wholesomeness. The bulk of the English 
live in big cities, and if we were asked 
to name the most predominating charac- 
teristic of our urban population, we 
should say "d3'spepsia." Those who 
spend their days in dark offices, cham- 
bers, or consulting rooms, and keep 
their noses everlastingly upon their re- 
spective grindstones, seldom knew that 
good digestion which should wait on ap- 
petite. Hitherto their dinners have not 
been so skillfully prepared as to demand 
the least possible effort from a jaded 
stomach ; but let us hope that the na- 
tional disgrace of indigestibility will no 
longer dim the brightness of our hospi- 
tality, and the number of patent medi- 
cines which are sold so largely in this 
country as aids to digestion will under- 
go a rapid diminution. 

•-»-• 

HOW TO MAKE GOOD BUTTER. 



At an exhibition of the Chester county 
Agricultural Society in Pennsylvania, 
Isaac Acker received the first prize on 
butter, who being called on for his mode 
of management, remarked as follows: — 
"He feed ten quarts of corn meal and 
bran to each cow per day, with hay ; 
does not think that corn fodder makes 
good butter. The temperature of the 
cream at churning was fifty-seven degrees, 
and was churned from twelve to twenty 
minutes ; uses six ounces of salt and 
three ounces of white sugar to twenty 
pounds of butter; used an Embree but- 
ter-worker, with a sponge and cloth, and 
did not wash the butter with water. 
Mr. Acker believes that the essentials 
to make the dairy business pay, are good 
cows, well fed and well taken care of, 
good and convenient dairy houses and 
appliances, and then produce a good 
article and sell it at a high price. One 
year his cows averaged 230 pounds each. ' ' 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



217 



DON'T KILL YOUR BEST FOWLS. 



It is the worst possible policy to kill 
all the best and handsomest fowls, and 
save only the mean and scraggy ones to 
breed from. This is precisely the way 
to run out your stock ; for like tends to 
breed like, and the result is, that by 
continually taking away the best birds, 
and using the eggs of the poorest, your 
flock will grow poorer every succeeding 
year. It would seem as though this was 
too plain to be insisted upon, but in fact, 
"line upon line" is needed. It is the 
crying want of the poultry upon the 
farms the country through, this careful 
and intelligent selection of the best for 
breeding. Nothing is lost by a self- 
denial to start with. The extra pound 
or two of poultry flesh that you leave on 
its legs, instead of sending it to the 
market, is as good seed, and will bring 
forth ten-fold and twenty-fold in your 
future broods. Save your best stock for 
breeding. 

. •-•-• — 

Household Measures. As all families 
are not provided with scales and weights, 
referring to ingredients in general use 
by every housewife, the following infor- 
mation may be useful : 

Wheat flour, one pound is one quart. 

Indian meal, one pound two ounces 
is one quart. 

Butter, when soft, one pound on.e 
ounce is one quart. 

Loaf-sugar, broken, one pound is one 
quart. 

White sugar, powdered, one pound 
one ounce is one quart. 

Best brown sugar, one pound two 
ounces is one quart. 

Eggs, average size, ten eggs are one 
pound. 

Sixteen large tablespoonfuLs are half 
a pint, eight are a gill, four half a gill, etc. 



ANTIDOTE TO POISONING. 



The experiments made by Prof. Binz, 
of Bonn, with reference to the effects of 
alcohol on animals, are regarded as of 
much importance, inasmuch as he seems 
to have discovered the reason why alco- 
holic stimulants are so useful in cases of 
snake-poisoning. He found that when 



decomposed blood was introduced into 
the veins of the living animal, all Ihe 
symptoms of putrid fever were shown, 
the temperature increasing until death 
ensued. Alcohol, it is stated, reduced 
the heat and retarded the putrid process, 
increasing the action of the heart — pre- 
cisely the effect of alcoholic stimulants, it 
is said, when administered in cases of 
rattlesnake-poisoning. 

FRYING FISH. 



While white fish are abundant, and 
are generally cooked by frying, let me, 
an old housekeeper, give a hint or two 
as to the mode in which the frying 
should be done. Put in the pan plenty 
of fat — and if this fat is fried from pork 
for the occasion, so much the better; 
turn the fish, as the frying goes on, 
frequently, so that no part of it shall 
brown, much less burn, and then you will 
retain all the flavor of the fish and can 
eat it with safety as it is readily digested. 
Fry with the fish several slices of break- 
fast baccni, commonly known as "flitch." 
This will give the fish an additional flavor, 
and thus you may prefer the fish to the ba- 
con. No fresh fish should be fried without 
bacon, and never will be after a trial. 



A GOOD BED. 



A most soft, comfortable, and whole- 
some filling for beds or for mattresses 
can be procured in most country places 
by getting a farmer to alloAv oat chaff" to 
be saved. It is soft, light and elastic, 
and very sweet. The cost is very little, 
only the cost paid to the farmer for the 
men saving and sifting it. As o'at chaff 
is rarely used for cattle food, it is easily 
attainable. It is so very Ijght that a 
slighter kind of bed-tick than is necessa- 
ry for other kinds of filling is quite suffi- 
cient foi- oat chaff. Another advantage 
is that it can be changed every year with 
so little cost that it is within the reach 
of every one. For children's beds it is 
perfectly satisfactory. It is only neces- 
sary to keep a sack or two stuffed full of 
oat chaff in a dry place, and then new 
and fresh filling is at hand to make a 
sweet bed, whatever accident may have 
befallen the cot mattress. 



218 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



lift iancaste farmer. 



LANCASTER, SEPTEMBER, 1874. 



S. S. RATHVON, Editor. 
J. B. DEVELIN, Ass'i Editor and Publisher. 

Published monthly under the luisiiices of the Agri- 
cultural AND Horticultural Society. 

$1.00 per Year ia Advance. $1.25 if not 
paid in Advance. 

One extra copy to persons sending a club of ten sub- 
scribers, and a copy of our beautiful Steel Engraving 
to every subscriber. 

All communications, to insure insertion, must be in 
the hands of the editors before the first of each 
month. All advertisements, subscriptions and remit- 
tances to the address of the publisher, 

J. B. DEVELIN, Lancaster, Pa. 
No. 43 North Queen- st 



r> 



ABOUT PLUMS. 



TALKING of plums, it would really 
seem that a better day for the plum 
crop of the future is looming up — at 
least this is the case in some localities, 
and in some particular kinds. We have 
a most magnificent plum now before us 
— yellow as gold, and smooth as a pol- 
ished mirror — having a latitudinal cir- 
cumference of six- inches, and a longitu- 
dinal circumference of seven inches. It 
is egg-shaped, to the smallest end of 
which the stem is attached ; the latter 
being thin as a cherry stem, and only 
three-quarters of an inch in length. 
From its size, color, form, and general 
appearance, we have little hesitation in 
referring it to Coe's Golden Drop; but, 
whatev.er its name may be, it would be 
hard to prove it anything but a most 
magnificent //i'^;/^ Such a plum, too, as 
seems adapted to the present very criti- 
cal period in the life history of the plum. 
This plum was raised by Mr. Daniel 
Smeych, of West King street, in this city, 
from grafts obtained from a tree on 
the premises of Dr. Mishler, of Centre 
Square. The grafts are growing finely, 
and have borne fruit for the last three or 
tour years; the crop of 1873 being over 
a bushel, but- the present season not so 
largg. But this is not all ; for, never 
have one of these plums rotted ; and 
what is better, not one has ever been 
stung by the curculio. Whether this 
plum \% proof against the "little Turk," 
or whether that insect's power over the 



plum crop is on the wane, or about to 
pass away, deponent sayeth not ; we 
merely give what we have reason to be- 
lieve are the facts of the case, leaving 
the solution of the problem to the devel- 
opments of the future. That some va- 
rieties of the plum are not so liable to 
be infested by the "curculio as others, has 
often been demonstrated with more or 
less plausibility, but whether always sat- 
isfactory to those engaged in their cul- 
ture, seems doubtful. 

Miss A. Zahm presented to us on the 
26th of August, a triple branch of a 
plum tree, just six inches in length, 
which contains over fifty plums. They 
are a round blue variety (Damson), and 
average about two and a half inches in 
circumference. If divested of their leaves 
no man, at a merely superficial glance, 
could distinguish them from a compact 
cluster of large Concord, or Black Havi- 
burg grapes, for they set as thick on the 
branches as the average of grapes do on 
the stem. They are all perfect, not one 
decayed, or any that have been stung by 
the curculio. Miss Zahm brought this 
"bunch" from Bethlehem, Pa., Avhere 
they are grown on the premises of Mr. 
Leuchenbach and this is but a fair sample 
of the whole tree. She informs us that 
this and other allied fruit are abundant 
in that locality; sound, and generally 
free from the curculio. 
• From these cases of widely separated 
localities, we think we have some ground 
for belief that a better day is coming for 
the plum crop, particularly as these 
experiences have been corroborated in 
other localities. Nothing could be more 
grateful to the fruit grower, than the 
hope that this pest was verging towards 
final extinction. 

In further corroboration of what we 
have before stated, on a . recent 
visit to the cozy little enclosure of Mr. 
Wm. Millar, only- a few doors from 
Centre Square, in Lancaster city, we 
were surprised to find his plums so abund- 
ant, so large, and so free from blemish 
of any kind ; and not only this, but also 
so luscious in taste. He cultivates two 
varieties of the purple colored fruit. The 
first average five inches in transverse 
circumference, and five and a half inches 
in lateral circumference ; stem, half an 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



219 



inch in length, stone free, and flesh a 
rich yellow. 

The second averages four inches and a 
half in transverse circumference, and 
five inches in lateral circumference, a 
little darker in color, and of equal 
quality in other respects. Both of these 
fruits may be referred to the varieties 
commonly called prunes, and yield 
plentifully, averaging over a bushel each, 
to comparatively but small trees. We 
refer these plums provisionally to the 
varieties usually recognized 2&— first the 
"Smiths Orleans," and second the 
"Domine Dull" or ''German Prune." 

On the seeming abatement of the 
curctilio, we shall have something to say 
in a future number. — Ed. 



^THE GRAPE PHYLLOXERA. 



The French Assembly has just passed 
a law authorizing the payment of three 
hundred thousand francs, as a premium 
to the discoverer of a remedy for the 
destruction of this pernicious enemy of 
the grape vines, on the continent of 
Europe ; and has appointed a commis- 
sion, with Dumas at its head, to carry 
this law into practical effect. Several 
papers on this insect have already 
appeared in the columns of the Farmer, 
but it is questionable whether one reader 
in a hundred can now recall them. 

This insect had its orgin in this coun- 
try, and was somehow introduced into 
England, and from thence to France, 
Austria, Belgium, and Germany, where, 
in many places, it threatened the total 
destruction of the grape vines. The 
importance of the subject may be inferred 
by the large reward ($60,000), besides 
voluntary subscriptions from departments 
communes, associations, and individuals. 

We have seen this insect, on several 
occasions, in great abundance, within 
the county of Lancaster, and the possi- 
bilities are, that it may become ultimately 
as great a scourge here as it is in Europe. 
It exists in two very opposite forms — 
namely: Phylloxera vastatrix gahecola, 
which attacks the leaves on the under 
sides, covering them all over with small, 
irregular, warty galls, and in this form, 
if taken as soon as the galls are formed, 
it is easily destroyed; but Phylloxera 



vastatrix radicicola attacks the roots, 
forming tubers, and depleting them of 
their nourishing sap. The former is its 
summer status, the latter it assumes in 
and during the winter; and in this state 
it has thus far baffled all the efforts of 
the best scientists and grape growers of 
Europe. Millions of dollars are lost to 
the country every year through the 
depredations of this minute (almost 
microscopic) insect, and therefore the 
governments as well as the people are 
becoming alarmed. It is recommended 
that all young grape vines, before being 
planted, should be immersed for half 
an hour in weak lye or strong soap-suds. 

We have noticed this insect on the 
Clinton and Franklin vines more abund- 
antly than on any others, and we are 
sure many of our readers have noticed 
the warty under surface of many of the 
leaves of these varieties, and perhaps 
others. The remedy in this case is 
simply to remove said leaves and burn 
or scald them. It is difficult to approach 
them on the roots, without also destroy- 
ing the whole vine, as they stick as close 
as a louse does to the skin an of ananimal. 
Indeed, they are nothing but plant-lice, 
belonging to the great family of aphids. 

The Southern Fox Grape, it appears, 
is never infested by them, and therefore 
it has been recommended to graft on 
this stalk ( Vitis vulpina) but it does not 
thrive well in latitudes north of 35°. 

R. 



LANCASTER COUNTY AGRICUL- 
TURAL AND HORTICUL- 
TURAL SOCIETY. 



This society met in the Orphans' 
Court Room, on the 7th inst., at two 
o'clock, Mr. Johnson Miller in the chair: 

Present, Messrs. Johnson Miller, M. 
N. Brubaker, Levi S. Reist, S. S. Rath- 
von, P. S. Reist, M. Bollinger, John 
M. Grider, Jno. Stauffer, Calvin Cooper, 
Daniel Smeych, M. D. Kendig, Reuben 
Weaver, Harry R. Landis, John F. 
Herr, James Wood, Geo. W. Mehaffey, 
Benj. Bauman, Jeremiah Rohrer, Jacob 
B. Garber, John Kreider, John Miller, 
Jacob Witmer, John H. Moore, Alex. 
Harris, Waiter "Kieffer and Dr. E. A. 
Hertz. 



220 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



On motion, the reading of the minutes 
of the former meeting was dispensed 
with. 

On motion, every member was re- 
quested to hand in a report on fruits, 
crops, &c., at every meeting. 

Mr. Bollinger reported corn pretty 
well grown. Some things, however, 
suffer somewhat in consequence of 
drouth. Potatoes suffered some from 
bugs. Wheat is not as good in quality 
as anticipated. Oats poor. 

Levi S. Reist reported the peerless 
potatoes good, which he can only 
account for in this way; the ground 
being overgrown with grass, the bugs 
took it for a grass field. 

Dr. Hertz reported that the ground 
best matured yielded less than than on 
less favored land. On ground where 
bugs have been picked the yield is good. 
Corn is suffering from drouth. 

P. S. Reist noticed that the bugs were 
very plenty on the roads and fences, and 
finds that all potatoes in his section have 
been attacked. Wheat is medium — 
more straw than wheat, proportionately. 
Peaches suffer from drouth and are not 
very perfect. Plowing is retarded in 
consequence of drouth. 

Mr. Cooper reported that he destroyed 
bugs with Paris green, etc., and gets 
half a crop of potatoes. He also report- 
ed a small insect in wheat, something 
like a caterpillar. Oats half a crop. 
Peaches good. Grapes abundant. 
Corn reasonably fair. 

Daniel Smeych reported that he had 
killed a bushel of potato bugs in one 
week. 

P. S. Reist gave an account of the ant 
pest in England, which he received from 
a paper. 

Mr. Cooper kept off the bugs by using 
one part of Paris green to twenty of plas- 
ter of Paris. Used an ounce every ten 
days, and found it to be an effectual 
remedy. 

Mr. Stauffer reported that the Egyp- 
tian wheat yields from 45 to 50 bushels 
per acre. He noticed 20 to 26 stalks 
from one gra.in. It is a little later than 
other wheat, and weighs 64 pounds to 
the bushel. 

Johnson Miller, of Warwick township, 
submitted the following written report 



on the crops : The greater portion of 
the wheat crop threshed since our last 
meeting, turns out very good in quality 
and equally well in quantity ; on an av- 
erage about 20 bushels to the acre. How- 
ever, nearly 40 bushels to the acre have 
been harvested from some of the best lots 
in the town of Litiz. Corn has suffered 
considerably from the dry weather. It 
had started out to make the heaviest 
crop ever harvested in this county. Oats, 
although at one time considered almost 
a total failure, turns out a pretty good 
crop ; not so heavy in grain, but an av- 
erage crop in quantity. Pasture running 
very short ; grass getting dry in the 
fields. Fruit in general pretty good. 
Apples dropping considerably before 
matured, on account of dryness, while 
e\erything else in the fruit line appears 
to suffer more or less from the same ef- 
fects. With a good shower of rain far- 
mers would get their land ready to sow 
their wheat. Without rain it will be 
very difficult to get it in right order to 
sow to satisfaction. I can always raise 
the best crop of wheat with a well pul- 
verized soil, and pretty well rolled down 
just before sowing. How to prepare 
ground to insure a good crop of wheat, 
would be a suitable question to discuss 
to-day, as most of the sowing will be 
done between now and our next meeting. 
Potatoes are now being taken out of the 
ground, and are a pretty fair average 
crop. The Colorado beetle has not done 
much harm with us. However, some 
patches have been stripped, but the po- 
tato has not been injured to such an ex- 
tent as was at one time anticipated. 
Cider making and apple-butter boiling 
are now in order among farmers, and in 
a few months the farmers' cellars, closets, 
granaries and store-houses will again 
be filled with the fruits of the earth — 
plenty of all to carry us through winter 
quarters, and land us safely upon the 
loved shores of spring. 

Mr. Weaver exhibited some specimens 
of Telegraph, Concord and Martha 
grapes. 

Mr. Cooper had some fine specimens 
of apples on exhibition, 'among which 
were Hawley, Straweny and Clyde red. 

Daniel Smeych, city, exhibited some 
Benedict, Washington, Bartlett and 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



221 



Howell pears ; Rogers' No. 3, Concord, 
Isabella, Telegraph, Rogers' No. 19, 
Rogers' No. 4, ^Salem No. 5, Hartford 
prolific, Crevefing, Allen's hybrid, 
Diana and Black Hamburg grapes; 
seedling plums, and a few fine peaches. 

Dr. Hertz read a very interesting essay 
on " Farm Accounts," in which he gave 
some very valuable hints to farmers. 

Levi S. Reist concurred in the views 
of the essayist, and believed every one 
should keep an account of all things — 
crops, finances, etc. 

Johnson Miller moved a vote of thanks 
to the essayist, which was adopted. 

Johnson Miller read a letter from C. 
T. Fox, Secretary of the Berks County 
Agricultural Society, enclosing three 
tickets to their fair at Reading, and 
asking that the Lancaster Horticultural 
Society be represented by three dele- 
gates. 

On motion, Messrs. Johnson Miller, 
Peter S. Reist and Dr. Elani Hertz Avere 
appointed a committee to attend the 
Berks county fair. 

Levi S. Reist reported arrangements 
perfected with the Northern Market 
Company, regarding the holding of an 
exhibition of fruit, and recommends 
that premiums be offered exhibitors. 

On motion. Resolved, That the Lan- 
caster County Agricultural and Horti- 
cultural Society hold its exhibition in 
the Northern Market House, on Monday 
and Tuesday, 21st and 22d of Septem- 
ber, 1874. 

On motion, a Committee of Arrange- 
ments was appointed for the exhibition, 
consisting of the following gentlemen : 
S. S. Rathvon, H. M. Engle, Alex. 
Harris, Levi S. Reist, Calvin Cooper, 
M. D. Kendig, Daniel Smeych, Peter S. 
Reist, Jacob Bollinger, Reuben Weaver, 
Casper Hiller, Jacob B. Garber, Chas. 
E. Long, Walter Kieffer, M. N. Bru- 
baker, John Stouffer, Johnson Miller 
and Dr. Hertz. 

Messrs. Levi S. Reist, S. S. Rathvon 
and Walter Kieffer were appointed a 
committee on premiums and advertising. 

Mr. Rathvon referred to a species of 
plum, the Petit damson, whicli were free 
from the ravages of the curculio. A 
single stem was on exhibition, which 
contained fifty-three j^lums — a fair aver- 



age of the whole tree. The branch was 
exhibited by Miss Annie Zahm, of this 
city, and was grown at Bethlehem, Pa., 
by a brother-in-law of Miss Z., Mr. 
Leuchenbach. 

After testing the fruits on exhibition 
— among them some of the finest grapes 
we have ever seen, presented by Mr. 
Smeych — the society adjourned. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



PRINCIPLES OF VENTILATION. 



Ventilation is based upon the move- 
ments of air at different temperatures, 
but we cannot get rid of foul air, or 
supply fresh air in the same manner as 
would free a house of foul water or 
supply it with that which is pure by 
exact measures, allowing just so many 
cubic inches for each occupant. 

The conditions are entirely different. . 
In studying the movements of the air, 
if we would compare them with the 
movements of water, we must imagine 
ourselves at the bottom of the ocean 
with the ground underneath us heated 
as a fire would heat the bottom of a pot. 
By watching the motion of the water in 
a glass globe with a fire under it, we can 
form some idea of the constant and 
immense agitation of the external at- 
mosphere. 

Inaccurate, unscientific, and even 
repulsive as the idea may be to the 
mathematical mind of the architect, 
that we should depend in a great measure 
upon the mere agitation or the mixing 
up of the fresh and foul air for our 
chances of getting pure air, I think, 
notwithstanding, this is just what we 
have to submit to. This is what nature 
teaches us; and although we may be to a 
certain extent artificial beings, and live 
in artificial houses, half of a lifetime 
spent in trying to work in a more precise 
and accurate manner than Old Madam 
Nature does, has about worn out my 
patience in that direction ; and I confess 
that her hurly-burly way of mixing the 
oxvgen, nitrogen, hydrogen and car- 
bonic acid, and all other gases together 
in one grand mass, and scattering them 
around promiscuously, is better than any 
arrangement I have ever been able to 



222 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



devise. The more we study the subject 
the more evident it becomes that agita- 
tion is the natural method of ventilation 
— it is Nature's great purifier. 

Now, if we accept agitation as the 
true principle of ventilation, we find 
ourselves far more likely to get our share 
of pure air by it than by the methemati- 
cal cubic-inch programme. Nature does 
not dole out pure air by the cubic inch; 
but, if unrestrained, supplies every living 
thing abundantly. She scorns every 
attempt to measure it; and if we adopt her 
method of warming, it will be about as 
easy to supply a hundred cubic feet of 
cold, invigorating air per minute to every 
individual, as we now find it to be to 
dole out a pittance of ten cubic feet 
per minute of warm, debilitating, nau- 
seating, hot air. I have spent a great 
deal of time and money in getting up 
patterns and taking out patents for 
warming contrivances. But I have done 
■ with them. We have been running air- 
heating to such extremes, that I have 
become perfectly disgusted with it. If 
we inhale air at the same temperature as 
the blood, it quickly kills us. Nature 
never ruins the air for breathing pur- 
poses by overheating it — she leaves such 
miserable business to the managers and 
warmers of railroad cars, asylums, hospi- 
tals, and, not unfrequently, our homes. 
— Lewis W. Leeds, Sa7iitarian for May. 



A 



CONNUBIAL HONOR. 



The famous Theodore Parker married 
in April, 1836, Miss Lydia D. Cabot, 
only daughter of John Cabot, of New- 
ton, Mass., with whom he had plighted 
troth five years previously. The follow- 
ing resolutions are entered in his journal 
on his wedding-day : 

1. Never, except for the best of 
causes, to oppose my wife's will. 

2. To discharge all services, for her 
sake, freely. 

3. Never to scold. 

4. Never to look cross at her. 

5 . Never to weary her with commands. 

6. To promote her piety. 

7. To bear her burdens. 

8. To overlook her foibles. 

9. To love, cherish, and ever defend 
her. 



10. To remember her always most 
affectionately in my prayers ; thus, God 
willing, we shall be blessed. 

Willis Moon, of Eaton co,, Mich., 
during the present season made 2,000 
pounds of maple sugar from 500 trees. 
He carried his sap and performed the 
labors of making all alone. 



STAY ON THE FARM. 



The Rural New Yorker talks to the 
farmers and farmers' boys as follows : 

If discontented farmers, farmers' wives, 
sons and daughters, who think the de- 
lights of city life something worth real- 
izing, could walk through our streets to- 
day and read one-thousandth part of the 
misery and apprehension that haunt the 
hearts of all classes, and are making lines 
on their faces, they would thank God for 
the peace and seclusion and abundance 
gathered in the gardens of their homes. 
Thousands of men and women are at 
the beginning of winter suddenly thrown 
out of employment ! Few, comparative- 
ly, of these have aught laid up in store. 
Young women flock through the streets 
with restless, eager, anxious eyes, with 
lips quivering with fear lest they fail to 
obtain employment that shall give them 
food and shelter. Boys and girls of the 
country ! be grateful for plenty and 
shelter. You will, perhaps, never know 
how to value it until you want and can- 
not get either. How many of those in 
the city are country-born ; and how many 
would gladly go back to the homesteads 
for refuge, and yet may not .have the 
means to get there ! Farmers, thank God 
for the harvests, and that you have un- 
sold food for your families ! You have 

reason ! 

. % ■ 

EUROPEAN ARMIES. 



The various armies of Europe have in 
time of war the following armies : Russia 
— 862,000 men, 181,000 horses, and 
2,084 guns. Germany — 824,990 men, 
95,024 horses, and 2,022 guns. Austria 
— 733,926 men and 58,125 horses, 1,600 
guns and 90 mitrailleuses. England — 
470,779 men, 336 guns. Turkey — 
252,289 men, 34,835 horses, and 732 
guns. Italy — 415,200 men, 12,868 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



223 



horses, 720 guns. France — 456,740 
men, 46,995 horses, and 984 guns (in- 
cluding mitrailleuses). Belgium — 145,- 
000 men, 7,000 horses, and 152 guns. 
Holland — 35,383 regulars, 85,000 mili- 
tia, 5,200 horses, and 108 guns. 
Switzerland — 160,000 men, 2,700 horses 
and 278 guns. Roumania — 106,000 
men, 15,675 horses, and 96 guns Servia 
— 100,700 men, 4,000 horses, and 194 
guns. Greece — 125,000 men, 1,000 
horses, and 48 guns. Sweden — Norway 
— 61,604 men, 8,500 horses, and 222 
guns. Denmark — 31,916 men, 2,120 
horses, and 96 guns. Spain — 144,938 
men, 30,257 horses, and 456 guns. Por- 
tugal — 64,390 men, 6,320 horses, and 96 
guns. The total available for war purposes 
is 5,164,300 men, 512,394 horses, 10,224 
guns, and about 800 mitrailleuses. 

AN IRISH INVENTION. 



A new agricultural machine, worthy 
the ingenuity of a live Yankee, is the in- 
vention of a clever Irishman of Dublin. 
It performs the operations of rolling, 
sowing, and harrowing simultaneously. 
The roller is of wrought iron, riveted on 
cast-iron wheels, forming a cylinder six 
feet in length by three feet in diameter. 
Immediately above the roller is a sowing 
apparatus, by which the seed is rapidly 
delivered, a star wheel of four points 
keeping the conductors in constant mo- 
tion. As the seed is strewn a harrow of 
four rows of oblique teeth set in a cen- 
tral axis turns up the earth over the seed. 
The harrow is kept in motion by an 
endless chain of belt which passes round 
the extreme end of the largest cylinder, 
and fits the groove of a wheel at the cor- 
responding end of the harrow. Every 
time the large roller turns over, the cir- 
cular harrow turns nearly five times, 
causing the teeth to tear up the soil 
about twenty times at each of the revo- 
lutions. Meantime the seed-conductor 
and distributor rises and falls twelve times 
during each of these revolutions and 
there is a contrivance by which the 
quantity required to be sown can be reg- 
ulated. A lever is also connected with 
the supports of the harrow, and rests 
upon a fulcrum placed at a suitable part 
of the frame of the machine. By means 



of this lever the harrow portion of the 
machine can be raised off the ground 
and the roller only used ; and the dis- 
tributer or sower may be worked simul- 
taneously by means of the chain-band, 
which can be closed and the flow of 
seed stopped. 



TO BLEACH COTTON. 



A very good way to bleach cotton is 
to soak it in buttermilk for a few days. 
Another way is to make a good suds, 
put from one to two tablespoonfuls of 
turpentine into it before putting the. 
clothes in. Wash as usual, wringing the 
clothes from the boil, and drying with- 
out rinsing. By using the tablespoon- 
fuls of turpentine in the first suds on 
washing days it will save half the labor 
of rubbing, and the clothes will never be- 
come yellow, but will remain a pure white. 
._#-. 

< DUCK-WING GAME. 



The Game fowl must always be of 
peculiar interest to the lover of fine 
poultry, and to the naturalist as well, for 
it has preserved through centuries of 
domestication the activity and courage 
of the wild primeval fowls. It is by 
many amateurs considered the most 
attractive race we have, and fanciers are 
numerous who, after having kept a dozen 
other sorts, finally settle upon games as 
their choice. This shows that they 
possess marked attractions of some sort. 
The chief features of the breed, as a 
whole, are its proud and majestic 
carriage and courageous disposition. In 
these respects it has no peer. It is in 
many ways valuable, apart from those 
fighting qualities that have given it a 
name. The flesh is surpassed by that of 
no other species of fowl ; the chickens 
are generally very hardy and easy to 
rear; the hens are first-rate layers and 
remarkably quiet and steady sitters, sliow- 
ing, moreover, their blood, in their 
disposition to do effective battle with rats, 
hawks and other enemies of their eggs 
or their young brood. So that what- 
ever be the purpose of the breeder, it is 
worth his while to patronize Games. 

So much attention has been paid to 
the breeding of them, that there are in 



224 



THE LANCASTER FARMER, 



existence a great number of varieties, 
differing much in color as well as in 
other respects. Among these the Duck- 
wing (so called from the bright markings 
upon the wings, as in most breeds of 
ducks) stands unsurpassed for beauty and 
brilliancy of coloring. The plumage 
of games is very firm and the markings 
distinct and delicate. — Pcndtry World. 



RECEIPT FOR CURING MEAT. 



The Germantown Telegraph gives the fol- 
lowing directions for curing beef or pork : 
To one gallon of water, take 
i^ libs, of salt, 

Y-z flb. sugar, 

}^ oz. saltpetre, 

Yo, oz. of potash. 
In this ratio the yjickle can be increased 
to any quantity desired. Let these be 
boiled together until all the dirt from 
the sugar rises to the top and is skimmed 
off. Then throw it into a tub to cool, 
and when eold, pour it over your beef or 
pork, to remain the usual time, say four 
or five weeks. The meat must be well 
covered with pickle, and should not be 
put down for at least two days after 
killing, during which time it should be 
slightly sprinkled with powdered salt- 
petre, which -removes all the surface 
blood, &c., leaving the meat fresh and 
clean. Some omit boiling the pickle, 
and find it to answer well, though the 
operation of boiling purifies the pickle, 
by throwing off the drit always to be 
found in salt and sugar. 

If this receipt is properly tried, it will 
never be abandoned. There is none 
that surpass it, if so good. 



BOTANY. 



PEACH TREE DISEASE. 



BY J. STAUFFER. 

AMONG a number of peach trees in 
my yard, that bloomed freely with 
promise of a goodly yield, one in par- 
ticular has arrested my attention, and 
greatly perplexed me in the sudden change 
that came over the tree. It stands on the 
west side of the lot, and has the full 
benefit of the sun. After the fruit was 
set, and the tree indicated vigor and 



health, my attention was first arrested 
by noticing that the leaves on one of the 
lateral branches, on the northwest side 
of the tree, were turning brown, and the 
green fruit showed signs of wilting. 
On examination, I noticed that this 
branch was deeply split near its union 
with the main trunk. I came to the 
conclusion that the branch had been 
fractured, and rain introduced to the 
heart-wood, and this injury to the branch 
accounted for the decay of the leaf and 
fruit, owing to the dry season, and the 
evaporation of the external sap vessels, 
and injury to the inner vessels. A few 
days after, I noticed other of the lateral 
branches showing like signs of withering 
up, and in a few days these branches 
looked as if blasted by lightning, and 
such a neighbor supposed was the cause. 
This did not accord with my opinion, 
so I examined the root, and made search 
for the borer and peach tree louse, 
without success. Soap suds was poured 
around the root, but no symptoms of 
recovery nor trace of insect depredation 
was at all visible. I continued my 
observations up to this writing, Sept. 
1 2th. While the central trunk and 
southeastern top branches are yet green, 
the lower lateral branches are dry and 
withered. I sawed off one of the 
branches, and found it perfectly dry, 
the outer bark in circular strips around 
the branch one inch to two inches wide, 
blistered, rough and cracked, with an 
intermediate ring in which the epidermis 
is smooth, but the bark evidently what 
you might call "hide-bound," perfectly 
dry and the inner bark woody, and, as 
if consolidated with the ligneous fibre, 
in a close compact mass — no apparent 
bas-wood between the real wood and 
outer thin skin. I found such blistered 
rings at the base of all the branches — 
varying from a single wide ring to two 
or more narrower ones. A portion of a 
branch now before me has, for the 
distance of six inches, a portion of the 
bark altogether peeled off, and the rest 
in scales quite dark brown, cracked and 
shriveled, turned up on one side, exposing 
a cinnamon colored granular portion of 
the bas-cells ; then follow four rings of 
a dark brown color, with longitudinal 
slits across them all around the branch. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER, 



225 



and shriveled into minute creases in 
circles between the cracks; between 
those dark rings, denuded of the outer 
pelicle or epidermis, is seen the old 
outer skin, dry, closely adhering, and, 
although smooth and scarless, of a dark, 
dead color ; as indeed the entire branch 
is. The question arises, what is the 
cause of all this? As a live entomologist 
and well posted on insect depredation, 
I am forced to account for this sudden 
change from that of a vigorous, promis- 
ing fruit tree to a blighted, sickly cripple, 
unpleasant to the sight, to some other 
cause than fungus or insects. 

I will offer my theory. If others can 
account for it on any other hypothesis, 
I shall be happy to learn of him, her, or 
them that give it. 

During winter or early in spring after 
rain or light snoAv lodged in the forks of 
the branches, and a heavy frost during 
the night, may induce cracks and fissures, 
and indurate the outer sap vessels di- 
rectly under the bark, so as to arrest 
their healthy action, to such a degree as 
to cause the evaporation by subsequent 
sun-light and heat lo expel the watery 
sap from those external cells, leaving the 
thicker portions to form woody fiber 
and to consolidate the bark-cells with 
the ligneous cells in such a manner as to 
form a solid woody connection, as is ev- 
ident in the cut branch before me, which 
I termed hide-bound. The result of this 
is only made evident after the sap 
through the heart wood and interior 
cells has been sent out into the branches 
starting the leaf and flower buds, which 
have all the vitality and vigor for the 
time being of ordinary healthy trees ; 
but as there is a torpid state existing 
between the bark and wood, whether the 
returning sap or the lateral action of the 
sap vessels toward the outer portion of 
the branches is impeded, it matters not, 
the necessary functions of the vessels are 
prevented ; and, if we can conceive a 
kind of magnetic or electric return cur- 
rent or counter current, which is essen- 
tial for maturing the fruit, is prevented, 
a sudden stagnation ensues, and the con- 
sequence is the further growth is stopped 
and speedy death and decay manifests 
itself in all the affected branches. 

The blight occasioned by cold, in 



winter or early spring, does not only rip 
and destroy the tender shoots, by stop- 
ping the current of their juices, but 
large lateral branches can be so affected. 
The leaves which are thus deprived of 
their due nourishment, wither and fall 
sooner or later. These juices arrested 
\n their passage, swell and burst the 
vessels, giving rise to cracks and fissures, 
through which the evaporation from the 
external cells is carried on. It often 
happens that if the weather is prema- 
turely mild, the blossom is forced to 
bloom before its proper time. Subse- 
quent frosts will not only destroy the 
blossoms, but also the leaves and shoots, 
a circumstance often observed. In such 
cases the plant may revive again ; nor 
am I certain that my whole tree will 
perish, tliough there is a poor prospect 
that those hide-bound branches, some of 
which have a few fresh green leaves upon 
tliem ; but the peaches are shriveled up, 
dry and dead as they can be. On the 
main branch a few peaches may ripen 
yet. 

Thus a cause may exist which, under 
certain influences of the atmosphere, as 
regards its moisture and dryness, or 
electric condition, will materially affect 
the health and vigor of plants, apart 
from the evils of pernicious insects. 

The diseases of vegetables are known 
by various names, such as blight, smut, 
mildew, honeydew, dropsy, flux of juices, 
gangrene, etiolation, suffocation, contor- 
tion, consumption — to this let me add 
— "hide-bound," as anew disease, the 
effects of which I have noticed on pear 
trees, and now on the aforesaid peach 
tree. 

As this disease is not discovered until 

the mischief is done, I can give no 

remedy for it. 

.♦. > 

An English scientist has discovered 
a fact important to farmers. It is, that 
sulphite of lime appears to exercise 
decided influence in arresting the spread 
of decay in potatoes affected by the 
potato disease. In one experiment the 
salt was dusted over some tubers, i)artly 
decayed from this cause, when they were 
stowed away. Some months afterward 
the potatoes were found to have suffered 
no further injury. 



226 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



BOOK AND SPECIAL NOTICES. 



NOTICE. 



Special notices inserted in this de- 
partment at 25 cents per line, nonpareil 
measurement. Address orders to 
J. B. DEVELIN, 
Publisher and Proprietor, 
No. 43 North Queen St., Lane, Pa. 



LITERARY NOTICES. 



Peterson. This almost indispensable monthly 
puts in its appearance for October with a full 
supply of fall fashions. The steel engravings are 
excellent representations and very expressive. 
The stories are short and entertaining, while its 
entire contents are such as are designed to 
please the general public, C. J. Peterson the 
enterprising publisher is making rapid progress 
to establish his, as the leading fashion Magazine 
of the country. 

Barnum. This remarkable individual is mak- 
ing a tour of the principal cities with his great 
Roman Hippodrome. His excellent success in 
Philadelphia has given him encouragement, and 
he is now holding forth to large audiences in 
Baltimore. The entertainment is said to be the 
best traveling show ever exhibited. We trust 
he will make the good old city of Lancaster an- 
other visit while on his rampage. He can ex- 
pect a paying reception. 

It is rumored he has purchased a large open 
lot near the centennial grounds in Philadelphia, 
and will hold forth on an enlarged scale during 
the coming celebration of our anniversary. 

Rowell's Reporter r'jplete with printers in- 
formation and its usual page of wit and humor 
is on deck, and its contents a victim of our 
leisure. 

We have on our table the prospectus of a new 
paper entitled Arnerican Standard to be pub- 
lished monthly, by A. J. Keyser, at Rochester, 
Pa. It starts out fearlessly and means to put an 
end to the entire liquor traffic. 

The Bloomfield Times, published at New 
Bloomfield, Pa., is as spicy as ever, and always a 
welcome visitor to our sanctum. 

The National Live Stock yournal, published 
by Geo. W. Rust & Co., Chicago, 111., makes its 
monthly bow and comes for September with its 
usual abundance of excellent information. 

The Japan Mail for August is also on hand 
and brings us full information from our Japanese 
brothers. It is published at Yokohama, at the 
moderated figure of $12 per annum. 

"Game Laws of Pennsylvania." This 
little book (containing 36 pages)has been care- 
fully compiled, after an exhaustive research 
among the "Acts of Legislature" (running 
through the past fifteen years) relating to the 
taking as well asjhe preservation of GAME and 
FISH. 



All acts or parts of acts that have been re- 
pealed have been strictly excluded, so that the 
laws therein published from a correct and relia- 
ble "digest" or "resume^'' of the "Game" and 
"Fish" laws as they stand to-day zipon the 
statute books. 

They are well worth the perusal of every 
farmer, mechanic, sportsman — in fact every one 
— whether land owner or not — interested in the 
proper protection and preservation of "Game" 
and "Game Fish." 

The retail price of this work is (single copies) 
fifty cents. Liberal terms offered to agents. 
Address, J. B. SPIESE, 

213 Walnut Street, 
Harrisburg, Pa. 



PHILADELPHIA MARKETS. 



Monday, Sept. 14. — The flour market is 
steady, the demand being limited both for export 
and local consumption,but prices are unchanged. 
Sales of 700 barrels, including extras at $4@ 
4.75 ; spring wheat extra family at ^6.25@7.75, 
according to quality ; Pennsylvania, Ohio, In- 
diana do. do. at i5.62^@6.50; and fancy 
brands at $7.75^8.75. Rye Floursellsat $$.$0. 
In Corn Meal no sales. 

There is not much demand for wheat. Small 
sales of red at ^i.i8@i.23, and amber at 
;^i.25(a),i.30. In Rye no sales. Corn is less 
active, and ic. off. Sales of 2000 bushels West- 
ern yellow at 95c. Oats are dull and lower,- 
Sales of 1400 bushels Western white at 66c. 

Seeds. — Clover seed meets with more inquiry, 
and there were sales to-day of old and new 
crop at lie. Timothy is held at $2,8o@2.85. 
Flaxseed sells as offered at $2. 

Bark. — There is very little quercitron here, 
and- No. i is quoted at ^36.50 per ton. Tanners' 
bark is nominal in the absence of transactions. 

PHILADELPHIA CATTLE MARKET. 



Monday, Sept. 14. — The market for Beef 
Cattle was quite dull this morning and prices 
favored buyers j^@^c. "^ fb- on all grades. 
Sales of common to choice at 3j4@7j^cts., the 
latter an extreme price. Receipts 4100 head. 

Sheep of good quality met a fair demand, but 
at a shade lower prices. Sales at 4(/(,6c., the 
latter for fancy. Stock were quoted at $2(fC:^. 
Lambs ranged from 7 to ']}4''- ^°'' goo"i> '^'^^ 
^I@i2.50 for common. Receipts, 14,000 head. 

Hogs were rather ([uiet. We quote coi"n fed 
at $II@.I2. Receipts, 5,000 hen^J. 



NEW YORK CATTLE MARKET. 



New YORK, Sept. 14. — Cattle dull, Texas 
steers, 7([( g^^c. ; poor to medium native steers, 
7(7? lOj^fc; fair to good, H'4^ to 12c.; prime to 
extra, I2)^(ri\i^^c. Veal calves steady at 
6 1^(5 IOC. Sheep and lambs dull; sheep 4@6c.; 
lambs 5j^@7X'-- ^^g^ live, irregular; dressed 
steady, 8)4(an.g/2C. 




DEVOTED TO 

AGRICULTURE, HORTICULTURE, DOMESTIC ECONOMY & MISCELLANY. 

EDITED BY S. S. RATHVON & J. B. DEVELIN. 
" The Farniei' is f he founder of clvUizatiotu''— WEBSTER. 



Vol. VI. 



OCTOBER, 1874. 



No. 10 



AGRICULTURAL. 



TWO KINDS OF FARMERS. 



FORREST MORELAND, of Heu 
velton, N. Y., in writing to the 
Country Gentleman says : 

The farm of the careless, slothful, 
ignorant farmer, is separated from that of 
his more intelligent neighbor by boun 
daries more plain than line fences. Mr. 
A., while driving a poor team attached 
to an inferior drag by a malicious har- 
ness which had already taken its revenge 
on the poor animals by galling in 
numerous places, suddenly strikes a 
stone and breaks the drag long since 
deserving a pension for previous injuries. 
To quote Mr. A.'s own words, "This 
is jest my luck." In fact, as fast as his 
tools grow old from too much exposure 
to the weather and lack of suitable care, 
it is just his luck to have them breaking 
when he is in a hurry. This, by no 
means uncommon accident, furnishes a 
respite for the horses, and a journey to 
Mr. A.'s favorite haunt — the black- 
smith's shop. 

Passing farmer B.'s well fenced and 
highly cultivated farm, he observed 
several young men also engaged in pre 
paring the soil and sowing grain, but in 
quite a different style. One is driving 
a well kept team hitched to the cul- 
tivator on which he is riding. It is an 
improved implement, which has fre- 
quently caused Mr. A. to wonder "why 
on airth Mr. B. wants to pay so much 



for a cultivator when a drag is jest as 
good." The cultivator leaves the 
ground in good condition for the im- 
proved grain drill seen in another por- 
tion of the field ; still another invention, 
as Mr. A. maintains, for making lazy 
farmers. He "allers believed in larnin' 
boys to sow by hand, as their fathers 
and grandfathers did before them," 
Mr. A.'s boys left him years ago to 
learn trades. It was easier for the 
devout Hindoo to pass the lines of 
caste than for Mr. A.'s boys to over- 
come their father's overweening confi- 
dence in the agrici^tural lore of the 
past, or pass the boundary lines that 
sei)arated their condition from that of 
the more fortunate sons of Mr. B. — 
boundary lines that hedged them in, 
warping their very souls, until they 
were driven in disgust from a vocation 
they should have learned to l<5ve. 

The substantial fence that separates 
Mr A.'s farm from that of Mr. B.'s, is 
second only to the strong line of con- 
trast that separates them to their farthest 
extent. On the one hand, a farm well 
laid out and convenient in all its 
a farm well tilled and 
the highest cultivation, 
hand, a farm that was 
never permanently laid out, but is laid 
out anew, year after year, to suit the 
conveniences and varying taste of the 
owner. " Variety is the spice of life," 
and Mr. A. has only to look at his 
farm, and the view (there is so much 
variety in it) should make him feel 
quite spicy. The variety in the shapes 



arrangements ; 
susceptible of 
On the other 



228 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



of his different fields is simply astonish- 
ing. His fields are regular and irregu 
lar ; angular, triangular and quadrangu- 
lar. No two of his fields are alike. In 
one the stones have broken his plow 
and his drag; have worried his team 
and his teamster year after year 
"But," says Mr. A , "it never did pay 
to give that 'ere field any extra work ; 
it don't give half a crop anyway." The 
result is that these stones get a perma- 
nent letting alone. In another there is 
an obvious want of understanding, and 
Mr. A. has "hearn somethin' some- 
where 'bout underdrains, but never 
raaly did believe in this 'ere fancy 
farmin." Mr. A.'s farm is devoid of 
all that pleases the eye or pocket of the 
intelligent farmer, for his crops are so 
poor that they do not pay for even his 
poor cultivation. 'Seasons are gettin' 
awful onsartin,' says Mr. A. ; in fact, 
seasons do not seem to be as good for 
Mr. A.'s farm since he began selling his 
hay and grain instead of feeding it on 
the farm. Mr. A. is a practical (?) 
farmer. Men of his stamp are found in 
every farming community. They have 
been unfortunately placed on farms, and 
they stay there. The world moves ; they 
do not. 



BUSINESS IN FARMING. 



A writer in \\\t. Journal of the Farm 
says: It has been a matter of surprise, 
sometimes, to farmers and to others, to 
see business men from the cities, with 
no practioal acquaintance with agricul- 
ture, go into the country, purchase 
farms and manage them profitably, 
while experienced farmers about them 
failed lamentably, and yet it is not un- 
frequently the case. The reason is 
attributable to the adoption in farm 
management of the same business prin- 
ciples which achieved success in the 
city. The city man may not pretend 
to know anything of farming, but as a 
first step he knows enough to employ a 
manager, who does — satisfying liimself 
first of his capacity. In making pur- 
chases of stock and tools, he knows that 
the low priced articles are not neces- 
sarily the cheapest ; nor, having been 
quick to adopt any improvement that 



would enhance his profits, is he ready to 
accept all the traditional practices of farm- 
ers as to culture, simply because they 
learned them of their fathers or their 
grandfathers. He knows, too, that it 
must be poor business to farm blindly, to 
work, hire labor, raise crops, and not 
know what the profit is, or whether 
there is a profit at all. He knows, also, 
that that must be the economical system 
of farming which feeds both the so.l and 
his stock all that they can profitably use, 
and that limit he makes it a point to 
carry out. And in scores of other ways 
his business sagacity and foresight are 
brought into requisition. 

The more I see of farming, the more I 
am convinced that its failures are due to 
the neglect of business habits and lack of 
skill. Farming is adopted by tens of 
thousands as if it were a pursuit in 
which any man can succeed — any man, 
even if not fit for anything else. It 
requires a general knowledge of nature's 
laws as applied to vegetation, to stock 
breeding and the care of stock, to the 
character of soils, fertilizers, insects 
(friendly and unfriendly) and the rela- 
tions of the atmosphere to soils and 
vegetation ; the value and quantity of 
farm machinery must also be estimated ; 
the capacity to buy and to sell wisely 
must exist ; to plan and execute and to 
manage hired men successfully; and yet 
thousands who have never succeeded 
anywhere, fancy that at farming they 
can succeed as well as anybody! And 
farmers themselves, who have worked 
hard and denied themselves all their 
lives, often profit so little by observation 
that an intellgent son is encouraged to 
be a clerk, doctor or lawyer, while 
stupid ones are deemed sufficiently 
qualified for farming ! 

"Those who kngw nothing, fear 
nothing," is an old adage, and it ap- 
plies to a great many people who attempt 
the culture of the soil And the more a 
man learns about it, the more he sees 
there is to learn to make success even 
tolerably uniform, and the more forcibly 
he realizes his ignorance of a subject 
which requires the deepest knowledge of 
nature's mysteries. 

If farming is not respected as much 
as farmers would like, it is because of 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



229 



the narrow and contemptible views they 
themselves cherish respecting it. If it 
is less profitable than most professions 
and business callings, it is because of 
the shocking lack of business habits and 
capacity among farmers. Business men 
look to skill, tact, improvements in 
modes and machinery, and to combina- 
tions, for speedy success. They don't 
worship routine, nor cling to old habits 
because their grandfathers taught them 
"thus and so." They compete when it 
pays, and when it pays better to com- 
bine they combine. There may be 
jealousies and rivalries among them, but 
they drop them all for the inducement 
of the main chance. 

The present depression in farming, 
while hard to bear, will be good. It 
awakens thought in minds unused to 
much thinking; it forces a study of the 
situation. It is showing farmers how 
stupidly they acted in blindly following 
political leaders; in neglecting, or con- 
temptuously rejecting all co operative 
efforts, and in supposing that they, 
single-handed, isolated, and with little 
capital, could hold their own against 
the encroachments of the great monop 
dies which live by handling their pro- 
ducts. Apparent calamities often turn 
out to be blessings, and hence the 
present cloud hanging over the farming 
interest is not without the usual silver 
lining of other clouds. 



NEGLECTED CULTURE. 



The annual report of the New Jersey 
State Agricultural Societygives neglected 
culture as having the strongest retarding 
influence in that State on fruit culture 
and orchard planting. The old orchards, 
we are told, "are sorry sights to look 
at," simply for \vant of proper culture 
and manure. We know many huch, 
that to our knowledge have not had a 
sliovelfuU of manure in fifteen years, 
removing during this time not only 
what apples the tree bore, but also a 
cutting of hay once a year. This, too, 
by excellent grain farmers, men who 
would not think of planting a crop of 
corn or potatoes without a full dose of 
manure. This has been the great diffi- 
culty everywhere ; but few of those who 



plant orchards, whether large or small, 
being willing to give them the care 
they bestow on annual crops. No good 
farmer would think for a moment of 
planting his corn in a grass sod, and 
giving it no cultivation — a treatment 
which has been very common for young 
fruit trees. We are glad, however, to 
see of late years a great improvement in 
the management of newly transplanted 
orchards as well as of bearing ones,' 
and landowners are learning that trees 
kept in vigorous and healthy condition 
bring finer and higher fruit, and more 
of it, than such as are allowed to become 
enveloped in weeds, grass and brush. — 
JVew Eni[la7id Homestead. 



HOW TO BUILD A BARN. 



A correspondent of the Country Gen- 
tleman gives the following plan for a 
barn ; In the first place he would 
arrange the basement in the shape most 
convenient for the number and kind of 
stock he intends to keep, making ample 
provision for ventilation, light drain- 
age, grain bins, feeding troughs, root 
cellars, &c. Then he would construct 
the barn to fit these basement walls, 
always remembering that if he wants all 
the room possible for storage: the 
nearer it is rectangular the more room 
for storage. The posts should be 
twenty feet from top of sill to the top 
of plate. Put in no beams between the 
sills and the purline beams. The pur- 
line posts reach from the sill to the 
purline plates at the middle of the 
rafters. Put the purline beams across 
four inches below the purline plates ; 
putting braces (three by five inches) 
under these beams. Frame in tie beams 
between purline posts and outside posts, 
bracing under these beams at each end. 
The gable bents can be framed the same 
way, except that these last tie beams 
can go across between the purline posts. 
This arrangement would give him the 
entire centre of the barn for horse fork 
and railway or conveyor. The conveyor 
can be hung from the purline beams, 
and by changing his tackling he can 
fill either end of the barn with the 
horse fork. In some small barns he has 



280 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



placed a room over tha stable, eight 
feet high, for granaries and cutting ap- 
paratus, but much prefers to have the 
granaries entirely separate from the 
barn, 

Paris, September 5. 
The wheat harvest has proved so 
bountiful that France, it is estimated, 
can export about three and a half million 
quarters. The alxmdance has also had 
effect to reduce prices so low that wheat 
sells for 27 fr. per cwt., the average price. 
A further fall, and it will cease to be 
remunerative. Speculation has much 
to do with the matter, and the counsel 
given to farmers is not to be tempted to 
sell their grain as if a panic reigned. 
The French Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, modeled after 
that of England, was founded in 1872. 
Its fifteenth section is devoted to agri- 
culture, and the annual meeting for 
1874 has just been held at Lille. 
Among several interesting papers read 
in the agricultural section, M. Coren- 
uinder, whose life has been devoted to 
investigations in vegetable physiology, 
has shown that plants derive their 
supply of carbon almost exclusively 
from the air — a substance essential and 
fundamental in living matter, and that 
it is erroneous in theory as in fact to 
maintain, the plant by its root draws 
carbon from the soil. M. Deherain 
communicated the result of his researches 
upon the absorption of oxygen and the 
giving off of carbonic acid by the leaves 
of plants maintained in obscurity. The 
carbonic acid exhaled is equal in quan- 
tity to that expired by cold blooded 
animals, such as frogs and lizards, and 
it is by this emission of carbonic acid that 
the leaves enable the plant to form those 
matters of a primary character essential 
for its growth. 

The adulteration of Peruvian guano 
never was so extensively practiced in 
France as at the present moment, even 
when the precautions taken are so 
general and so rigorous. The latest 
audacity is to imitate the trade marks 
of the sacks of -the true guano. One 
vessel had been stopped in time with a 
full cargo of guano, which, on analysis, 
yielded 68 per cent, of reddish clay or 



other rubbish, that had not been even 
"flavored with anything ammoniacal." 
The agents of the Peruvian Government 
have been taken to task by the cele- 
brated iagronomist, M. Grandeau ; they 
charge a fixed and uniform price 
for the manure, will not guarantee its 
sale per analysis, but insist at the same 
time that the guano never contains less 
than eleven per cent, of nitrogen. The 
reasoning of the agents is that porfions 
of the same cargo may differ in richness, 
solely from natural causes. M. Gran- 
deau not inaptly inquires, how then the 
Peruvian Government, can guarantee 
guano in its dissolved state to be uniform- 
ly rich, to fix a percentage in nitrogen, 
when the manure in its raw state is 
avowedly variable in the amount of that 
commodity? He urges on farmers to 
definitely abandon guano, and fall back 
on preparations whose composition can 
be defined, and value pecuniarily deter- 
mined with exactness. 

The important question of the preser- 
vation of green fodder, uncovered 
earthen trenches, or even in tuns and 
vats, will likely receive a definite solu- 
tion this Winter and Spring, so far as 
France is concerned. The late dry 
season forces farmers to sow rapidly 
growing plants — maize, white mustard, 
beet leaves, &c., and necessity compels 
their preservation. The recurrence of 
dry Summers has created confusion in 
the rotation of crops, that drainage, 
deep tillage and irrigation are insufifi- 
to cope with, and hence unable to 
guarantee that regular feeding of stock 
which is one of the principal conditions 
of agricultural prosperity. M. Reihleu, 
of Stuttgard, some fifteen years ago had 
an extensive crop of maize unexpectedly 
attacked by the frost. Not being able 
to consume it at once, the idea sug- 
gested itself to bury it in trenches. 
Since then, he forms nearly a mile of 
trenches every year, fills them with 
green maize, which the cattle relish 
with avidity, and thus pass comfortably 
through the transition period from 
Winter to early Summer. In the case 
of maize, the process of its preservation 
will be enhanced if it be cut in lengths 
of three inches, and well-trodden 



ochre, and 32 per cent, of lime and j together before being covered in. Ger- 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



231 



many practices the plan at present, as a 
matter of course. Maize is the plant 
most in favor for preservation ; it resists 
best a hot, dry summer, and while 
undergoing fermentation in the trench, 
develops a saccharine principle that 
gives a relish to the mass. Some 
agriculturists possessing sandy soils sow 
Winter rye, and at the close of Winter, 
top dress it with sulphate of ammonia 
and superphosphate, which cause the 
plant to become tender, leafy, and 
succulent ; on being cut in April and 
May, it keeps well in the trench, and 
can be profitably succeeded by maize. 
In Germany the fodder is allowed to 
remain for twenty-four hours on the soil 
when cut, before being buried. Clover 
and lucern, if fermentation sets in when 
stacked, lose much of their nutritive 
qualities by the decomposition of the 
albumen. According to Hofmeister, 
clover, after being two years in rick, 
even under excellent conditions, loses 
one per cent, of albumen. Voelker 
analyzed beet that had remained two 
years in the trench, and found that it 
had lost 50 per cent, of solid matter: 
the trench, however, rests notwithstand- 
ing the best way to protect roots from air 
and light. The preserved food ought 
to be given along with dry fodder, as 
alone it is apt to produce diarrhoea. 
According to the analysis also of Beyer, 
there is less loss of nutritive matters in 
the fodder which has been gathered and 
put in the trenches during fine, rather 
than pending foul weather. 

M. Fouquet has delivered a lecture 
before some Belgian farmers, indicating 
some errors which are entertained by 
even educated agriculturists. He pro- 
tests against a certain fashion which 
exists for depreciating farm yard, and 
exalting commercial or chemical 
manures. The first is much, but not all 
in enriching the soil ; it supplies not 
only nutritive elements directly, but 
aids in the creation of substances, 
which, acting on certain matters in the 
soil, transform them into food for the 
plant, M. Fouquet asserts it is a 
mistake to conclude that some cultivated 
crops naturally ameliorate the soil ; 
clover, for example, with its top roots 
descends deep into the earth, there 



drawing substance, depositing in the 
surface soil organic remains, which, as 
a consequence, makes it so excellent a 
preceding crop for wheat ; but if the 
soil be already rich, owing to matters 
extracted from the air, no increased 
amelioration succeeds. It is wrong to 
suppose that stock not only makes 
manure, but hasthe faculty of endowing 
it with an independent richness. The 
manure can only represent the quality 
of food supplied to cattle, less what 
substances the animal extracts to build 
up its flesh and bones ; hence, farm- 
yard manure alone is not sufficient for 
maintaining the fertility of the land in 
the long run ; it demands supplemental 
and commercial manures. But in thus 
employing chemical fertilizers as 
adjuncts, their nature must be in har- 
mony with what the soil naturally 
wants. It would be a waste of money 
to lime a calcareous soil, to add phos- 
phates to one already possessing them, 
or potash where this substance was not 
deficient. Hence, also, why a uniform 
formula of chemical manure is but on a 
par with a common medicine for dis- 
similar diseases. • The conditions of 
culture are about as variable as the soil 
itself. 

Professor Cantoni, of the Agricultural 
College of Milan, has since many years 
advocated that the best rotation was 
not that where the crops succeeded 
according to their different chemical 
wants, nor yet those that abstracted 
from the soil the smallest quantity of 
useful mineral substances, but such crops 
as borrowing largest from the fertility of 
the soil, would restore to it the greatest 
residue of what had been raised upon it. 
He has undertaken many experiments to 
support his views, and pertinently asks, 
why clover and lucern, that in a season 
exhaust the soil of so much more nutri- 
tive substances than wheat, unite better 
the advantages in point of richness, for 
a succeeding crop. Clover is amelior- 
ating — not in the sense of abstracting 
nitrogen from the air — while wheat is 
exliausting. In grain crops, all the 
leaves and stems contribute all their 
wealth to form the grain, which is not 
the case with clover, &c., whose stems 
[and roots are still living organs, those 



232 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



of wheat dying, after accomplishing 
their work, and that it is these living 
remains ploughed into the soil, a green 
manuring in fact, which constitute such 
and such a crop, to be called amelior- 
ating. 

The Phylloxera disease shows any- 
thing but signs of diminishing ; however, 
it is ever at this period, and the month 
of September, that its ravages are most 
perceptible. Flooding the vines in 
autumn and manuring them well, con- 
tinue to be the only preventives. Cow's 
urine, a known poison to insects, and 
gypsum, are favorably spoken of. M. 
Bazille states, that he has discovered 
plenty of the phylloxera with wings. In 
the south of France, vineyard proprie- 
tors are selling off their wine-making 
machinery, as the disease has there de- 
stroyed wine growing. The national 
assembly proposes to order that each 
primary school be provided with a col- 
lection of insects peculiar to its depart- 
ment ; that a course of lectures be 
delivered in every normal school on 
insects, useful and injurious ; and that 
prices be awarded for the destruction of 
the baneful pests. The dryness of the 
spring and summer this year, in France, 
has caused quite a plague of caterpillars 
and wasps; it is believed that cold has 
not, after all, so great an effect on the 
destruction of insects, as humidity. In 
the humid mountains of the Vosges, the 
terrible. May bug for example, never 
commits severe ravages, and the wire- 
worm is next to a stranger on irrigated 
soils. Inundating the vineyards has 
been found, up to the present, the best 
means for destroying the vine bug. 

The agricultural society of Calvados 
has adopted an excellent means for 
improving the breed of cattle; in the 
case where a bull carries off the blue 
ribbon, the animal will only receive the 
prize on condition that he be retained 
for twelve months in the locality; the 
same rule is applied to cows and heifers. 

The pens in the cattle market of 
Paris, after being scraped and washed, 
are coated Avith chloride of lime, and 
the avenues leading to the market are, 
during the hot weather watered, with a 
little carbolic acid mixed with water. 

The harvest men have this season 



been everywhere served with coffee for 
a drink during work, slightly sugared, 
and have been contented with the 
acknowledged benefit. 

Nettles even are recommended as a 
forage plant; sown before winter they 
yield two or three cuttings; five pounds 
of seed are sufficient per acre ; the cut 
plant should be left exposed for a littte 
time to the air and sun, to destroy the 
action of its stinging secretion; two 
pounds of the forage tell favorably on the 
production and richness of milk, cows 
relishing it; a handful of the seeds are 
said to cause horses' coats to become 
shining, and themselves vivacious. 

Dry earth is now much employed as 
bedding — it is strewn between layers of 
straw. 



HORTICULTURAL. 



For the Farmer. 

FRUIT CULTURE. 



WE are again in the midst of the 
fruit season, and fruit is abun- 
dant; yet a great many families are 
without fruit; and also in many families 
who are otherwise in a prosperous con- 
dition, fruit is comparatively rare. 
The reason why some people are with- 
out fruit, is because they have no fruit 
trees or grape vines on their premises. 
I have asserted for years that any 
owner of land can raise fruit, and I 
now reiterate the same thing. I admit, 
however, that some locations are better 
than others. We have many sections 
in Lancaster county where all kinds of 
fruit can be raised successfully. Among 
grapes, the Concord, Catawba, Martha, 
Rebecca, Delaware, Hartford Prolific, 
etc., want elevated ground, and a 
southwestern slope is preferable. The 
Clinton succeeds almost everywhere, 
and Fox grapes will thrive wherever 
they are planted. My buildings are 
between the limestone and a gravel 
ridge. In front of my house the land 
is low and level, but back of my build- 
ings the land gradually ascends to an 
altitude of from fifty to two hundred 
feet in height. I had the leading grape 
vines planted in front of my house, and 
got scarcely one good crop in five 



TEE LANCASTER FARMER. 



233 



years — they would freeze down to the 
ground in winter. Since then, I have 
cultivated four varieties of the Fox 
grape front of my house, ripening at 
different times. One variety gets ripe 
in August, and hangs on the vines until 
November — the fragrant Fox grape. 
The flavor of this graj)e is preserved for 
months and is sensibly perceived on 
Hearing my premises. 

Back of my building I cultivate the 
leading varieties successfully. Solomon 
says, "Wisdom is better than strength." 
Fruit raising should be reduced — or 
rather elevated — to a science, as well as 
anything else, and to succeed, the sub- 
ject should be thoroughly studied. 

In western New York one fruit 
grower will plant as high as four or five 
hundred Dwarf "Duchesse" pear trees 
in one orchard, and from seventy five 
to one hundred — or, three to four hun- 
dred Baldwin apple trees, because he 
can realize more out of the Ducliesse 
and the Baldwin than he can out of a// 
the rest. The Baldwin apple does not 
seem to do well in most localities in 
this county; but we have native varieties 
in this county that would do just as well 
as the Baldwin if we would pay proper 
attention to their cultivation. We 
should confine ourselves to fewer varie- 
ties, and only to such as will do best in 
our county — well bearing trees. In 
western New York they have only six 
or eight varieties of pears, and about 
a dozen varieties of apples. With us, 
thirty pear trees on a place is all suffi 
cient. These will produce enough to 
supply for marketing. Begin with the 
surplus a large family, and leave a good 
magnificent Butter pear ^wo, Clapp's 
Favorite ofl^, Flemish Beauty one, 
Seckel fwo, Washington one, and the 
Lawrence one; for marketing get the 
Duchesse, Dwarf Howell and the Bart- 
lette — seven or eight trees of each kind 
will be enough. The Flemish Beauty 
is a large and a good pear — sweet and 
delicious, but will rot at the core before 
you can use them. Clapp's Favorite is 
also a favorite of mine ; no yard should 
be without at least one tree. The tree 
is a fast grower, and an early bearer. 
You can do either way — house-ripen 
them, or leave them on the tree. I 



prefer leaving them on the tree, as 
they are an ornament to look at. They 
should be picked off as they turn yel- 
low. It is also an excellent pear, but 
must be watched like the Flemish Beauty. 
The Bartlettes are recommended to be 
hoiise-ripeed, but that will not do 
when you have many. It will not do 
to take them off at once, and they 
should be immediately marketed. The 
proper way is to take them off three or 
four different times. These you can 
keep for weeks. The Howell you can 
take off the tree at once, and keep them 
for weeks, selling them as fast as they 
turn yellow. We can all *have plenty 
of fruit, if we know how to raise it, 
where to raise it, and also what varieties 
to raise. Different fruits require dif- 
ferent soils. 

Oregon, Lan. Co., Pa. L. s. R. 

THE ORIGIN OF THE DAHLIA. 



The first mention of the plant occurs 
in Hernandez, who published a history 
of Mexico in 165 i, and who figured two 
separate species. Menonville, who was 
employed by the French minister to steal 
the cochineal insect from the Spaniards, 
was the second to notice its existence. 
The first scientific description was given 
by the Abbe Cavanilles, from a specimen 
that flowered at Madrid in 1790, who 
named the plant after his friend Andrew 
Dahl, the Swedish botanist. The Dahlia 
was sent to Europe from the Botanic 
Gardens of Mexico, to the Royal Gar- 
dens, Madrid, where it first flowered in 
1789, from whence it was introduced to 
England by the Marchioness of Bute, in 
the same year; but this single plant 
speedily perished, and it did not again 
appear in this country till the old single 
variety, Coccinea, was flowered by 
Eraser, near Chelsea, in 1803, and 
figured in Curtis' Botanical Magazine, 
plate 702. This plant also perished. 
Meantime Cavanilles sent specimens of 
the three varieties then known to the 
Jardin des Plants in 1807, where they 
were successfully cultivated, and numer- 
ous varieties were produced in France 
between that date and 181 4, when, on 
the return of peace, the improved flower 
created great sensation among English 



234 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



visitors to Paris, which led to large 
importations of the root during the 
ensuing winter. 

Lady Holland sent seeds, no^ roots, 
from Madrid in May, 1805. The first 
plant flowered at Holland House in the 
September following, and was figtired 
in Andrews' Bota7iy. The seeds ripened 
in 1805, and were generally distributed 
in 1806. The original plants at Madrid 
do not appear to have yielded many 
varieties — not more than three are men- 
tioned. Humboldt, however, who found 
the plant growing in sandy meadows, 
5,000 feet above the sea, sent home 
fresh seed from Mexico in 1804, to Paris 
and Berlin, from which the numerous 
varieties subsequently obtained were 
derived. The first double flower was 
produced at Berlin in 1809, and even so 
late as 1818 Sabine was told of a double 
white, but "doubted its existence." Ii 
is interesting to remark that De CandoUe 
expressed his opinion that he should 
never see a blue Dahlia, on the ground 
that blue and yellow being the funda- 
mental types of colors in flowers, 
mutually exclude each other. The root 
was included in the Bon Jardinicr for 
181 7, among the Flantes potageres, but 
no mention is made of its use for Pales- 
tine soup.— yi?/^« W. Ford, in the 
"Garden." 



Influence of the Graft on the 
Root. — At the last meeting of the In- 
diana State Horticultural Society, Mr. 
W. H Ragan said : "It is a fact that 
no intelligent nurseryman will gainsay, 
that varieties of fruit trees change, to a 
certain extent, the character of the root 
upon which they are grown. Yellow 
bellflovver and Pryor's red are good 
examples. A row of trees of these 
varieties grafted or budded on as many 
different varieties of seedling roots as 
there are trees, each naturally having 
its own peculiar habit, will be found to 
have the character of root peculiar to 
the tree to which it belongs, although 
the roots are entirely of the seedling, and 
naturally differing widely from each 
other. Pryor's red root is uniformly 
branching and feeble — yellow bellflower 
as certainly strong, vigorous and fibrous. 



Potato Assorting Machine. — A 
machine recently invented for assorting 
potatoes, consists of long rollers, a hop- 
per, assorting board and grading chutes, 
so combined and arranged that the 
potatoes being shoveled into the hopper 
at one end and caused to run along the 
assorting board and the rollers, the 
smaller potatoes will escape between the 
roller and assorting board, while the 
larger ones will be discharged at the 
end. The distance between the assort 
ing board increases from the head 
toward the tail, and the potatoes escape 
through the space, varying in size in the 
same measure, so that they caii be sep- 
arated into two or more grades by 
suitable partitions in receptacles below. 
The assorting board is adjustable toward 
and from the roller, so as to change the 
grade at will. 



Sawdust "thoroughly rotted," is an 
excellent mulch around trees. Fresh 
sawdust is objectionable around young 
trees, as it forms a bed for the growth 
of fungi, which are said upon good au- 
thority to injure the trees. If the saw- 
dust is considerably decomposed, it 
might be a better use of it to compost 
it with lime, and use it as a fertilizer 
rather than a mulch. 



FLORICULTURE. 



A GIGANTIC FLOWER. 



{^Raffle sia Arttoldii.') 

THIS is regarded as the largest flower 
in the world, and we only give it here 
because it bears that prominent distinc- 
tion. This remarkable plant is a para- 
site and has neither leaves nor roots, but 
fastens itself upon some other tree, vine, 
or plant, and lives upon the substances 
it absorbs from them. It was discovered 
in the year 1818 by Dr. Arnold, a noted 
botanist, who was walking with Sir Stam- 
fer Raffles, in the Island of Sumatra, and 
he honored both the flower and his friend 
by bestowing upon it the generic name 
of Rafflesia. This flower is one of the 
most remarkable productions of the veg- 
etable kingdom. "Dr. Arnold found it 
in a jungle or thicket growing close to 
the ground, underneath the bushes, and 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



235 



attached to the roots of a species of 
Cissas. It is of an immense size, meas- 
uring a full yard in diameter. The petals, 
which are roundish, were twelve inches 
from the base to the margins, and at 
their insertions about a foot apart. 

The petals are from a quarter to three 
quarters of an inch thick, and the nec- 
tarium, it was supposed, would hold 
twelve pints. Its buds look like cabbages, 
which go on gradually enlarging for 
about three months, and when fully ma- 
tured and expanded, it weighs about 
fifteen pounds. The general ajjpearance 
of the flower resembles the Stapelias, 
(belonging to the family Asclepiadce) and 
like them its odor is very foetid. It is 
diaecious — that is, there are male and 
female plants — and it is supposed by 
some botanists to belong to the natural 
order Asarinm. A most singular change 
seems to take place in the vessels of the 
roots and stems of the tree on which this 
parasite grows. Their ramifications are 
multiplied, and they take a direction so 
as to unite with, and accommodate them- 
selves to, the base of the parasite, to 
which they convey nourishment. We 
might, therefore, with some propriety, 
call this the " Mammoth Cuckoo Flow- 
er," because like that feathered " inter- 
loper," it has no home of its own, but 
takes its origin in some crack or hollow 
of other plants, and is there finally de- 
veloped. R. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL. 



ENTOMOLOGRAPHY. NO. 2. 



In my former paper on this subject, I 
said substantially, that the efforts 
which had been made to popularize 
Entomology, during the last ten years, 
had been equivalent to a failure. I also 
stated that it was questionable whether 
it would ever become popular — at least 
within the limits of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. By this I do not mean to infer 
that it never could become popular, if 
the same means were employed that are 
now used to popularize general educa- 
tion ; but without this, the subject is 
likely to be confined to the labors of a 
very limited number. Whether there is 
any plausible reason in support of such 



an inference, may become manifest in 
what I have further to say. Perhaps 
the very earliest entomologist — at least 
the earliest student who made a record 
of his observations on insect life — was 
Aristotle, who was born three hundred 
and eighty four years before the Christian 
era ; and from that period down to the 
present day, the world has probably 
never been without entomologists and 
entomology, and ^t\.,^'iw,x two thousand 
two hundred and fifty -eight years of 
literary and scientific progress. Ento- 
mology has not become what may be 
called popularized. 

But, long anterior to Aristotle's time, 
we have a practical treatise on ento- 
mology in the Bible, wherein the habits 
of the Locusts of Egypt are accurately 
described, and yet how many people 
of the present day know what a real 
locust is? and how many — not only 
improbable but also impossible — 
stories in regard to them, find their way 
into the various publications of the 
world ; so that if it were not for the 
technology of the science, not even an 
entomologist could understand them. 

The term Coleoptera, which includes 
an order of insects, to a limited extent 
known as "Beetles," and distinguished 
by ahard, horny or leathery integument ; 
amandibulated mouth; and wing-covers 
uniting by a straight suture down the 
middle of the back, has Aristotle for 
its author; and yet very few in the 
world are able to recognize a Coleopterous 
insect. This term is a Greek compound, 
and is derived from iT^/.^^^, a sheath ; 
^x\(\ pteron, a wing; and literally means 
sheiath winged insects. This definition, 
I confess, has always seemed to me 
somewhat arbitrary. According to my 
view, it should have been shield-winged; 
because the two elytrous or wing-covers, 
of the largest number of the most con- 
spicuous typical species, when separated 
from the insect, and united at the 
suture, form as perfect a miniature shield 
as any other object in nature of which I 
have any knowledge. 

So far as my knowledge extends, all 
the attempts made in this country to 
popularize Entomology by the issue of 
periodicals devoted to the practical 
illustration of that subject, have col- 



236 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



lapsed for the want of pecuniary support. 
The Practical Entomologist, published 
in Philadelphia, suspended at the close 
of its second volume, although the sub- 
scription price was only fifty ceiits a 
year. The American Entomologist, 
profusely illustrated, ably edited, and 
published in St. Louis at one dollar a 
year, in like manner suspended at the 
end of its second year; and no practical 
work of any kind on this subject has 
ever yet been pecuniarily sustained in 
this country. 

Scientific Entomolgy, although it has 
not been remuneratingly sustained, has 
nevertheless been better rewarded, 
simply because an entomologist who 
felt the need of a volume on the subject, 
would not hesitate to pay twenty dollars 
for it, if it could not be obtained for 
anything less — whereas any other man 
might deem it dear at one dollar ; and be- 
cause the minds of the masses do not run 
in a scientific direction on any subject. 
Nor can this ever be expected to be the 
case, so long as Natural Science is not 
taught in our educational establishments. 
Few persons, indeed, would naturally 
take to mathematics, geography, gram- 
mar, or any other branch of human 
knowledge. If " line upon line, pre- 
cept upon precept, here a little and 
there a little," were not daily impressed 
upon their minds in the days of their 
youth, men would know little upon any 
subject. Naturally, they have an aver- 
sion to scientific technology, and suffer 
that aversion to warp their minds into 
studied indifference. 

There are many men — and as many 
among the advanced in life as among 
the young — who are able to immediately 
recognize or detect a batvd, either by a 
sort of intuition, or a mutual sympathy, 
on a sensual plant, who by a similar 
process, on an intellectual plane, might 
be enabled to recognize and detect the 
seemingly hidden mysteries of nature. 
Men are not born into knowledge on 
any subject. All developmental pro- 
gress, in any direction, is the result of 
persevering labor, and the earlier in 
life that labor is commenced, the more 
perfect and effective will it be in its 
after results. None know this better 
than those who through uncontrollable 



circumstances have felt themselves com- 
pelled to improve their intellectual con- 
dition by self-culture in after years. 

More progress in Entomology could 
be made in one year than is now made 
in ten, in this country, if the subject 
was taken up by men of learning and 
leisure, and the science was divided up 
into specialties as it is in Europe. So 
far as my knowledge extends, all the 
entomologists of this country are men 
who are compelled to labor in other 
occupations to sustain themselves and 
their families, which is quite different, 
as a general thing, in Europe, where the 
wealthy and nobility engage in it, and 
where, generally speaking, each one 
devotes his time and labor to a special 
branch. It is like a watch factory, 
where each workman is assigned a 
special part, and these different parts 
result in a more perfect and expeditious 
whole, than any individual could attain 
to by dividing his energies over a larger 
field. R. 

(71> be cotitinued.') 

ENTOMOLOGICAL CORRESPOND- 
ENCE. 



Mr. S. S. Rathvon : Dear Sir : By 
express we send you a package in which 
are two bottles containing specimens of 
a species of bug, which has destroyed on 
our farms in Virginia, many acres of cab- 
bage plants, and which now, since that 
more acceptable food has failed, has at- 
tacked the turnips, beets and lima beans. 

They belong to the order Hemiptera, 
but we cannot define their species, nor 
learn anything except through our prac- 
tical and costly experience of its habits. 

Our first acquaintance began with its 
appearance about the first of August. It 
increases rapidly, indeed to such an ex- 
tent as in a few weeks to cover the plant- 
beds. Some cabbages, not near large 
enough to commence to head, support- 
ed from two to three hundred insects, 
and all the .plants an average of a score. 

We brushed them off — dusted them, 
indeed covered them with Paris green, so 
fatal to the Colorado potato beetle, 
sprinkled them with whale-oil soap, car- 
bolic acid soap, sulphur and plaster, and 
all without the least effect — they rather 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



237 



liked the stimulant ; bugs placed over 
night in Paris green, were uninjured in 
the morning. 

The perfect bugs deposit their eggs 
twelve or sixteen together, in two hori- 
zontal lines, on the undersides of the 
leaves, and from these eggs hatch out the 
young insects, not larger than a timothy 
seed — they grow rapidly, and finally be 
come of three quarters of an inch in 
length, and capable of flying ten or 
twenty yards. 

As these insects by absorbing all the 
juices of the plants destroy them, they 
migrate by creeping, and perhaps by fly 
ing, though we have not yet seen them 
fly any distance to new feeding grounds, 
where a like destruction to vegetable life 
follows ; the plants, after the insects 
have been on them for a few days, pre- 
sentingall the appearance of having been 
scorched by fire. 

Can you give us any information bear- 
ing upon the habits of the insect, and 
the methods of destroying it, either in 
the egg or pupa state. 

Very respectfully yours, 

D. Landreth & Son. 

Philadelphia, September 15, 1874. 

The package by express, and the bugs 
— about sixty in number — came duly to 
hand; and although we may not be able 
to benefit our correspondents much, yet 
we give their communication entire, on 
account of its intelligent source, and 
because it contains more of the practical 
history and habits of this insect than 
has ever come under our observation, 
however well we may have been 
acquainted with it scientifically. These 
are just the observations and the efforts 
which have been for years urging our 
farmers, horticulturists, and others to 
make. 

This insect is an exceedingly pretty 
one — unless only "pretty is that pretty 
does" — and is the Strachia histriofiica 
of Hahn, but in plain English, is called 
the "Harlequin Cabbage bug." As our 
correspondents state, it belongs to the 
order of Hemiptera, and we would 
further addjto the family ScuTELLERiDAE, 
distinguished by a very large scuttelmn, 
or shield, extending in some species 
down to the very end of the body, 



almost covering the wings, and of a 
triangular or parabolic form, with the 
base upward. Its common name is 
derived from the gay Harlequin manner 
in which the black and yellow colors 
are arranged on the body, and its 
scientific specific name is also from this 
theatrical characteristic. The eggs are 
quite as pretty as the insect itself — two 
rows of tiny yellowish firkins, bound 
with black hoops, and black lids, 
standing on their ends — and the odor 
which it exhales is rather pleasant to 
the olfactory nerves ; but here its good 
qualities end. 

So far as we know, the first account of 
this very destructive insect appeared in 
1866 from the pen of Dr. G. Lincecum, 
of Washington CO., Texas, and at that 
time it was supposed to be confined to 
that State and Louisiana, and perhaps 
Alabama, but since that period we have 
frequently been admonished that it was 
advancing northward, and two years 
ago we received a few specimens of it 
from South Maryland, where it also in- 
fested the cabbages. 

Dr. L. represents it as not only feed- 
ing on the cabbage, but also on radishes, 
turnips, mustard, and indeed cruciform 
plants in general. He discontinued cul- 
tivating these plants for a whole year, 
and as soon as he commenced again the 
bugs returned. Nothing that he applied 
had any effect upon them, and birds and 
domestic fowls refused to touch them. 
By means of vigorous and persevering 
hand-picking and crushing, he contrived 
to save his crop, but in this work he had 
not only to kill his own bugs, but also 
those of his neighbors that came in to 
fill up the vacant places; and, under all 
the circumstances, his remedy is the best 
one we have now to recommend. 

This insect in the South is many- 
brooded, hybernates in the mature form 
during winter, and appears there on cru- 
ciferous vegetations early in April. 
From its rapid development, it would 
be capable of producing two or three 
broods a season in South Pennsylvania; 
and unless our winter should prove too 
severe for its successful hybernation, we 
are as liable to ultimately have it here, 
as we were to the advent of the "Colo- 
rado potato-beetle." 



238 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



If a careful watch was kept upon them in 
early spring, when they come forth from 
their winter sleep, and before they had 
commenced their Spring and Summer 
propagations, their number might be 
greatly diminished if not entirely extin- 
guished ; but this could only be accom- 
plished by the whole community 
co-operating. So far as is known, the 
Harlequin bugs are not infested by 
parasites of any kind ; nor does anything 
of "fish, flesh or fowl" prey upon them, 
so far as we have been able to learn. 
This insect, not being yet known as 
belonging to the entomological fauna of 
Lancaster county, we therefore have no 
opportunity of making practical obser- 
vations in these respects. 

The subject, however, becomes one 
of importance, when we reflect that 
France off'ers 300,000 francs for the dis- 
covery of a remedy to destroy an 
American insect, which is seriously 
diminishing her grape crop; and that 
the Legislature of Kansas is now in 
session, being specially convened to 
relieve the distresses of the people, 
caused by the ravages of the grass- 
hopper. The soil of Pennsylvania in 
many places is becoming saturated with 
the seeds of the potato beetle, and 
although the damages thus far have not 
been as great as hid been anticipated, 
we cannot tell what the case may be if 
they should once get the mastery. We 
therefore admonish cultivators of the 
soil to read, "ponder and reflect," and 
publishers to scatter abroad every scrap 
of information on this subject which 
may come under their observation, 
because, books containing it are not 
accessible to the masses. R. 



Fort Craig, N. H., Sept. 17, 1S74. 

S. S. Rathvon, Esq., Lancaster, 
Pa. : Z>ear Sir : Dr. William Strachan 
informs me that you are anxious to se 
cure specimens of insects, etc., from this 
section of the country, and I shall be 
happy to send you some specimens. I 
send you herewith two specimens of the 
'* horned toad," {Phrynosoma corunta) 
both alive. They are both quite small, 
yet I think ; may reach you alive though 
I have my doubts about the smallest, as 
I have already had it in my quarters for 



three weeks. I have a specimen of an 
insect belonging to the order Coleoptera, 
but which I cannot find described. I 
shall send it to you when I have collect- 
ed more specimens of other species. 
This insect to which I refer is quite 
large, somewhat resembling a scorpion ; 
is very venomous, and secretes a fluid 
which it ejects. This fluid is very sour, 
smells like vinegar, and from this, I be- 
lieve, the insect has derived its name, 
though I cannot tell what that name is. 
When I send it I should like to know 
something about it. I should also be 
glad to know if the enclosed reach yon 
safely, and their condition. 
Very truly, yours, 

J. Frazer Boughter, 

Past Surgeon. 

It affords us great pleasure to inform 
our kind New Mexico correspondent, 
that the little reptiles he mailed to us 
on the 17th ult., safely reached us on 
the 2d of October. 

The small specimen was as dead, as 
dry. and as attenuated as an Egyptian 
mummy, and we have embalmed it in 
pure alcohol, as an object worthy of 
special preservation. The larger speci- 
men is not only alive, but also very 
lively. We keep it in a paper box with 
a glass top; and when we place it in the 
sun, or near a warm stove, it becomes 
very active and manifests efforts to make 
its escape. But it reached Pennsylvania 
in a "cold snap," and therefore, unless 
circumstanced, as before stated, it 
becomes semi-torpid and remains for 
hours without moving. This afternoon 
(Oct. 3) the temperature increased in 
warmth, and our little reptillian waif 
became suiificiently animated to capture 
and lunch on a large living fly, which 
we introduced into his cage. We gave 
him another, but at this writing (10 
o'clock p. m.) he has paid no attention 
to it whatever. 

The tin box in which these little 
animals were confined, contained some 
bread crumbs, and some grass. 

The latter may have been useful to 
make their transit through the United 
States mail more comfortable and safe, 
but, from all we know of them, we do 
not think these animals would be likely 
to feed on bread. We judge them to be 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



289 



purely insectivorous, and that they pre" 
fer living insects. 

We shall endeavor to preserve the life 
and health of this little Sauriafi as long 
as we can, but we very much doubt its 
survival of our long, and sometimes very 
severe, Pennsylvania winters. We have 
already made some observations upon its 
colonization, which are entirely new to 
us. For instance, under the gaslight at 
night, it becomes nearly white, whilst 
during the day, in the shade, it becomes 
of a darker color, and under the sun, 
still darker — of a bluish, leaden hue. It 
occupies a distinguished social position 
— indeed it is creating a " tea-pot" sen- 
sation, and many of the curious are call- 
ing to see it. 

We feel much interested in the 
"vinegar beetle" alluded to by our 
correspondent, and hope he may be able 
to send us not only one, but many 
duplicates of it; and the same also of 
others. When we see it once, we will 
endeavor to find out what it is, and 
inform him of it. For the preservation 
of insects we would suggest the keeping 
of them in alcohol until he is ready to 
send them, and then to pour it off, or 
take them out and enclose them in a tin 
box and send them by mail or by express, 
according to bulk, or convenient oppor- 
tunity. 

We cannot conclude without return- 
ing our sincere thanks to Dr. B. for the 
interest he has manifested in our behalf, 
and not in ours alone but in the cause 
of scientific advancemefit ; and hope he 
may be able to speedily realize his 
anticipations. R. 



S. S. Rathvon, Esq., Dear Sir: I 
take the liberty of sending by mail to 
your address, a small box containing 
some specimens of worms, which have 
infested an old garden for some years, 
and have now extended to an adjoining 
vegetable garden. 

If not trespassing too much upon your 
time, I should deem it a favor if you 
would classify them, and let me know 
what would be the best means to destroy 
them, and what has probably caused 
them. Tanor. 

Radnor, Sept. 27, 1874, 



In reply to the above we would say, 
that the box by mail was delivered to us 
on the morning of Oct. 3, and was 
opened on the 4th, but we regret to 
inform our correspondent that the worms 
were not in a recognizable condition. 
Its contents had become dry and hard, 
by time and pressure> and after a careful 
examination we could only detect ituo 
worms, one of which was as dry as a 
stick, and two-thirds of the others were 
crushed flat between two little clods of 
earth. Had there been twenty or thirty 
specimens of the worms, one third the 
(luantity of moist earth, and a tin box, 
we might have been able to make 
a different report. As it is, we can only 
say that the worms are probably the 
iarvx of some species of Diptera, belong- 
ing to the family Tipulidce, of which 
there are many species inhabiting the 
soil of old gardens and fields, some of 
which produce two or three broods of 
slender, long-limbed flies during the 
course of the season; the last brood 
remaining in the earth in the lan<a or 
{yupa form all winter, and coming forth 
as winged insects in the Spring or early 
Summer. 

We wish our correspondent had stated 
the nature and amount of the damage 
done by these worms, and to what kinds 
of vegetation. 

The family Tipulida includes the 
Crane-flies, Gnats, Mosquitoes, Hessian- 
flies, Wheat-midges, and others, some of 
which pass their larvje periods in water, 
some in decayed vegetation, some in the 
moist ground, and others on the stalks, 
or the soft grains of wheat, etc., or in 
galls on the twigs and leaves of shrub- 
bery. The female flies deposit their 
eggs in or on these places, and that is 
"what has probably caused them." 

As to a remedy to destroy them, it 
has been recommended, where these 
larvce exist, to saturate the soil with 
strong lime-water, salt-brine, diluted lye, 
or carbolic acid. Pulverized gas-lime, 
mixed with the soil, is also recommended, 
and we have known persons who have 
destroyed insects in the earth with hot 
water. In the fall, after the crops are 
removed, or in the Spring before they 
are planted, these remedies can be 
applied without injury to vegetation, 



240 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



and some of them also during the 
Summer season. 

We would like to have fresh, healthy 
specimens, in order to breed and iden- 
tify the species. R. 



LIVE STOCK. 



BREAKING COLTS. 



WATERING HORSES AFTER 
MEALS. 



WH EN in Kentucky last week we saw 
a two-year-old colt broke — dead 
broke — in half an hour, so that he worked 
as a trained horse. The colt had never 
been bridled. He was attached to a 
curricle called a "break-dray," and put 
through astonishingly quick. The break- 
dray is nothing more than a strong 
broadtread dray, with long shafts, the 
tail omitted, and a spring seat between 
the wheels. The harness was strong, 
and so arranged over the hips as to pre- 
vent the possibility of high kicking, and 
the colt was hitched so far from the dray 
that his heels could not possibly reach 
the driver. The process of hitching 
was, of course, ticklish, as the colt is apt 
to let his heels fly awkwardly. All 
being ready, one man held the colt, and 
another took the reins. The colt was 
then let go to plunge as he pleased. 
The break- dray, which was so broad 
that upsetting seemed out of the ques- 
tion